What ARE Turmeric and Curcumin?
Turmeric is a member of the Curcuma botanical group, which is part of the ginger family of herbs, the Zingiberaceae. The root and rhizome stem of the Curcuma longa plant is crushed and powdered into ground turmeric spice. Ground turmeric is used worldwide as a seasoning and is the source of extracted natural curcumin.

Curcumin is one of the most studied phytochemicals in science, from one of the most researched and beneficial medicinal plants in history. Turmeric contains approximately 3% curcumin, which is extracted to 95% purity for medical research and nutritional supplementation.

 

What are the researched properties of Curcumin? 

"During the last decade, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacological properties of curcumin, a yellow-orange polyphenolic compound, have been extensively studies. Significant antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, lipid-lowering, chemopreventive, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties of curcumin have been confirmed. Recent studies have also confirmed the pharmacological activity of curcumin as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent. It is established that mechanism of anti-inflammatory occurs through the inhibition of cyclooxegenase-2 (COX-2) and lipoxygenases (LOX), and the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Also, it is suggested that curcumin inhibits the action of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins and chemokines. Due to its pronounced anti-inflammatory activity, curcumin is considered to be a potential mediator of accelerating the healing process of acute and chronic wounds and may inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor TNF alpha and TNF alpha mediated cellular signalling pathway. Antimicrobial potential of curcumin has been evaluated against a wide range of microorganisms, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the fungi. Curcumin has been described as a promising antifungal of clinical interest with stronger antifungal activity than fluconazole. A recent study has suggested a possible mechanism of antifungal act ivity of curcumin through photodynamic technology and oxidative stress." - Curcumin: Natural Antimicrobial and Anti Inflammatory Agent, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International | 2021

"We found 12,595 papers on curcumin (1924–2018) and 4738 (1983–2018) of which were on curcumin and cancer; that means 37% of the published papers on curcumin has cancer as the major targeted disease. Curcumin was isolated for the first time in 1815 by two scientists, Vogel and Pelletier, from Harvard College Laboratory. Since then, the scientific interest towards curcumin has increased and, more and more, its health benefits have been discovered. Curcumin belongs to a chemical class of polyphenols; it is known as diferuloylmethane and its IUPAC name is (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, with a chemical formula of C21H20O6 and a molecular weight of 368.38. The chemistry of curcumin is at the basis of its several biological activities. The therapeutic benefits of curcumin have been demonstrated in multiple chronic diseases: inflammation, arthritis, metabolic syndrome, liver disease, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases and, above all, in several cancers." - Nutrients Journal | 2019

"Curcumin (a diferuloylmethane) was found to be the most widely studied compound as evinced by more than 9000 citations in the literature, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiarthritic, antiatherosclerotic, antidepressant, antiaging, antimicrobial, wound healing and memory-enhancing activities. Moreover, it exerts chemopreventive, chemosensitization and radiosensitization effects as well. In traditional Indian medicine, this spice has been also used to treat different ailments such as gynecological problems, gastric problems, hepatic disorders, infectious diseases, blood disorders, acne, psoriasis, dermatitis, rash and other chronic ailments. Diverse in vivo studies have also indicated its potential against pro-inflammatory diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, depression, diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis.  These traits can possibly be attributed to the methoxy, hydroxyl, α, βunsaturated carbonyl moiety or diketone groups present in curcumin. Besides its safety and tolerability, cost-effectiveness is an added advantage of this compound. To date, over 100 different clinical trials have been completed with curcumin, which clearly show its safety, tolerability and its effectiveness against various chronic diseases in humans." - British Journal of Pharmacology

"7,728 studies involving curcumin and another 3,205 studies involving turmeric, with the large majority focused on their effectiveness against multiple medical conditions. Multiple studies — most originating in India, Europe and Australia — show that turmeric, and especially its color-rich constituent of curcumin, can help prevent or treat a wide spectrum of cancers, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune problems, neurological ailments including Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and diabetes neuropathy, among other metabolic diseases." - Post Gazette

"7,000 published articles have shed light on the various aspects of curcumin including its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pivotal role in various diseases like diabetes, cancer, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular diseases." - Food and Chemical Toxicology Journal

"6.000 articles published within the past two decades have discussed the molecular basis for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer activities assigned to this nutraceutical. Over sixty five clinical trials conducted on this molecules, have shed light on the role of curcumin in various chronic conditions, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, neurological, and psychological diseases, as well as diabetes and cancer." - Biotechnology Advances Journal

"Recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin has a variety of biological activities and pharmacological performances, providing protection and promotion of human health. In addition to presenting an overview of the gut metabolism of curcumin, this paper reviews the current research progress on its versatile bioactivity, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-regulatory activities, and also intensively discusses its health benefits, including the protective or preventive effects on cancers and diabetes, as well as the liver, nervous system, and cardiovascular systems, highlighting the potential molecular mechanisms. Besides, the beneficial effects of curcumin on human are further stated based on clinical trials." - Nutrients Journal

"Curcumin has been used as pharmacological traditional medicinal agent in Ayurvedic medicine for 6000 years. The current review article presents effective role of curcumin against cancer, diabetes, oxidative stress, cardiovascular, obesity, and aging. Curcumin is a promising and significant natural bioactive compound which has been shown to possess numerous pharmacological activities including anticancer, antidiabetic, cardiovascular protective, antiobesity, antimicrobial, wound healing, and nephroprotective activities. The molecule has also potential to protect from reproductive and respiratory disorders in association with its strong antioxidant potential. In near furture, curcumin is expected to be proven as a novel drug to treat and cure several human disorders such as carcinogenesis, inflammatory disorders, and oxidative stress-induced pathogenesis." - Trends in Food Science & Technology

 
Where can I purchase Curcumin?
Order direct from Turmeric-Curcumin.com, the largest supplier of Curcumin 95% extract supplements at wholesale prices to the general public, research institutions, physicians, and university medical centers since 2000. Quality control tests, laboratory analysis certification, and rigorous cGMP manufacturing standards all ensure freshness, potency, and purity of contents. Orders are shipped FedEx or USPS Priority for fast and secure delivery. Contact support@turmeric-curcumin.com for bulk ordering, private labeling or any other questions. Multiple bottle orders will receive increasing quantity discounts listed below, 12-bottle case purchases will also receive free US shipping.


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500 mG OF Curcumin 95% extract per capsule.

When selecting a curcumin extract product, consumers should know the difference between curcumin and turmeric: turmeric root contains only 3% curcumin on average. Consumers may be misled by deceptive marketing to believe there is a higher curcumin percentage than there really is, examples include:

"Doctors Curcumin" on the front of the label, but checking the ingredient finds that each capsule is 100% Turmeric (Curcuma longa), an inexpensive spice found in supermarkets and grocery stores.

"500mg Enhanced Formula!" only contains 200mg Curcumin extract, and the remainder is 300mg Turmeric spice.

"1000mg Super Complex Curcumin (25%)" which is actually only 250mg of Curcumin extract and the remaining 750mg is Turmeric spice.

"1000mg per serving", except the serving size is 4 capsules, 250 mg each.

"Curcumin with Turmeric 1500mg" but the serving size is 2 capsules, each with only 150mg Curcumin while the rest of the capsule is filled with 600mg of Turmeric spice.

Example of deceptive label from actual bottle, which contains a total of only 3,000mg of Curcumin 95% (60 capsules x 50mg) and yet still costs more than our bottle, which contains 100,000mg of Curcumin 95%

These deceptions are unfortunatley not uncommon in the supplement industry today (e.g. Curcumin Supplement Capsule Amount Draws Lawsuit). The solution is to examine and compare labels. Our label clearly indicates the contents - Curcumin extracted from Turmeric root - the purity - 95% concentration - and the amount in each capsule - 500mg.  The source of our curcumin extract is turmeric grown in India, never China. Within India, we are extensively networked with selected farms in the Eastern Ghats highlands, known for Turmeric with the highest natural curcumin content in the world, at 8.8% and West Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya, where the Lakadong variety of turmeric contains 7% curcumin.  From this high quality turmeric (Curcuma longa) root, we extract curcumin to a minimum 95% concentration. Within this extraction is the full spectrum of curcuminoids - Curcumin (C), Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) -  in their natural composition ratio of 76:19:5 for maximum potency. This is the same extract used in clinical trials and medical studies, free of added chemicals, treatments, or patented "formulas / complexes". There is no claimed "enhancing" material to fill the capsule and lower the curcumin percentage. Our product contains no starch, no sugars or sweeteners, no artificial colors or flavors, no sodium, no soy, no yeast, no wheat, no corn, no rice or other grains, no gluten, no dairy, no preservatives, no GMO, no dyes, no gums, and no black pepper extract, piperine, or "bioperine" which is actually a trademark of the Sabinsa corporation.

 

200 capsules per bottle.

Each bottle contains 200 capsules, and every 12-bottle case contains over 2.6 lbs (1.2 kg) of 95% curcumin extract. The suggested serving size is one (1) to four (4) capsules with each meal.
 

HAS THE SAFETY OF CURCUMIN 95% BEEN ESTABLISHED?

The safety, tolerability, and nontoxicity of curcumin at high doses have been well established by human clinical trials. The US FDA classifies Turmeric as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe).  Curcumin, even in large quantities, does not produce any known side effects in humans. Pregnant women, individuals with gallstones, or anyone using blood thinners should consult a health care provider before using herbs or dietary supplements in amounts greater than usually found in foods. Several preclinical and clinical studies indicate that curcumin is well tolerated and the overwhelming safety profile of curcumin is evident.

"Curcumin is not toxic to humans up to 8,000 mg/day. A Phase I clinical trial of curcumin is well tolerated,when administered in patients with high risk conditions or pre-malignant lesions of the bladder, skin, cervix, stomach,or oral mucosa as a single daily oral dose ranging from 500,to 8000 mg/day for 3 months. "- Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions | Anticancer Research

"A phase 1 human trial with 25 subjects using up to 8000 mg of curcumin per day for 3 months found no toxicity from curcumin. Five other human trials using 1125-2500 mg of curcumin per day have also found it to be safe." - The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

"Patients received 8 grams curcumin by mouth daily, no toxicities were observed. Phase II trial demonstrates that 8 g/day curcumin for 2 months is well tolerated and exhibits biological effects in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. " - Phase II trial of curcumin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer | Clinical Cancer Research

"Oral curcumin 6 g/day for 4–7 weeks during radiotherapy reduced the severity of radiation dermatitis without any toxicity in breast cancer patients." - Curcumin for radiation dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of thirty breast cancer patients | Radiation Research

"Studies on human did not show toxic effects, and curcumin was safe at the dose of 6 g/day orally for 4-7 weeks. Curcumin is known as a generally recognized as safe substance. Turmeric and curcumin are nontoxic for human especially in oral administration. Based on the numerous experimental and clinical evidences, curcumin is well tolerated in humans without significant side effects." - Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its major constituent (curcumin) as nontoxic and safe substances | Phytotherapy Research

"3.6 g/day oral curcumin for 6 months was well tolerated and safe in leucoplakia patients demonstrating significant clinical response." - A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase IIB Trial of Curcumin in Oral Leukoplakia | Cancer Prevention Research

"Phase I trials reported that curcumin extract in doses between 440 and 2200 mg/day for up to 4 months was well tolerated and is devoid of dose limiting toxicity in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, substantiating the safety of curcumin." - Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of oral Curcuma extract in patients with colorectal cancer | Clinical Cancer Research

"Therapy using 8000 mg oral curcumin daily was safe and feasible in patients with pancreatic cancer." - A phase I/II study of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus curcumin for patients with gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer | Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

"Curcumin at a dose of 2 g/day for 6 months as oral maintenance therapy proved to be safe in patients with ulcerative colitis." - Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial | Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

"A six month randomized, placebo controlled, double blind pilot trial of 4 g/day curcumin in Alzheimer’s patients was found to be tolerated well." - Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot clinical trial of curcumin in patients with Alzheimer disease | Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

"3 mg per kg curcumin is generally regarded as a safe accepted daily intake in healthy humans." - Curcumin, an active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), and its effects on health | Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

"Six months curcumin administration at a dose of 1.5 g/ day orally to type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was well tolerated." - Evaluation of the effect of curcumin capsules on glyburide therapy in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus | Phytotherapy Research

"Regular oral intake of 1 g/day of curcumin for 3 months in osteoarthritic patients shows no sign of toxicity." - The efficacy of Curcuma longa extract as an adjuvant therapy in primary knee osteoarthritis: a randomized control trial | Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand

"A good safety profile of curcumin was observed in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and patients affected by high risk conditions or pre-malignant lesions of internal organs taking a dose of curcumin ranging from 500 to 8000 mg/day for 3 months. This safety has been observed also in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, in breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy while taking up to 6000 mg/day of curcumin, and advanced pancreatic cancer patients taking 8000 mg/day of curcumin for 2 months." - Potential of Curcumin in Skin Disorders | Nutrients

 

Has the bioavailability of Curcumin 95% been studied?

"Curcumin supplementation modulated the gut microbiota composition and ameliorated intestinal dysbiosis by decreasing the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and endotoxin-producing Desulfovibrio bacteria and increasing the abundance of Akkermansia population and SCFA-producing bacteria, such as Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Alistipes and Alloprevotella, along with increases in caecal and colonic SCFA concentrations. These dominant bacterial genera altered by curcumin showed strong correlations with the obesity-related metabolic parameters in HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that curcumin alleviated metabolic features of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in HFD-fed obese mice, which might be associated with the modulation of gut microbiota composition and metabolites." - Curcumin alleviates high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and obesity in association with modulation of gut microbiota in mice | May 2021

"After oral administration, curcumin is distributed in the intestines, and then curcumin exerts its effects on the gut microbiota (such as microbial richness, diversity, and composition). Curcumin administration exerts significant effects on gut microbiota family such as Bacteroidaceae, Rikenellaceae, and Prevotellaceae. Moreover, curcumin significantly promoted gut microbiota, including Anaerotruncus, Exiguobacterium, Helicobacter, Papillibacter, Pseudomonas, Serratia, and Shewanella. Curcumin also ameliorates the intestinal barrier function (by modulating intracellular signaling and the organization of tight junctions) in metabolic diseases, as indicated by a reduced rate of bacterial translocation to the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen. A study showed that administration of curcumin significantly reduced the Western-diet-induced blood lipopolysaccharide and ameliorated the intestinal barrier. Thus, it can be concluded that curcumin prevents metabolic diseases through a mechanism involved in the regulation of the intestinal barrier. Many studies suggest that curcumin can actively hinder intestinal inflammation by modulating the homeostasis of the gut-brain axis, and could also exhibit neuroprotective beneficial. Further, curcumin treatment decreases the microbial abundance of cancer-related species like Prevotella, Coriobacterales, and Ruminococcus. These help to exhibit antioxidative and anticancer properties." - Curcumin and Metabolic Diseases: The Role of Gut Microbiota, Nutrients | January 2021

"The remarkable effects of curcumin on isolated gut microbiota may explain the wide range of its beneficial effects. Several studies showed that curcumin has positive effects on several diseases by changing the distribution of some gut microbiota. This may be an important mechanism underlying therapeutic benefits of curcumin." -  Does Curcumin Have a Role in the Interaction between Gut Microbiota and Schistosoma mansoni in Mice,  Pathogens | September 2020

"Curcumin could exert direct regulative effects primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, where high concentrations of this polyphenol have been detected after oral administration. Consequently, it might be hypothesized that curcumin directly exerts its regulatory effects on the gut microbiota, thus explaining the paradox between its low systemic bioavailability and its wide pharmacological activities. Interestingly, curcumin and its metabolites have been shown to influence the microbiota. It is worth noting that from the interaction between curcumin and microbiota two different phenomena arise: the regulation of intestinal microflora by curcumin and the biotransformation of curcumin by gut microbiota, both of them potentially crucial for curcumin activity." - Interaction between Gut Microbiota and Curcumin: A New Key of Understanding for the Health Effects of Curcumin, Nutrients | July 2020

"Curcumin, an herbal naturally occurring polyphenol, has recently been proposed for the treatment of neurodegenerative, neurological and cancer diseases due to its pleiotropic effect. Recent studies indicated that gut microflora may be a new potential therapeutic target. The new working hypothesis that could explain the curative role of curcumin, despite its limited availability, is that curcumin acts indirectly on the brain, affecting the “gut–brain–microflora axis”, a complex two-way system in which the gut microbiome and its composition, are factors that preserve and determine brain health. It is therefore suspected that curcumin and its metabolites have a direct regulatory effect on gut microflora and vice versa, which may explain the paradox between curcumin’s poor bioavailability and its commonly reported therapeutic effects. Curcumin and its metabolites can have health benefits by eliminating intestinal microflora dysbiosis. In addition, curcumin undergoes enzymatic modifications by bacteria, forming pharmacologically more active metabolites than their parent, curcumin. Curcumin is present in high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. Given the pathogenic links between intestinal microflora and many diseases, current findings could help us interpret the therapeutic advantage of curcumin." - Mutual Two-Way Interactions of Curcumin and Gut Microbiota, The International Journal of Molecular Sciences | February 2020

"The present study demonstrated that curcumin could interact with gut microbiota in two directions. On one hand, curcumin exerted direct influence on the gut microbiota of curcumin, and it could normalize especially the relative abundance of several key bacterial taxa involved in Alzheimer’s disease development. On the other hand, gut microbiota could biotransform curcumin into a series of metabolites, which had been reported to possess neuroprotective effects. The findings not only interpreted the paradox between the pharmacological effect of curcumin and its poor bioavailability, but also implied that metabolites of curcumin biotansformed by gut microbiota might act as an important source to screen biologically active compounds to combat Alzheimer’s disease. Further, the interaction between curcumin and gut microbiota provided clues to elucidate the pharmacology of natural polyphenolic compounds, which was worthy of further study" - Bidirectional interactions between curcumin and gut microbiota, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | February 2020


"Curcumin represents one of the most studied herbal remedies, responsible for different pharmacological activities. The paradox of poor bioavailability of curcumin and the wide range of health effects of curcumin can be explained by considering the reciprocal influence existing between curcumin and gut microbiota. Curcumin in the gut favors the growth of beneficial bacteria strains such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, with reduction of pathogenic strains. In addition, curcumin treatment has been found to decrease the microbial richness and diversity, with a specific reduction of species found as cancer-related. Several studies reported that curcumin actively reduces intestinal inflammation by modulating different molecular pathways. Thus, it is possible that curcumin, by modulating the homeostasis of the gut–brain axis, could also determine neuroprotective beneficial effects. To address its pharmacological and therapeutic advantages, it is fundamental to consider curcumin interplay with gut microbiota that might pave the way to fill the gap between the low bioavailability and the wide health effects. Curcumin can influence gut microbiota composition, allowing the growth of strains needed to maintain correct host physiologic functions. This is the case of neurodegenerative diseases in which often a gut dysbiosis precedes the onset of the clinical signs. The results summarized in the review suggest that curcumin alone can exert a neuroprotective function by affecting different neuropathological pathways."- Curcumin, Gut Microbiota, and Neuroprotection, Nutrients | December 2019

"Bioavailability of curcumin is not an issue. The therapeutic efficacy of curcumin as evident from numerous clinical trials overpowers the hindrance of low bioavailability. Over 200 clinical studies with curcumin have demonstrated the pronounced protective role of this compound against cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, metabolic diseases, neurological diseases, skin diseases, liver diseases, various types of cancer, etc. The therapeutic potential of curcumin, as demonstrated by clinical trials has overpowered the myth that poor bioavailability of curcumin poses a problem. Low curcumin bioavailability in certain studies has been addressed by using higher concentrations of curcumin within nontoxic limits. Hence, bioavailability is not a problem in the curcumin-mediated treatment of chronic diseases. Therefore, this golden nutraceutical presents a safe, low-cost and effective treatment modality for different chronic diseases." - Is curcumin bioavailability a problem in humans: lessons from clinical trials, Drug Metabolism Toxicology | September 2019

"In recent years, an exponentially increasing number of studies has indicated that the alterations in the intestinal microbiota are linked with many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and chronic liver disease, and the intestinal microbiota is proposed to be a novel potential therapeutic target for these microbiota-associated diseases. Although curcumin has poor systemic bioavailability, after oral administration it is expected to be present in high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, it is rational to infer that curcumin may exert direct regulative effects on the gut microbiota. This may be an important mechanism underlying its therapeutic benefits and could explain the paradox between curcumin’s poor systemic bioavailability and its widely reported pharmacological activities." - Regulative effects of curcumin spice administration on gut microbiota and its pharmacological implications, Food & Nutrition Research | August 2019

"The bioavailability of the parent curcumin compound is low, but oral administration of curcumin can still deliver detectable levels of curcumin glucuronide metabolite. Despite the absence of the parent curcumin in the blood/plasma, the antioxidant and epigenetic modulatory effects of curcumin glucuronide can explain the potential overall health beneficial effect of this herbal medicinal product. Thus, it is reasonable to believe that most of the curcumin effects in vivo may be due to local and direct effects rather than systemic effects of this turmeric compound after absorption. This suggests there may be potential health benefits of taking curcumin and challenges negative perceptions on the lack of health benefit or efficacy of taking oral curcumin.  In conclusion, the results of our current study are highly relevant to the over-the-counter use of botanical curcumin in a real-world scenario." - Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and PKPD modeling of curcumin in regulating antioxidant and epigenetic gene expression in human healthy volunteers, Molecular Pharmaceutics | March 2019

"Effects of Curcumin on Gut Microbiota | Given the low systemic bioavailability of curcumin and its pharmacological therapeutic uses, curcumin might provide benefit by acting on gut microbiota. This impact on the gut microbiota seems to be reasonable and attractable areas of study as no absorption of the parent compound is necessary. It is suspected that curcumin could exert direct regulative effects on the gut microbiota which could explain the paradox between curcumin's poor systemic bioavailability and its widely reported pharmacological effects. There is some indication that curcumin may act as promoting factors of growth, proliferation, or survival for beneficial members of the gut microbiota, and is able to modulate gut microbial composition (i.e., biodiversity). It is suggested that healthy ageing correlates with microbiome diversity. The administration of curcumin significantly shifted the ratio between beneficial and pathogenic microbiota by increasing the abundance of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and butyrate-producing bacteria and reducing the loads of Prevotellaceae, Coriobacterales, enterobacteria, and enterococci. Curcumin, through impacts on the microbiota, might positively influence certain organismal functions. By modulating the microbiome, curcumin may reduce some adverse consequences of ageing, and the impact of curcumin on the microbiome seems to be very promising in the context of the modulation of the ageing process. These alterations in gut microbiota could also explain the immune modulation and antihyperlipidemia efficacy of curcumin aside of its anti-inflammatory and anticolonotropic carcinogenicity activity. Effects of Gut Microbiota on Curcumin | The composition of gut microbiota had a profound influence on the biotransformation of curcumin in the colon by various processes mainly by reduction followed by conjugation, which might have a significant impact on the health effects of dietary curcumin, especially in the GI. Data suggests that intestinal bacteria produce a high amount of β-glucuronidase that can elevate the level of free compounds. Microbiota can be responsible for drug metabolism and, by their ability to metabolize curcumin, can regulate its bioavailability." - Gut Microbiota as a Prospective Therapeutic Target for Curcumin: A Review of Mutual Influence, Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism | December 2018

"Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties established largely by in vitro studies. Accordingly, oral administration of curcumin beneficially modulates many diseases including diabetes, fatty-liver disease, atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer and neurological disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. We established curcumin-mediated decrease in the release of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into circulation by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier function as the mechanism underlying the attenuation of metabolic diseases (diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease) by curcumin supplementation precluding the need for curcumin absorption. In view of the causative role of circulating LPS and resulting chronic inflammation in the development of diseases listed above, this review summarizes the mechanism by which curcumin affects the several layers of the intestinal barrier and, despite negligible absorption, can beneficially modulate these diseases." - Curcumin-mediated regulation of intestinal barrier function: The mechanism underlying its beneficial effects, Tissue Barriers | February 2018

"Curcumin was a potent anti-helicobacter pylori agent in vivo and in vitro. Curcumin could partially reverse changes in the diversity of the gut microbiota and could lower the increasing abundance of the genera Anaerotruncus and Helicobacter in the gut of model rats." - Effect of Curcumin on the Diversity of Gut Microbiota in Ovariectomized Rats, Nutrients | October 2017

"Studies provide evidence that despite low bioavailability, oral curcumin likely mediates its anti-inflammatory (and inflammation-dependent downstream effects) by its local action in the gut. Studies from our laboratory demonstrated the potent effects of oral supplementation with curcumin on the development of glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, curcumin supplementation attenuated increase in plasma lipopolysaccharide levels by not only increasing the activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase that detoxifies lipopolysaccharide in the gut lumen but also by improving intestinal barrier function. The data presented herein establishes the intracellular mechanisms by which curcumin improves the intestinal barrier. Apical or luminal exposure to curcumin might underlie its observed effects on improvement of intestinal barrier function by oral administration. The major site of action of curcumin is the intestinal epithelial cells and the intestinal barrier, and by reducing intestinal barrier dysfunction, curcumin modulates chronic inflammatory diseases despite poor bioavailability. Reduced intracellular IL-1β signaling and subsequent reduction in disruption of tight junctions represent the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of oral curcumin, despite its poor bioavailability. The causal relationship between curcumin exposure of intestinal epithelial cells and inflammatory bowel diseases is straightforward and is not affected by the issue of poor bioavailability, and oral curcumin is currently being considered as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease. Curcumin is expected to not only reduce local inflammation in the gut, but by altering intestinal barrier function it will also reduce systemic inflammation triggered by the release of lipopolysaccharide into circulation." - Curcumin improves intestinal barrier function: modulation of intracellular signaling, and organization of tight junctions, American Journal of Physiology Cell Physiology | April 2017

"Metabolites of curcumin are present in high concentrations in the circulation after curcumin consumption. These curcumin metabolites may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities that reduce the symptoms of metabolic diseases including osteoarthritis.  Curcumin is detectable in the circulation as the forms of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in the patients with oral consumption of 8 g/day curcumin for more than 2 months. Thus, curcumin itself can be a therapeutic agent for relieving arthritis." - Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials, Journal of Medicinal Food |August 2016

"Despite a wide range of pharmacological activities of curcumin reported in the past decades, a paradox remains regarding the pharmacology of curcumin: how curcumin is able to manifest remarkable biological effects under the condition of poor systemic bioavailability. Our novel experimental and theoretical findings suggested that the degradation products should play important roles in executing the biological and pharmacological activities of curcumin. The degradation products of curcumin are actually the main bioactive molecules in executing the biological activities of curcumin.Our finding not only provides a plausible explanation for the seemingly contradictory observations regarding biological activities of curcumin, it is also highly significant for the therapeutic application of this natural product against various human diseases." - How does curcumin work with poor bioavailability? Clues from experimental and theoretical studies, Scientific Reports | February 2016

"The beneficial effect of curcumin on tumorigenesis was associated with the maintenance of a more diverse colonic microbial ecology.These chemopreventive effects appeared unrelated to the reduction of inflammation, but rather to the normalizing effects of curcumin on colonic microbial ecology, thus suggesting that curcumin functions as an effective agent for restoring healthy gut homeostasis and microbial-host relationship. We determined that dietary curcumin maintained high microbial diversity, associated with the expansion of Lactobacillales (represented mainly by genus Lactobacillus). Curcumin contributes to chemoprevention via expansion of the native Lactobacilli in the context of overall increase of colonic microbiome richness. Curcumin has been observed to inhibit bacterial motility and cytotoxicity of Vibrio vulnificus, to arrest Helicobacter pylori growth during infections, as well as inhibit biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This suggests that the protective effect of 0.5% curcumin diet shifts the microbial composition to be more stationary, which may contribute to a decrease in microbial invasiveness and a decrease in overall disease severity. We demonstrated efficacy of curcumin on inflammation associated colorectal cancer and normalizing effects of colonic microbial ecology. Curcumin may represent a promising approach to chemoprevention in IBD. " - The Role of Curcumin in Modulating Colonic Microbiota During Colitis and Colon Cancer Prevention, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | November 2015

"Curcumin treatment exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect in H. pylori-infected mucosa, pointing to the promising role of a nutritional approach in the prevention of H. pylori induced deleterious inflammation. Curcumin may be a potential agent for controlling inflammation associated with H. pylori infection. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin using the experimental model of H. pylori chronic infection. Curcumin was effective in reducing the inflammation of the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected mice, which was confirmed at the molecular level. At this level the magnitude of the difference in the expression of the inflammatory mediators’ encoding genes between the infected curcumin-treated mice and the infected but non-treated ones strongly supports the powerful anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. Curcumin acted two ways during protection against H. pylori infection, i.e. by eradicating H. pylori as well as potentially targeting key molecules involved in the H. pylori-induced gastric diseases. This is one of the few studies using both histological and molecular approaches, showing the important anti-inflammatory role of curcumin in the context of chronic H. pylori infection. Taking into account the extensive consumption of polyphenols in the human diet (curcumin and others), our data points to the promising role of a nutritional approach in the control of H. pylori induced deleterious inflammation." - Curcumin Inhibits Gastric Inflammation Induced by Helicobacter Pylori Infection in a Mouse Model, Nutrients | January 2015

"Curcumin exerts potent effects in reducing metabolic diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis by modulating the intestinal barrier function, precluding the need for effective absorption and systemic bioavailability.The significant reduction in glucose intolerance as well as atherosclerosis by oral curcumin demonstrates the importance of targeted improvement in intestinal barrier function as a potential therapeutic strategy. This represents a change in the existing paradigm and places the focus on improving intestinal barrier function rather than direct modulation of gut bacteria itself. In conclusion, the data presented here provide direct evidence for the role of Western diet-induced disruption of intestinal barrier function in the development of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, these studies also identify curcumin as an agent effective in restoring the intestinal barrier function by modulating multiple components of this barrier including IAP and paracellular permeability. Future studies will examine the effects of curcumin on other components of the intestinal barrier to further advance our current understanding and to develop curcumin as a dietary supplement to attenuate multiple inflammation-linked diseases." - Oral Supplementation with  Curcumin Attenuates Western Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis and Glucose Intolerance | Role of Intestinal Permeability and Macrophage Activation, PLoS One | September 2014

"Our experiments show that curcumin supplementation can suppress H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation, as indicated by decreased NF-κB p65 expression in gastric epithelial cells and decreased macromolecular leakage in the gastric microcirculation. Curcumin decreased these parameters, indicating that curcumin could decrease gastric inflammation. Curcumin supplementation may exert its anti-inflammatory effect by reducing macromolecular leakage through the suppression of NF-κB p65 expression in gastric epithelial cells. Hence, curcumin might be a novel therapeutic strategy against gastric inflammation." - Curcumin suppresses gastric NF-κB activation and macromolecular leakage in Helicobacter pylori-infected rats, World Journal of Gastroenterology | August 2010

"Curcumin is biotransformed in the intestinal tract of humans. Curcumin is a large lipophilic molecule that undergoes extensive gastrointestinal and hepatic metabolism after oral dosing. Phase I metabolism is through a reduction reaction forming tetra-hydrocurcumin, hexahydrocurcumin, and hexa-hydrocurcuminol. Phase II metabolism consists of glucouronidation and sulfation by O-conjugation to form curcumin glucuronide and curcumin sulfate. Gut metabolism contributes substantially to the overall metabolite yield generated from curcumin in vivo. The pharmacological implications of the intestinal metabolism of curcumin should be taken into account in the design of future chemoprevention trials of this dietary constituent." - Metabolism of the Cancer Chemopreventive Agent Curcumin in Human and Rat Intestine, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention | January 2002

Has the Absorption of ORAL Curcumin 95% been studied?
In most studies Curcumin 95% has been delivered orally whether the subject is human or animals. This orally delivered Curcumin 95% extract showed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer beneficial effects. Oral curcumin efficacy in vivo has been shown in models for many conditions with oxidative damage and inflammation, including many types of cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, arthritis, stroke, peripheral neuropathy, inflammatory bowel, and brain trauma. Curcumin is fat-soluble, so when combined with healthy fats and oils, the body can absorb it better because curcumin is directly absorbed into the bloodstream through the lymphatic system thereby in part bypassing the liver. A traditional method of dissolving curcumin in fat is likely an effective method to improve absorption. You can also ensure you are absorbing the maximum amount by consuming curcumin with fats from meat, fish, dairy, olive oil, coconut oil and others. 

"In vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed the activity of curcumin in biological system by either detecting curcumin or its bio-transformed metabolites in plasma, peripheral organs and brain." - bioRxiv

"Clinical trials have shown that orally delivered curcumin inhibited inflammatory molecules." - AAPS Journal

"Levels of curcumin and its metabolites in plasma, urine, and feces were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.  A daily dose of 3.6g curcumin engendered 62% and 57% decreases in inducible PGE2 production in blood samples taken 1 hour after dose on days 1 and 29, respectively, of treatment compared with levels observed immediately predose (P < 0.05). A daily oral dose of 3.6g of curcumin is advocated for Phase II evaluation in the prevention or treatment of cancers outside the gastrointestinal tract. PGE2 production in blood and target tissue may indicate biological activity. Levels of curcumin and its metabolites in the urine can be used to assess general compliance." - Clinical Cancer Research

"Oral curcumin, 6.0 g daily during radiotherapy, reduced the severity of radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients." - Radiation Research

"Curcumin mixed with the diet achieves drug levels in the colon and liver sufficient to explain the pharmacological activities observed and suggest that this mode of administration may be preferable for the chemoprevention of colon cancer. The colon mucosal level of curcumin after 14 days feeding observed in this study, 1.8 μmol/g, is more than 300-fold higher than the minimal concentration shown to be active in vitro. This result demonstrates that dietary administration of curcumin can produce pharmacologically relevant drug concentrations in colon mucosa. Our results therefore intimate that dietary curcumin at doses considerably lower than those used here might yield pharmacologically efficacious levels in the colon mucosa and perhaps also in the liver. The M1G-lowering effect of curcumin provides a tentative rationale for the regular use of dietary curcumin in the protection of the colon mucosa against oxidative damage, perhaps in premalignant conditions such as ulcerative colitis. Dietary administration of curcumin to rats produces pharmacologically active levels of unmetabolized curcumin in the colon mucosa and liver, capable of decreasing M1G levels and elevating GST activity. These effects may contribute to cancer chemoprevention. The results also suggest that dietary admixture may be the preferable mode of administration for curcumin in the chemoprevention of colon cancer. The chemopreventive efficacy of oral curcumin in the colorectum and the liver merits clinical evaluation." - Effects of Dietary Curcumin on Glutathione S-Transferase and Malondialdehyde-DNA Adducts in Rat Liver and Colon Mucosa, Experimental Therapeutics, Preclinical Pharmacology

"Oral administration of 90 mg of curcumin or the placebo 2 hours before exercise and immediately after exercise. Curcumin supplementation attenuated exercise-induced oxidative stress by increasing blood antioxidant capacity." - Int J Sports Med.

"In animal oral administration, Curcumin inhibited lung cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, oral cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, mammary tumors, lymphomas, leukemias, and familial adenomatous polyposis." - Cancer Res Treat.

"Oral treatment of curcumin found to effective in diabetic condtion. It attenuated high fat diet-induced glucose intolerance and elevations of oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle." - World J Diabetes

"Curcumin was effective both orally and topically. These results show that curcumin enhanced wound repair in diabetic impaired healing, and could be developed as a pharmacological agent in such clinical settings." - Wound Repair Regen

"Our findings indicate that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that prevents the release of TNFα and protects against the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of DEP." - PLoS One

"In a human clinical trial, 3.6 g of Curcumin via oral route was found to produce a plasma curcumin level of 11.1 nmol/L after an hour of dosing." - Clinical Cancer Research

"The average peak serum concentrations after taking 4,000 mg, 6,000 mg and 8,000 mg of curcumin were 0.51 microM, 0.63 microM and 1.77 microM, respectively." - Phase I Clinical Trial of Curcumin, Anticancer Research

"Traces of curcumin were detected in the plasma. Its concentration in the small intestinal mucosa, between 39 and 240 nmol/g of tissue, reflects differences in dietary concentration...The comparison of dose, resulting curcumin levels in the intestinal tract, and chemopreventive potency suggests tentatively that a daily dose of 1.6 g of curcumin is required for efficacy in humans." - Journal Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers

"The concentrations of curcumin in normal and malignant colorectal tissue of patients receiving 3,600 mg of curcumin were 12.7 +/- 5.7 and 7.7 +/- 1.8 nmol/g, respectively...The results suggest that a daily dose of 3.6 g curcumin achieves pharmacologically efficacious levels in the colorectum with negligible distribution of curcumin outside the gut." - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers

"One hour after administration, the levels of curcumin in the intestines, spleen, liver, and kidneys were 177.04, 26.06, 26.90, and 7.51 microg/g, respectively." - Journal Drug Metab Dispos.

"Bromelain (pineapple extract) substantially promotes the absorption of curcumin enhancing its bioavailability, and making this a perfect combination of immune-boosting nutraceuticals with synergistic anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant actions." - Metabolism

"Buttermilk could be used as a carrier for curcuminoids especially if delivered with food...The most important and practical finding from the bioaccessibility data is that the incorporation of powdered curcuminoids with buttermilk results in a 15-fold increase in bioaccessibility of curcuminoids." - Food Chemistry

"Curcumin was found in plasma (16.1 ng/mL), urine (2.0 ng/mL), intestinal mucosa (1.4 mg/g), liver (3,671.8 ng/g), kidney (206.8 ng/g), and heart (807.6 ng/g)." - Journal Agric Food Chem.

"Curcuminoids were detectable in plasma samples, urine samples, and in the colonic mucosa of all 23 biopsied participants. Mean tissue levels were 48.4 μg/g (127.8 nmol/g) of parent curcuminoids. The major conjugate, curcumin glucuronide, was detectable in 29 of 35 biopsies. High levels of topical curcumin persisted in the mucosa for up to 40 hours postadministration. In summary, pharmacologically active levels of curcumin were recovered from colonic mucosa. The regimen used here seems safe, and patients support its use in long-term trials." - Cancer Prev Res.

"After oral administration of 400 mg Curcumin to rats, about 60% of the dose was absorbed." - Journal Toxicology

"Tissue distribution of Curcumin using tritium-labeled drug. They found that radioactivity was detectable in blood, liver, and kidney following doses of 400, 80, or 10 mg of [3H] curcumin. With 400 mg, considerable amount of radio labeled products were present in tissues 12 days after dosing. The percentage of curcumin absorbed (60-66% of the given dose) remained constant." - Journal Toxicology

 
Why PURE curcumin 95% from natural turmeric, without additives such as piperine or processed synthetics like nanoparticles?
"Piperine nullifies the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of curcumin, co-administration of curcumin with piperine did not bring any advantage to the curcumin effects."- PLoS One

"It is not necessary to take curcumin together with piperine. The usual recommended dose of curcumin is 150–1500 mg daily (sometimes up to 5 g), divided into 2–3 portions and taken before and after exercise. Based on study findings, curcumin can sufficiently reduce post-exercise delayed onset muscle soreness even when taken without piperine." - Physical Activity and Nutrition

"Curcumin nanoparticles suppressed the proliferation of testicular cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we disclosed the acute damage on mouse spermatogenesis and sperm parameters by nano-curcumin. Our results suggested that the reproductive toxicity of nanoformulated curcumin needs to be prudently evaluated before its application." - International Journal of Nanomedicine

"Reproductive toxicity of piperine: Piperine interferes with several crucial reproductive events in a mammalian model." - Planta Medica

"Piperine has been shown to directly interact with intestinal epithelial cells, leading to increased permeability of the intestinal cells by decreasing intestinal barrier integrity." - Biochemical Pharmacology

"Piperine may interfere with the metabolism and slow the elimination of a number of drugs." - European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics


"Piperine is acutely toxic to experimental animals." - Toxicology Letters

"Piperine Lowers the Serum Concentrations of Thyroid Hormones, Glucose and Hepatic 5′D Activity." - Hormone and Metabolic Research

"Death of cerebellar neurons induced by piperine." - Neurochemical Research

"The Dangers of Bioperine"
 

What are the pharmacological actions of Curcumin?

For centuries it has been known that turmeric exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. First shown to have anti-bacterial activity in 1949, curcumin has since been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, pro-apoptotic, chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic, anti-proliferative, wound healing, anti-nociceptive, anti-parasitic, and anti-malarial properties as well. Animal studies have suggested that curcumin may be active against a wide range of human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, neurologic and psychiatric disorders, and cancer, as well as chronic illnesses affecting the eyes, lungs, liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Although many clinical trials evaluating curcumin's safety and efficacy against human ailments have already been completed, others are still ongoing. Moreover, curcumin is used as a supplement in several countries, including India, Japan, the United States, Thailand, China, Korea, Turkey, South Africa, Nepal, and Pakistan. Extensive research performed within the past two decades has shown that the this activity of turmeric is due to curcumin, a diferuloylmethane. This agent has been shown to regulate numerous transcription factors, cytokines, protein kinases, adhesion molecules, redox status and enzymes that have been linked to inflammation. The process of inflammation has been shown to play a major role in most chronic illnesses, including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases. Growing experimental evidence reveals that curcumin exhibits multitarget biological implications signifying its crucial role in health and disease, with pharmacological effects against numerous diseases like neuronal, cardiovascular, metabolic, kidney, endocrine, skin, respiratory, infectious, gastrointestinal diseases and cancer. The ability of curcumin to modulate the functions of multiple signal transductions are linked with attenuation of acute and chronic diseases. Numerous clinical and preclinical studies of curcumin revealed its potential against various pathologies. Extensive research over the past half century has shown that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can modulate multiple cell signaling pathways. Extensive clinical trials over the past quarter century have addressed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of this nutraceutical against numerous diseases in humans. Some promising effects have been observed in patients with various pro-inflammatory diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, uveitis, ulcerative proctitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel disease, tropical pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, gastric ulcer, idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, oral lichen planus, gastric inflammation, vitiligo, psoriasis, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic microangiopathy, lupus nephritis, renal conditions, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, β-thalassemia, biliary dyskinesia, Dejerine-Sottas disease, cholecystitis, and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Curcumin mediates its effects by modulation of various molecular targets including transcription factors, enzymes, cell cycle proteins, receptors, cell surface adhesion molecules, neurotransmitters etc. Curcumin exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic potential thereby reduce neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, metabolic, gastrointestinal, respiratory and inflammatory diseases. Clinical and preclinical data have conclusively proved that curcumin modulates neurotransmitter levels and reduces neurodegeneration thereby ameliorate neuronal and behavioral dysfunctions. In CNS, curcumin reduce Alzheimer’s pathology by reducing Abplaques and tau phosphorylation. The anti-depressant and anxiolytic mechanism of curcumin includes inhibition of brain MAO activity, modulation of serotonin receptor and amelioration of neurotrophic factors. Curcumin reduces drug addiction and withdrawal symptoms, possibly through modulation of HAT, DNA methyl transferases, CREB, BDNF and CaMKIIalevels. Curcumin administration reduced Huntington’s disease by reducing huntingtin aggregates. In cardiovascular disease, the anti-atherosclerotic mechanism of curcumin includes the inhibition of platelet aggregation and modulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Curcumin effectively reduce hypertension by blocking angiotensin I receptor, reducing circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme and inducing vasodilation. The antiarrhythmic mechanisms of curcumin are due to modulation of Ca 2þ homeostasis and blockade of potassium channels. Curcumin administration reduces cerebral infracts size and volume during stroke. Clinical studies on the protective effect of curcumin against cardiovascular diseases are limited and therefore required comprehensive assessment to prove its therapeutic potential. During metabolic diseases, curcumin treatment ameliorates b-cell dysfunction, insulin signaling and GLP-1 secretion while reduces glucose intoler- ance, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. Curcumin administration inhibits NF-jB activation and macrophage infiltration, reduces PAI-1, MCP-1 and leptin alongside induced HO-1, fatty acid oxidation, APO-A1 and adiponectin level. More extensive studies regarding the therapeutic potential of curcumin on the metabolic diseases in both animals and humans are warranted.

Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. Dose-escalating studies have indicated the safety of curcumin at doses as high as 12 g/day over 3 months. Extensive preclinical studies over the past three decades have indicated curcumin’s therapeutic potential against a wide range of human diseases (). In addition, curcumin has been shown to directly interact with numerous signaling molecules (). These preclinical studies have formed a solid basis for evaluating curcumin’s efficacy in clinical trials. Observations from almost 67 clinical trials have been published, whereas another 35 clinical trials are in progress. The clinical trials conducted thus far have indicated the therapeutic potential of curcumin against a wide range of human diseases. Numerous preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that curcumin modulates several molecules in cell signal transduction pathway including PI3K, Akt, mTOR, ERK5, AP-1, TGF-β, Wnt, β-catenin, Shh, PAK1, Rac1, STAT3, PPARγ, EBPα, NLRP3 inflammasome, p38MAPK, Nrf2, Notch-1, AMPK, TLR-4 and MyD-88. Curcumin has a potential to prevent and/or manage various diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties with an excellent safety profile. In contrast, the anti-cancer effects of curcumin are reflected due to induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in various premalignant and malignant cells. Curcumin reduces the risk of osteoporosis via amelioration of mitochondrial membrane function, PKB phosphorylation, microRNA-365 activation, osteoblasts proliferation etc. It reduced ulcerative colitis by inhibiting neutrophil chemotaxis. The gastroprotective effect is due to inhibition of acid release, amelioration of blood flow, angiogenesis and colla- genization of gastric tissue. Curcumin shows hepatoprotective action due to inhibitory activity against NF-jB. Additionally, curcumin reduced liver marker enzymes, cholesterol levels and replication of hepatitis B and C viruses. Curcumin treatment reduces asthma and allergy symptoms mainly due to inhibition of histamine release, attenuation of IgE, inhibition of COX-2 enzyme, suppression of JNK54/56, ERK 42/44 and p38 MAPK, stimulation of Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway, upregulation of Notch1, Notch2 receptors, GATA3 etc. Curcumin blocks certain cytokines and enzymes, inhibits ROS generation, downregulate NF-kB acti- vation, induce extracellular matrix production, upregulate collagen and fibronectin expressions thereby reduce inflammatory diseases. Curcumin treatment reduces fibronectin and collagen IV expressions, suppresses TGF-bsignaling and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic potential thereby ameliorates kidney functions. Clinical investigations are required for successful application of curcumin in treatment of kidney dysfunction. Curcumin inhibits the NF-ŒB and STAT3 pathways, transcription factor Sp-1 and its downstream genes, phosphorylation FAK and CD24 expression, downregulates Akt, EGFR, cyclin D1, cMET expressions while enhance extracellular matrix components and upregulate DNAJ/HSP40 chaperone resulting in anti-cancer effects. In addition, curcumin induced downregulation of IGF-1R, EGFR/erbB1, erbB2/ HER2, Wnt/b-catenin and Shh/Gli, and their respective downstream signaling effectors resulting in reversal of can- cer incidence, progression and relapse. Studies have indicated the anticancer effects of curcumin by evaluating its effect on a variety of biological pathways involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, mutagenesis and metastasis. Curcumin interfere with quorum sensing, virulence and biofilm initiation thus inhibits bacterial cells. The anti-fungal mechanisms of curcumin includes the leakage of intracellular component, disruption of plasma membrane, generation of oxidative stress, induction of apoptosis, inhibition hyphae development, upregulation of chitin synthase and PKC etc. Curcumin treatment downregulated genomic transcription and translation, inhibited viral oncoproteins, suppressed the Akt/SREBP-1 pathway, inhibited hemagglutination, proteases, integrase and Tat protein acetylation resulting in antiviral effects.

 
How may Curcumin work  against Neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and cognitive decline?

Aging and age-related diseases come with chronic inflammation. Lately, evidence has accumulated that curcumin has neuroprotective properties and is a candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. In their review, Pluta and colleagues focus on the role and mechanisms of curcumin in inhibiting ischemia/reperfusion brain injury and potential therapeutic strategies in the treatment of ischemic brain damage of the Alzheimer’s disease phenotype. Comparably, Ferreira and colleagues also delineate neuroprotective characteristics by summarizing what is known about the role of curcumin on transthyretin amyloidosis. According to previous reports, curcumin modulates abnormal transthyretin (TTR) aggregation and inhibits its deposition in the tissue. The pleiotropic activities of curcumin provide multiple ways to tackle TTR pathophysiology, through direct interaction of curcumin with TTR, or indirect effects affecting signaling pathways associated with TTR amyloid fibril formation and clearance. Bielak-Zmijewska and coworkers summarize scientific data on curcumin’s ability to postpone progression of age-related diseases in which cellular senescence is directly involved. They furthermore point out that curcumin causes elongation of the lifespan of model organisms and alleviates aging symptoms. In addition, they discuss thoroughly curcumin’s ability to modulate cellular senescence. Common brain disorders, including depression and Alzheimer’s disease, have been linked to diminished levels of an important neurologic growth hormone called brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Reports suggest Curcumin has neuroprotective action in Alzheimer’s disease, major depression, epilepsy, and other neurodegenerative disorders. The hippocampus region of brain is associated with memory and cognition. Studies have shown that hippocampus undergoes structural and biochemical changes with normal aging that results in age-related deterioration in hippocampus-dependent cognition. Curcumin has been found to ameliorate age-related memory deficits in aged mice. In elderly, regular curcumin intake improves cognitive function and ameliorates age-related spatial memory deficits. An Australian study, in the Journal of Psychopharmacology in 2015, found that curcumin improved attention and working memory and reduced mental fatigue in older people who took it for four weeks, compared to a placebo. Several studies have shown that curcumin, the active medicinal compound in turmeric, can increase levels of BDNF in the human brain and therefore delay or even reverse a range of common neurological disorders. One of the main drivers of this process is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a type of growth hormone that functions in your brain (20). Many common brain disorders have been linked to decreased levels of this hormone, including depression and Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, curcumin can increase brain levels of BDNF. By doing this, it may be effective in delaying or even reversing many brain diseases and age-related decreases in brain function. It may also improve memory and make you smarter, which seems logical given its effects on BDNF levels. However, controlled studies in people are needed to confirm this. In addition, scientists are beginning to suspect that the neurologic powers of curcumin don’t just stop there, with research suggesting that this compound may improve memory and increase cognitive capacity. Curcumin, thanks to its wide range of effects, seems to help the brain resist buildup of harmful plaque in brains with Alzheimer's.  A study in the Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology explored curcumin's potential for use in the treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Some of the key points included: Curcumin may help the macrophages, which play an important role in our immune system, clear the amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. Curcumin has anti-proliferative actions on microglia. Microglia are immune cells of the central nervous system that become active in response to any number of stressors on the body. However, if the microglia have been stimulated to react too often, they become hyper-reactive, which can trigger system-wide inflammation that can be difficult to stop. Curcumin has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. "Overall, curcumin decreases the main chemical for inflammation and the transcription of inflammatory cytokines … The exposure to curcumin also impaired the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-)." As chronic neuro-inflammation is considered one of the major factors in the development of Alzheimer's, it's possible too that curcumin may help in the treatment of other inflammatory disorders.Researchers found that Curcumin not only reduces oxidative damage and inflammation, but also reduces amyloid accumulation and synaptic marker loss and promotes amyloid phagocytosis and clearance. Curcumin worked to prevent synaptic marker and cognitive deficits caused by amyloid peptide infusion and abeta oligomer toxicity in vitro, and may help the immune system clear the brain of amyloid beta, which forms the plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. Clinical trials are in progress at UCLA with Curcumin for Alzheimer's. In the Alzheimer’s Disease Anti-Inflammatory Prevention Trial, researched showed that reducing inflammation has positive effects on patients with Alzheimer’s. Curcumin significantly lowered several inflammation markers, in addition to reducing plaque on the brain (a sign of Alzheimer’s) by 43 to 50 percent. "Worldwide, there are over 1000 published animal and human studies, both in vivo and in vitro in which the effects of curcumin on various diseases have been examined. Studies include epidemiological, basic and clinical research on AD." - Acad Neurol. 2008 Jan-Mar; 11(1): 13–19. The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer's disease: An overview Neuroprotective activity has also been shown in curcumin. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a peptide called β-amyloid (Aβ peptide) aggregates into oligomers and fibrils and forms deposits known as amyloid (or senile) plaques outside neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of patients. Another feature of AD is the accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles formed by phosphorylated Tau protein. Abnormal microglial activation, oxidative stress, and neuronal death are also associated with the progression of the disease. Curcumin has been found to inhibit Aβ fibril formation and extension and to destabilize preformed fibrils in vitro (51-53). Metal chelation by curcumin might interfere with metal ion (Cu2+/Zn2+)-induced Aβ aggregation. Curcumin might also affect the trafficking of Aβ peptide precursor (APP) and the generation of Aβ peptides from APP. Abnormally activated microglia and hypertrophic astrocytes around amyloid plaques in AD brains release cytotoxic molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines and ROS, which enhance Aβ formation and deposition and further damage neurons. Curcumin was found to reduce the inflammatory response triggered by Aβ peptide-induced microglial activation and increase neuronal cell survival. When injected into the carotid artery of a transgenic mouse model of AD, curcumin was found to cross the blood-brain barrier, bind to amyloid plaques, and block the formation of Aβ oligomers and fibrils. In other animal models of AD, dietary curcumin decreased biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative damage, increased Aβ peptide clearance by macrophages, dismantled amyloid plaques in the brain, stimulated neuronal cell growth in the hippocampus, and improved Aβ-induced memory deficits. As a result of promising findings in animal models. a few recent clinical trials have examined the effect of oral curcumin supplementation on cognition in healthy older adults and AD patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 60 healthy older adults (mean age, 68.5 years) investigated whether acute (80 mg) or chronic (80 mg/day for 4 weeks) oral intake of curcumin could improve their ability to cope with the mental stress and change in mood usually associated with undergoing a battery of cognitive tests A significant reduction in mental fatigue and higher levels of calmness and contentedness following cognitive test sessions were observed in individuals who consumed curcumin (either acutely or chronically) compared to the placebo group. Additionally, the results of cognitive ability tests suggested that curcumin treatment had limited benefits on cognitive function, as shown by better scores in measures of sustained attention and working memory compared to placebo. The results of a six-month trial in 27 patients with AD found that oral supplementation with up to 4 g/day of curcumin - containing all three major curcuminoids - was safe. Curcumin also helps inhibit plaque that research has linked to neuron damage in the brain and a sign of the disease. There may be good news on the horizon because curcumin has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier. It’s known that inflammation and oxidative damage play a role in Alzheimer's disease, and curcumin has beneficial effects on both. In addition, a key feature of Alzheimer's disease is a buildup of protein tangles called amyloid plaques. Studies show that curcumin can help clear these plaques. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles, selective neuronal loss, progressive memory and cognitive impairment (Campbell and Gowran 2007). The molecular pathogenesis of AD involves extracellular deposition of beta-amyloid (Ab) pepti- des in the hippocampus and curcumin is known to reduce Alzheimer’s pathology (Serafini et al. 2017) possibly due to its anti-aggregatory properties (Cole, Teter, and Frautschy 2007). In a clinical study, curcumin administration (1 or 4 g, 6 months trial) significantly increased the levels of antioxidant vitamin E without inducing any adverse events in patients with AD (Baum et al. 2008). In preclinical studies, curcumin is known to reduce Aboligomer and fibril formation (Yang et al. 2005; Xiong et al. 2011), inhibit the neurotoxicity of Abin the brain (Jiang et al. 2012; Sun, Zhao, and Hu 2013), suppress Ab-induced inflammation (Lim et al. 2001; Lu et al. 2014) and markedly reduce the levels of IL- 1b(Griffin et al. 2006) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (Begum et al. 2008) in transgenic mouse brain. Several studies demonstrated dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of curcumin against Ab-induced toxicity. Curcumin exhibited anti-aggregatory effect against Ab plaque formation by metal chelation (Huang et al. 2004; Tamagno et al. 2005), anti-oxidant effects (Hamaguchi et al. 2009), cholesterol lowering effects (Fassbender et al. 2001; Refolo et al. 2001), inhibition of presenilin-2 and/or by increasing degrading enzymes such as insulin-degrading enzyme and neprilysin (Wang et al. 2014). Curcumin potentiate heat shock proteins production in response to cellular stress, which protects neuronal cells from Ab neurotoxicity and prevent Ab aggregation and accumulation (Scapagnini et al. 2006; Ohtsuka and Suzuki 2000; Cummings et al. 2001). Parkinson’s disease is a type of movement disorder associated with deficiency of brain neurotransmitter called dopamine. In animal study, chronic curcumin administration (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o., for 3 weeks) significantly ameliorated behavioral alterations like locomotor activity and motor-coordination in mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. In the similar study, curcumin administration reduced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in brain homogenate by reducing AChE activity. Curcumin administration decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite while increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the brain homogenate of rotenone induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (Khatri and Juvekar 2016). It has been demonstrated that curcumin administration alleviate motor dysfunction and increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity in rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease rat model. Curcumin administration phosphorylates Nrf-2 and Akt thereby attenuated oxidative damage of dopaminergic neuron (Cui, Li, and Zhu 2016). Moreover, dietary curcumin supplementation 0.5% or 2.0% (w/w) attenuated 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyri- dine (MPTP) induced neurotoxicity in mice via increasing the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and TGF-b1 in nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and thus slowing the progression of Parkinson’s disease (He et al. 2015b). Curcumin administration increased monoaminergic neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine in hippocampal homogenate and alleviated hippocampal damage in 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson’s disease in rat. In addition, curcumin treatment upregulated the expression of BDNF, TrkB and PI3K in the hippocampus (Yang et al. 2014). Curcumin treatment (200 mg/kg, for 1 week) significantly attenuated loss of tyrosine hydroxylase, sustained SOD1 level and diminished activation of microglia and astrocytes in the striatum.
 
How may Curcumin work against diabetes?

Curcumin has been shown to equal in effectiveness to the drug metformin in the management of diabetes, but without negative side effects. In the study curcumin was shown to lower blood glucose levels and reverse insulin resistance by suppressing glucose production in the liver. Among those verging on type 2 diabetes, curcumin capsules seem to help stall the onset of the disease. The study that returned these results found that while a little more than 16% of people taking a placebo wound up with a diabetes diagnosis, no one taking curcumin received one. A clinical trial from Thailand, published in Diabetes Care in 2012, found that people with prediabetes who took curcumin for nine months had improved function of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, along with a significantly reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Other studies suggest that curcumin can improve insulin sensitivity. Another study found curcumin improved metabolic function and reduced the risk of plaque buildup in the arteries of type-2 diabetes patients. Curcumin also acts as an anti-diabetic and antioxidant in patients with type-1 diabetes. Curcumin acts directly on liver cells to help prevent them from becoming fatty, and studies have concluded that Curcumin may have an anti-diabetic effect by decreasing serum fatty acid through the promotion of fatty acid oxidation and utilization. Curcumin also works directly on pancreatic beta cells to help them produce insulin normally. By helping the liver and the pancreas, Curcumin is taking stress off the two most important organs whose function declines before the onset of type 2 diabetes. Curcumin also influences key hormones, supports major body organs, and regulates inflammatory signaling all in ways that help correct or prevent metabolic problems. Curcumin helps lower inappropriately high levels of leptin (reducing leptin resistance) while boosting the all-important levels of the adiponectin (which lowers insulin resistance). Curcumin also helps activate the fat-burning gene signal PPAR gamma, which also helps to make more new, metabolically-fit fat cells. Curcumin directly reduces major inflammatory events from occurring inside white adipose tissue (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1). By lowering such inflammation, the source of overweight-induced disease is targeted. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related vascular complications. A large body of preclinical evidence suggests that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and glucose-lowering activities of curcumin and its analogs may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of type 2 diabetes. In a nine-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 237 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes), no progression to overt diabetes was reported with a daily ingestion of a mixture of curcuminoids (0.5 g), while 16.4% of placebo-treated participants developed diabetes. In addition, curcumin supplementation was shown to reduce insulin resistance and improve measures of pancreatic β-cell function and glucose tolerance. Supplemental curcumin was found to be as effective as lipid-lowering drug atorvastatin (10 mg/day) in reducing circulating markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) and inflammation (endothelin-1, TNFα, IL-6) and in improving endothelial function. Another randomized controlled trial also reported that oral curcumin supplementation (1.5 g/day) for six months improved endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic markers associated with atherogenesis (plasma triglycerides, visceral fat, total body fat) in participants with type 2 diabetes. Finally, in a two-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 40 individuals with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease), daily curcumin ingestion (66.3 mg) significantly reduced urinary concentrations of proteins and inflammation markers (TGF-β, IL-8), suggesting that curcumin might be helpful with slowing the progression of kidney damage and preventing kidney failure. The research on curcumin suggests it can work as a hypoglycemic agent—lowering and helping control blood glucose (blood sugar) levels in people with type 2 diabetes. This can ultimately prevent those with the disease from developing other serious health complications associated with diabetes, such as neuropathy (damage to the nervous system) and nephropathy (kidney disease). A study published in the journal Biochemitry and Biophysical Research Community explored how curcumin might be valuable in treating diabetes, finding that it activates AMPK (which increases glucose uptake) and suppresses gluconeogenic gene expression (which suppresses glucose production in the liver) in hepatoma cells. Interestingly, they found curcumin to be 500 times to 100,000 times (in the form known as tetrahydrocurcuminoids(THC)) more potent than metformin in activating AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Diabetic neuropathy is a type of neuronal damage, associated with chronic diabetes, characterized by demyelination and deterioration of nerve fibers, alterations in the micro- vasculature and loss of sensory fibers that leads to pain, foot ulcers, amputations, depression, phobias, anorexia, loss of memory and reduction in complex reasoning skills (Patel and Udayabanu 2013).

Curcumin treatment (50 mg/kg, for 8 weeks) upregulated BDNF in frontal cortex and hippocampus alongside reduced oxidative damage in the hippocampus of diabetic db/db mice (Franco-Robles et al. 2014). Curcumin administration significantly increased Na (þ) -K (þ) -ATP activity, reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactic acid content as well as stimulates Ca (þ) -Mg (þ) -ATP activity in brain homogenate of alloxan induced diabetic mice. In addition, curcumin administration ameliorated energy metabolism in the brain homogenate of diabetic mice (Miao, Cheng, and Li 2015). Curcumin administration (60 mg/kg, p.o., for two weeks) downregulated the expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) type 3, muscarinic receptor type 3, a7-nicotinic receptor and AChE in brain- stem and cortex of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In addition, it reduced the expression level of insulin receptor and choline acetyltransferase in brainstem. Curcumin treatment upregulated the gene expression of choline acetyltransferase, SOD and insulin receptor in cortex. It is known to upregulate the expression level of muscarinic cholinergic receptor 1 in brainstem and cerebral cortex (Kumar et al. 2013) as well as attenuate cognitive deficits in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (Kumar et al. 2011). Curcumin treatment (60 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days) downregulated the expression level of dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptor in the cortex. In addition, curcumin administration significantly upregulated dopaminergic D1 receptor and downregulated D2 receptor in the cerebellum of diabetic rodents. Curcumin treatment upregulated phospholipase C and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein expression in the cerebellum and cortex of streptozotocin induced dia- betic rats resulting in amelioration of emotional and cognitive performance (Kumar et al. 2010). Curcumin administration (60 mg/kg, p.o., for 16 days) upregulated the glutamate decarboxylase while downregulated Bax, caspase 3 and caspase 8 expressions in the cerebral cortex. In addition, curcumin administration attenuated NMDA and AMPA receptor mediated oxidative stress and excitotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (Jayanarayanan et al. 2013). Curcumin supplemented (0.5%) with animal’s diet decreased b-d-glucuronidase activity (Chougala et al. 2012), nitric oxide level, total oxidant status, MDA level and oxidative stress index. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria, negative nitrogen balance, polydipsia and sometimes ketonemia. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, oral curcumin extract supplementation (three capsules per day, each curcumin capsule has curcuminoid content of 250 mg) for nine months ameliorated b-cell function, lowered C-peptide and increased homeostasis model assessment-b, reduced insulin resistance and increased the adiponectin level in type 2 diabetic subjects as compared to placebo group (Chuengsamarn et al. 2012). In another clinical study, curcumin administration lowered the level of HbA1c and fasting blood glucose as well as partially reduced LDL-cholesterol and body mass index in diabetic subjects (Rahimi et al. 2016). A recent meta-analysis revealed that, curcumin or combined curcuminoids supplementation effectively lowered the level of fasting blood glucose in individuals with some degree of dysglycemia. In addition, isolated curcumin supplementation significantly decreased HbA1c as compared to placebo and suggested its beneficial role as adjuvant in the treatment of dysglycemic patients (de Melo, Dos Santos, and Bueno 2018). In animal study, curcumin administration is reported to reduce glucose intolerance through induction of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. In addition, curcumin administration is known to reduce insulin resistance by downregulating phosphorylation of IRS-1 serine residue and upregulating phosphorylation of IRS-1 tyrosine in the skeletal muscle of rats fed with high fructose. Curcumin treatment also reduced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) level. Curcumin treatment decreased C reactive protein and TNF- alevels besides downregulated the protein kinase theta (PKCh) and COX-2 protein expressions. Additionally, curcumin significantly downregulated extracellular kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and p38 protein expressions in skeletal muscle. Further, curcumin treatment ameliorated the activity of GPx and attenuated the activation of inflammatory cascades (Maithilikarpagaselvi et al. 2016). Curcumin treatment significantly reduced systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total cholesterol, glycemia, total oxidative status, MDA and nitrative stress. A recent study demonstrated that, curcumin administration (100 mg/kg, p.o., daily for 8 weeks) attenuated splenic damage and improved immunity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms  (Rashid et al. 2017). Curcumin treatment is known to attenuate diabetes and its associated complications like liver disease, adipocyte dysfunctions, pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, vascular dysfunction, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy etc (Zhang et al. 2013b). In cell culture studies, curcumin treatment suppressed palmitate-mediated insulin resistance, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, reduced the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein aggregation and activated the autophagy signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (Ye et al. 2017). The suggested anti-diabetic mechanisms of curcumin effects are ameliorating b-cell dysfunc- tion, insulin signaling, glucagon like peptide-1 secretion, and reducing glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, HOMA-IR level, hyperlipidemia, islet apoptosis and necrosis etc. Therefore, these finding demonstrate that curcumin supplementation in diabetic population may be beneficial.
 
How may Curcumin work against CANCER?

It is well known that the human body is capable of self-healing after a short-term inflammatory response, but long-term chronic inflammation could lead to initiation of the cancer process. Many studies have shown that inflammatory factors (including interleukins, TNF-α, NF-ϰB) and the ROS production-induced inflammation infiltrate the inflammatory microenvironment leading to DNA damages and ultimately initiation of cancer. By acting on several signaling pathways, especially the WNT/β-catenin pathway, curcumin can have anticancer effect by inhibiting chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. The chronic inflammatory microenvironment of tumors could also be targeted by curcumin. Over the years, cancer research has examined the role curcumin plays in treating this disease. Curcumin is antimutagenic as it potentially helps to prevent new cancers that are caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy used to treat existing cancers. It effectively inhibits metastasis (uncontrolled spread) of melanoma (skin cancer) cells and may be especially useful in deactivating the carcinogens in cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco. Curcumin generates an anticancer effect by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and also reduces the formation of glycation end products which induce inflammation. Curcumin also mediates anticancer activity by targeting many other enzymes/pathways, maintaining levels of vitamins C and E, preventing peroxidation of lipid, and DNA damage. Curcumin targets transformed cells without altering primary astrocytes. It also promotes apoptosis, and shows a synergistic effect in combination cisplatin and doxorubicin drugs. An active constituent of turmeric suppresses carcinogenesis in multiple human carcinomas, which include ovarian cancers, stomach cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, head and neck cancer. Curcumin suppresses the carcinogenesis by targeting diverse molecular targets of cellular division and apoptosis. The beneficial effects of curcumin on various transcription factors, oncogenes, and signalling proteins are well known. It also targets various stages of carcinogenesis from the initial stage to tumorigenesis, growth, invasion, and metastasis. Animal studies involving rats and mice as well as in vitro studies utilizing human cell lines have demonstrated curcumin's ability to inhibit carcinogenesis at three stages: Tumor promotion, angiogenesis,  and tumor growth.  In two studies of colon and prostate cancer, curcumin inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth. The anticarcinogenic effects of turmeric and curcumin are due to direct antioxidant and free-radical scavenging effects and their ability to indirectly increase glutathione levels, thereby aiding in hepatic detoxification of mutagens and carcinogens and in inhibiting nitrosamine formation. A number of laboratory studies on cancer cells have shown that curcumin does have anticancer effects. These studies have found that curcumin can significantly inhibit the growth, development and movement of cancer throughout the body. It seems to be able to kill cancer cells and prevent more from growing. It has the best effects on breast cancer, bowel cancer, stomach cancer and skin cancer cells. An American study that combined curcumin with chemotherapy to treat bowel cancer cells in a laboratory showed that the combined treatment killed more cancer cells than the chemotherapy alone. Another American study seemed to show that curcumin helped to stop the spread of breast cancer cells to other parts of the body. Doctors think that curcumin stays in the digestive system and is absorbed by the cells in the bowel. Several studies have shown that curcumin taken as capsules does get absorbed by the gut and is present in the blood.  One of the mechanisms by which it does this is reducing the growth of new blood vessels in tumors (otherwise known as angiogenesis) and can also directly contribute to the death of cancerous cells. Scientists discovered that turmeric is effective in killing cancer cells and also preventing their growth. According to the American Cancer Society, tests indicate that curcumin "interferes with several important molecular pathways involved in cancer development, growth and spread" and has boosted the effects of chemotherapy in animals. Curcumin has the potential for treatment of cancers including colon, breast, prostate, lung, skin and bowel. Curcumin shows a strong ability to kill cancer cells as well as inhibit their growth, boost antioxidant levels and balance the immune system. It seems to work on improving mitochondrial function at a cellular level. Even against drug-resistant strains of leukemia, curcumin caused cell death of cancer cells. Curcumin has been shown to substitute chemotheraphy for colorectal cancers, and in miltidrug resistant cancers. The ability of curcumin to regulate a variety of signaling pathways involved in cell growth, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis in preclinical studies elicited scientific interest in its potential as an anticancer agent in tumor therapy. Curcumin is one of the most powerful and promising chemopreventive and anticancer agents, and epidemiological evidence demonstrates that people who incorporate high doses of this spice in their diets have a lower incidence of cancer. Curcumin's epigenetic modulation has been studied by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) and academic investigators around the world. Because of low toxicity and great efficacy in multiple in vitro and in vivo cancer models, Curcumin was selected for further development, put through extensive toxicology testing and has successively made it through the first stages (Phase I) of clinical testing abroad and is currently in clinical trials at several sites in the U.S. A phase I clinical trial looked at giving curcumin to 25 patients with pre cancerous changes in different organs. This study seemed to show that curcumin could stop the precancerous changes becoming cancer. Numerous mechanisms have been described for the anticancer activity of Curcumin. Curcumin inhibits the NF-ŒB and STAT3 signaling pathways, which play key-roles in the development and progres- sion of cancer. It inhibits a highly expressed transcription factor Sp-1 and its downstream genes, including ephrin type-B receptor 2 precursor, HDAC4, calmodulin and ADEM10 which serve as an important mechanism to prevent metastasis. Curcumin enhances the expression of several extracellular matrix components and inhibits the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and CD24 expression, thus prevents cancer formation, migration and invasion (Vallianou et al. 2015; Shi et al. 2001; Zhou et al. 2013). In addition, the potential mechanism of the anti-invasive effect of curcumin includes downregulation of Akt, EGFR, cyclin D1, cMET and upregulation of DNAJ/heat shock protein (HSP) 40 chaperone. Recent studies revealed that ER stress and autophagy might involve in apoptosis process. Mechanistically, autophagy inhibition could increase curcumin induced apoptosis by inducing ER stress (Vallianou et al. 2015). Further, the anticancer effects induced by phytoconstituent curcumin in malignant cells are mediated via the modulation of multiple signaling pathways and its effectors. Curcumin induced anti-carcinogenic effects includes down-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor type-1 receptor (IGF-1R), EGFR/avian erythroblastosis oncogene B1 (erbB1), erbB2/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Wnt/b-catenin and sonic hedgehog/glioma associated oncogene (SHH/GLIs), and their respective downstream signaling effectors. Curcumin modulates intra-cellular signal transduction elements such as p21, p27, inhibitor of growth family member 4 (ING4), cyclin D1, c- Myc, VEGF, ICAM-1, MMPS, uPA, COX-2, CXCR-4, Bax, Bad, Bak, Noxa, p53, modulator of apoptosis, caspases etc. resulting in reversal of cancer incidence, progression and relapse (Figure 4) (Jordan et al. 2016; Mimeault and Batra 2011; Kasi et al. 2016).

Because of its anti-apoptotic and antiproliferative efficacy, its ability to interfere with several tumor progression associated signaling pathways, and to modulate tumor-associated miRNA expression, curcumin is regarded as antitumorigenic. In addition, curcumin prevents formation of breast and prostate metastases in vivo. The review by Willenbacher et al. in this issue summarizes some papers that have been published in the field of curcumin’s antitumorigenic effects. Curcumin is also potent against cancer types that are difficult to treat, like melanoma or glioblastoma, as demonstrated by the work of Maiti et al. in this issue.  The available in vitro studies have shown that curcumin is able to inhibit viability, proliferation, survival, migration/invasion, and adhesion of various human prostate cancer cells. Curcumin inhibited both androgen-sensitive and insensitive prostate cancer cells by targeting a number of signaling cascades responsible for regulating cellular function. The antiproliferative, antisurvival, and antimigratory effects of curcumin in prostate cancer cells may be due to the inhibition of the Akt/mTOR, Ras/MAPK signaling pathways, decreased NF-κB activation, enhanced proapoptoptic caspase and PARP cleavage, and the inhibition of members of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins. Curcumin was also able to induce cell-cycle arrest and enhance autophagy in various prostate cancer cell lines. The available in vivo studies have shown that curcumin administration is able to inhibit the growth/volume, formation, development, proliferation, and angiogenesis of prostate cancer tumors while promoting apoptosis. These effects were observed in mice xenografted with both androgen-sensitive and insensitive prostate cancer cells. Curcumin’s inhibition of prostate tumor growth and progression may be due to its inhibition of Akt expression/activation, decreased NF-κB activation, inhibition of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, increased expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak, and enhanced PARP and caspase expression. These findings from in vivo studies are in agreement with those from the in vitro studies. The downregulation of cell proliferation, paired with the enhanced activity of programmed cell death both in vitro and in vivo, render curcumin an ideal candidate for the development of novel anticancer pharmaceutical agents providing fewer detrimental effects due to its low toxicity. An American phase 2 study reported in 2008. 25 patients had curcumin treatment and 21 had tumours that could be measured. In 2 patients their tumors shrank or remained stable. In some patients their levels of particular immune system chemicals that destroy cancer cells went up. Curcumin also has been studied with regards to the core inflammatory gene signal, NF-kappaB,resulting in a beneficial domino effect throughout the body. One benefit of this domino effect is a direct reduction in the risk of cancer from overweight-induced inflammation. Curcumin has been found to induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis by regulating a variety of cell-signaling pathways (3, 41-45). For example, the inhibition of cell proliferation by curcumin has been associated with the Nrf2-dependent downregulation of DNA repair-specific flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) in breast cancer cells in culture. Curcumin has been shown to induce p53-dependent or -independent apoptosis depending on the cancer cell type. In a panel of cancer cell lines, p53-independent apoptosis induced by curcumin was mediated by the rapid increase of ROS and the activation of MAPK and c-jun kinase (JNK) signaling cascades. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling by curcumin also suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Inhibition of tumor invasion and angiogenesis Malignant and aggressive forms of cancer can invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant tissues once cancer cells have acquired the ability to leave the primary site (reduced cell-to-cell adhesion and loss of polarity), migrate, and disseminate. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process by which epithelial cells acquire the ability to migrate and invade through downregulating proteins like E-cadherin and γ-catenin and expressing mesenchymal markers like MMPs, N-cadherin, and vimentin. In breast cancer cells, curcumin prevented EMT-associated morphological changes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while upregulating E-cadherin and downregulating vimentin. It was further shown that curcumin inhibited NF-κB/Snail signaling involved in LPS-induced EMT. In another study, curcumin increased the expression of the small non-coding RNA miR181b, which then downregulated proinflammatory cytokines, CXCL1 and CXCL2, as well as MMPs, thereby reducing the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. Curcumin inhibited IL-6-induced proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells by reducing JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation (i.e., activation) and downstream genes coding for cyclin B1, survivin, Bcl-XL, MMPs, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Curcumin was found to exert its anticancer activities in many different types of cancer cells by regulating a variety of signaling pathways. In vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that curcumin prevents carcinogenesis by affecting two primary processes: angiogenesis and tumor growth. Turmeric and curcuminoids influence tumor angiogenesis through multiple, interdependent processes (2): i) Action at the level of transcription factors associated with inflammatory processes and early growth response protein which reduces the expression of IL­8 in pancreatic and head and neck cancer cell lines and prevents the induction of VEGF synthesis; ii) inhibition of angiogenesis mediated by NO (nitric oxide) and iii) inhibition of COX­2 and 5­LOX; iv) action at the level of angiogenic factors: VEGF, the primary factor for migration, sprouting, survival and proliferation during angiogenesis, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Curcumin induces cell death in numerous animal and human cell lines, including leukemia, melanoma, and carcinomas of the breast, lung, colon, kidney, ovaries and liver. It appears to function by caspase­dependent and independent (mitochondrial) mechanisms, which are associated with the presence and absence of p53. Androgen­dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells were injected subcutaneously into mice fed with a 2% curcumin containing diet for up to 6 weeks (11). Curcumin significantly increased the extent of apoptosis, as measured by an in situ cell death assay, and caused a reduction in cell proliferation, as measured by a BrdU incorporation assay. Curcumin alone induced a 49–55% reduction in mean ovarian cancer tumor growth compared with control animals, while the combination of curcumin with docetaxel resulted in a 77% reduction in mean tumor growth compared with the controls. In an animal study, the administration of curcumin decreased the number of lung tumor nodules and inhibited lung metastasis of melanoma. Therefore, it is possible to use curcumin in order to arrest the metastatic growth of tumor cells.  A study conducted in 2014 revealed that curcumin was able to obstruct tumor growth and metastasis in several animals’ organs including the stomach, colon, and liver. Curcumin has been studied as a beneficial herb in cancer treatment and been found to affect cancer growth, development and spread at the molecular level. Studies have shown that it can contribute to the death of cancerous cells and reduce angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels in tumors) and metastasis (spread of cancer). Multiple studies indicate that curcumin can reduce the growth of cancerous cells in the laboratory and inhibit the growth of tumors in test animals. There is also evidence that it may prevent cancer from occurring in the first place, especially cancers of the digestive system like colorectal cancer. In a 30-day study in 44 men with lesions in the colon that sometimes turn cancerous, 4 grams of curcumin per day reduced the number of lesions by 40%. A 2007 study published in the International Journal of Cancer found that curcumin compares favorably with oxaliplatin as an antiproliferative agenet in colorectal cell lines.  A 2010 study showed a profound reduction in the incidence of colorectal carcinoma when curcumin is introduced. But it goes beyond colorectal cancer, one of the most preventative forms of cancer. Curcumin, according to a 2007 review, is capable of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells in skin, oral, intestinal, and colon cancers. Animal models show that not only does curcumin block growth of cancer cells in these models, but it also increases the number of cancer-fighting enzymes in the system.  A 2011 study works to quantify the prohibitive properties of curcumin on cancer cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. This type of cancer is the 6th most commonly-diagnosed cancer in the United States. That study showed curcumin not only works as a treatment for squamous cell carcinomas with incredibly promising results, but it has also been shown to demonstrate powerful anti-cancer properties. Part of the excitement surrounding the potential anti-cancer benefits of curcumin revolves around the safety of use of the compound. It is considered pharmacologically safe, which means there are no known drug interactions or specific reactions among patients, making it extremely well-tolerated. For more evidence that turmeric with curcumin in particular being a powerful anti-cancer compound, we need only look at the rates of cancer in parts of the world where turmeric is consumed in higher quantities.

A 2012 study indicates that rates of colorectal cancer in India are among the lowest in the developed world. Another study from 2016 shows that Indian women are less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, as well. Part of the reason for the lowered cancer rates in India has been attributed to diet, with turmeric and curcumin being major dietary contributors in that part of the world. Combining curcumin with anticancer drugs like gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer, docetaxel in breast cancer, and imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia may be safe and well tolerated. A recent single-arm, phase II trial combining three cycles of docetaxel/prednisone and curcumin (6 g/day) was carried out in 26 patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. The level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was decreased in most patients and was normalized in 36% of them, and the co-administration of curcumin with drugs showed no toxicity beyond adverse effects already related to docetaxel monotherapy. Many registered phase I/II clinical trials designed to investigate the effectiveness of curcumin alone or with first-line treatment in patients with breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, or colorectal cancer are under way. Research into preventing cancer: A phase I clinical trial looked at giving curcumin to 25 patients with pre cancerous changes in different organs. This study showed how curcumin could stop the precancerous changes becoming cancer. A number of laboratory studies on cancer cells have shown that curcumin does have anticancer effects. It kills cancer cells and prevent more from growing. It has the best effects on breast cancer, bowel cancer, stomach cancer and skin cancer cells. A 2007 American study that combined curcumin with chemotherapy to treat bowel cancer cells in a laboratory showed that the combined treatment killed more cancer cells than the chemotherapy alone. An American study in mice showed that curcumin helped to stop the spread of breast cancer cells to other parts of the body. Doctors think that curcumin stays in the digestive system and is absorbed by the cells in the bowel. Several studies have shown that curcumin taken as capsules does get absorbed by the gut and is present in the blood. A number of activities of curcumin, which are exerted in a chemopreventive and a directly therapeutic manner, indicate that it may be a potential anticancer remedy. Researchers at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX state that Curcumin has “enormous” potential to prevent and treat cancer. Curcumin was able to suppress tumor formation, growth, and even metastasis according to their review. Currently, there are clinical trials being conducted on the effects of Curcumin on patients with bowel cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, tests have shown that curcumin can kill cancer cells in laboratory dishes, and also slow the growth of the surviving cells. Furthermore, it has been found to reduce the development of several forms of cancer in lab animals, while also shrinking various animal tumors. A review - Anticancer Potential of Curcumin: Preclinical and Clinical Studies - in Anticancer Research concluded that, "…it is quite apparent that curcumin has tremendous potential for prevention and therapy of various cancers." Another study on the role of curcumin in cancer therapy found that, "Research over the last few decades has shown that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent with strong therapeutic potential against a variety of cancers. Curcumin has been shown to suppress transformation, proliferation and metastasis of tumors," and called for additional and larger controlled studies to determine its full potential. Inhibition of proliferation of tumor cells, induction of apoptosis (a mode of cell death), inhibition of transformation of cells from normal to tumor, inhibition of invasion and metastasis and suppression of inflammation have been linked with the activity of Curcumin. Down-regulation of COX2, 5-LOX, adhesion molecules, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factor receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transcription factors by Curcumin have been linked to its antitumor activity.

Lung cancer | Curcumin against human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549, which showed 50% cell viability at a high dose of 10,000 U of interferon (IFN)-alpha (IFNα), was investigated to understand the resistivity of these cells against such a higher concentration of IFNα[64]. On treatment with one-tenth of the IC50 value, the A549 cells showed an increase in p50 (NF-κB1) and p65 (RelA) subunits of NF-κB with respect to time, in addition to an increase in Cox-2 expression. On pretreatment with curcumin, a dose-dependent decrease in these subunits was noticed in Western Blot Analysis and a decrease in Cox-2 expression was also noted. Thus, curcumin showed a remarkable decrease in NF-κB and Cox-2 activity in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum dose of 50 μM in IFNα resistant A549 cell lines and it increased the vulnerability of cells towards the cytotoxic activity of IFNα. Animal study revealed that curcumin administration reduced ultra-histoarchitecture and histoarchitecture abnormalities against benzo[a]pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in mice (Wang et al. 2016c). In in vitro studies, curcumin treatment is reported to induce miR-98 and supressed MMP-2 and MMP-9 which leads to inhibition of lung cancer in A549 cell line (Liu et al. 2017). Curcumin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles downregulated the expres- sion of hTERT, induced cytotoxicity and attenuated proliferation in A549 cell line, and suggested as effective target for lung cancer therapy (Sadeghzadeh et al. 2017). Curcumin treatment reduced CD133-positive cells, reduced the formation tumorsphere, downregulated the expression of lung cancer stem cells markers like Oct4, aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1A1, CD133, CD44 and Nanog alongside induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells. In addition, it reduced lung cancer via inhibition of sonic hedgehog and Wnt/b-catenin signaling pathways (Zhu et al. 2017). Curcumin treatment inhibits hepatocyte growth factor induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal transduction regulated by c-Met in human lung cancer cell line A549 (Jiao et al. 2016). Recent evidence suggest that curcumin treatment effectively prevented lung cancer metastasis and growth by downregulating microRNA (miR)-let 7c and miR-101 medi- ated expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 along with downregulation of Notch1 expression in human lung cancer cell lines (A549 and NCI-H520) (Wu et al. 2016).
Breast cancer | Curcumin against resistant breast cancer have resulted in promising results so far. Adriamycin resistant MCF-7ADR and Tumor Necrosis Factor resistant BT-20TNF breast cancer cell lines showed 15% (± 6%) and 8% cell viability respectively against curcumin at a dose of 1 μg/ml (2.7 μM)[53]. The same study claimed that curcumin exhibited the growth inhibitory effect on estrogen-dependent MCF-7 and T-47D as well as estrogen-independent SK-BR3 cell lines at lower concentrations, and arrested the majority of cells in the G2/M phase and inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. A comparative study of the effect of curcumin on human mammary epithelial (MCF-10A) and MDR breast carcinoma (MCF-7/TH) cell lines reported that the IC50 value of curcumin against MCF-10A was 3.5 times higher than that of MCF-7/TH although cytometric analysis showed equal accumulation of curcumin in both cell lines and it is well complemented with the apoptosis studies where 40 µM (24 hr) concentration of curcumin led 1.8% of MCF-10A cells into apoptosis while 46.6% of MDR, MCF-7/TH went into apoptosis under similar conditions, which in terms of considering the collateral damages is a significant observation. In an investigation undertaken by Meiyanto et al., doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/Dox cells with over-expression of HER2 were tested against doxorubicin (IC50 = 7) and curcumin (IC50 = 80 ± 2.39) separately and in combination. The MTT Assay showed that curcumin at half of its IC50 concentration in combination with doxorubicin at half of its IC50 concentration, decreased the percentage cell viability of MCF-7/Dox cell lines by almost 80%, and this synergistic action of combinatorial treatment-induced cell death, evident through the accumulation of more cells in sub-G1 and G1 phase as compared to the percentage of cells when they were treated separately by doxorubicin and curcumin. Efficacy of curcumin against resistant breast cancer cell lines was demonstrated through SRB assay on MCF-7, antiestrogen-resistant MCF-7/LCC2 and MCF-7/LCC9 cell lines, which revealed IC50 values of curcumin to be 9.7, 12.2 µM and 11.34 µM respectively against these cancer cell lines and colony formation for each cell line was suppressed by curcumin at a concentration of 30 µM. These activities of curcumin were attributed to lowering of anti-apoptotic expressions and inhibition of NF-κB and Akt/mTOR pathway. The photosensitization of cancer cells by curcumin towards photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been covered by Muniyandi et al. and apoptosis is the mode of action in majority of the works cited in the review. The adriamycin resistant breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADR was found to be equally affected as MCF-7 cells (Cell viability 50%) on 45 minutes preincubation with curcumin (7.5 μM) followed by irradiation with blue light (450 nm, 100 mW/cm2) for 5 min and subsequent 24 h incubation. Clinical trial study recommended that, administration of curcumin (6 g/day for seven consecutive days in every 3 weeks) in combination with docetaxel to be safe, effective and well tolerated for advanced and metastatic breast cancer (Bayet-Robert et al. 2010). In vitro models revealed that curcumin treatment is known to induce cytotoxicity through apoptosis induction and inhibit the viability of MCF-7 cells via caspase-3 and 9 activations. It reduced the expression of miR-21 by upregulating the PTEN/Akt signaling in breast cancer cells (Wang et al. 2017). Experimental evidence sug- gested that curcumin administration downregulate the expression of estrogen receptor-alfa (ER-a) and tumor sup- pressor protein exerting antiproliferative effects in T-47D human breast cancer cells (Hallman et al. 2017). Besides, curcumin treatment reduced hypermethylation of glutathi- one S-transferase (GST) pi 1 (Kumar, Sharma, and Rathi 2017) and deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) (Liu et al. 2017), downregulated the Sp1 and DNA methyltransferase 1 expressions, resulting in inhibition of proliferation of human breast cancer cells (Liu et al. 2017). A recent study revealed that curcumin treatment downregulated the expression of Fibronectin, Twist1 Vimentin, AXL, Slug, b-catenin, N-cadherin and E-cadherin thereby inhibited the migration and invasion of cancer in breast cancer cell lines (Gallardo and Calaf 2016). Curcumin inhibits NF-jB signaling resulting in inhibition of cell growth and invasion in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line (Yodkeeree et al. 2010). Further, curcumin arrested the cell cycle at the late S and G2M phase alongside induced ROS mediated apoptosis, accumulated p16/Rb and P53/p21 in breast cancer cells (Calaf et al. 2011; Wang et al. 2016d).
Prostate cancer | Curcumin against resistant prostate cancer, the induction of apoptosis has been one of the modes of action of curcumin. PI3/Akt pathway, which promotes cell growth, proliferation, and survival, is inhibited by curcumin. Mechanistic studies, carried out at subtoxic concentrations of curcumin in LNCap cells showed that pretreatment with curcumin sensitized the cells towards tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway of cell survival[68]. Castration-resistant prostate cancer cell (CRPC) line C4-2B, showed a promising response to chemo-sensitization towards remarkably low concentration dose of 10nM docetaxel on pretreatment with a combination of 5 μM curcumin and 5 μM nelfinavir, commendably without much adverse effect on primary prostate epithelial cells. The molecular study revealed an increase in pro-apoptotic markers caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and decrease in expressions associated with PI3K/AKT survival pathway like phosphorylated-AKT. This in vitro finding was complemented with in vivo studies in the xenograft model. Docetaxel resistant CRPC lines PC3 and DU145 when treated with curcumin and curcumin nanoparticles prepared by emulsification showed cytotoxic effects of curcumin. The IC50 values of curcumin in nanoparticle form against Docetaxel-resistant CRPC PC3 and DU145 cells were 5.0 ± 0.7 μM and 12.1 ± 1.1 μM respectively, while free curcumin showed IC50 values of 20.9 ± 0.3 μM and 27.1 ± 1.4 μM against these resistant cell lines respectively, underlining the fact that better delivery methods can potentiate the cytotoxic action of curcumin. A summary of in vitro activities of curcumin against various cancer cell lines has been compiled in Table 1. In a pilot phase II study, curcumin (6000 mg per day for 7 consecutive days) along with docetaxel and prednisone showed therapeutic potential against castration-resistant prostate cancer with good patient acceptability and tolerability (Mahammedi et al. 2016). In vitro models revealed that, curcumin treatment downregulated PGK1 via upregulation of miR-143 alongside increased the expression of FOXD3, resulting in inhibition of proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cell (Cao et al. 2017). Curcumin treatment is known to induce transferrin receptor protein 1 (TfR1) and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) expression which leads to induced autophagy and apoptosis in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells (Yang et al. 2017a). It has been reported that curcumin treatment inhibited MT1-MMP and MMP-2 expressions in DU145 cells thus reduced the metas- tasis and survival of prostate cancer cells mediated by Notch-1 signaling cascade (Yang et al. 2017b). Curcumin treatment induced the arrest of G0/G1 cell cycle phase alongside inhibited the regulatory proteins cyclin D1 and CDK-2. Besides, it upregulated the expression of p21, p27 and p53 while downregulated Bcl-2 expression. Further, curcumin treatment is known to activate caspase (3, 8 and 9) (Sha et al. 2016) while decreased Akt, MMP (2 and 9), Bcl- 2, Bcl-XL and tumor volume in prostate cancer (Jordan et al. 2016). Curcumin treatment is reported to increase HDAC (1, 4 and 8), apoptosis, production of ROS and Nrf- 2 expression, while decrease VEGF, HIF1-a, GSK-3b, Akt, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA mRNA expression, HAT activity and cellular proliferation in LNCaP cell lines.

Colorectal cancer | Curcumin against resistant colorectal cancer studies on human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116 and its isogenic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant cell line HCT116R in a 3D model showed that curcumin potentiated the anti-proliferative activity of 5-FU against these cell lines through apoptosis and inhibition of formation of colonies, with suppression of NF-κB pathway. HCT116R cells were chemo-sensitized to the action of 5-FU and IC50 of 5-FU was recorded as 0.1 μM when it was used in combination with 5µM concentration of curcumin. This synergistic combination increased the percentage of apoptotic cells by 56% in HCT116R cell lines. The molecular role of curcumin in apoptosis has already been shown in another report where it intensified the downregulation of anti-apoptotic BclxL and cell division favoring cyclin D1 protein caused by 5-FU in HCT116 and HCT116+ch3 (Complemented with chromosome 3) cell lines and inhibiting activation of IkBα kinase and its phosphorylation. Chemo-sensitization of drug-resistant cancer cell lines by curcumin, towards a particular chemotherapeutic agent, has been reported in one more investigation involving oxaliplatin sensitive human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 Cells and its oxaliplatin resistant derived sub-line HTOXAR3 cells, which showed that combination of curcumin and oxaliplatin almost reversed the oxaliplatin resistance in HTOXAR3 cell line with oxaliplatin IC50 reaching to 10.6 ± 2.2 μM which is fairly comparable to HT29 cell line whereas IC50 has been noted as 8.45 ± 1.6 μM[61]. Mechanistic aspects in this investigation showed that curcumin effected reversal of oxaliplatin resistance at 20 µM concentration against the HTOXAR3 cell line through inhibition of oxaliplatin-induced activation of NF-κB pathway, which otherwise would have led to an increase in anti-apoptotic expressions like survivin and Bcl-2. Clinically, curcumin administration (3 g/day orally for one month) converted advanced colon cancer derived regulatory T cells to T helper 1 cells via increasing IFN-cproduction and repression of Foxp3 expression in colon cancer patients (Xu, Yu, and Zhao 2017). In a nonrandomized, open-label clinical trial, oral curcumin (2 g or 4 g per day for 30 days) administration reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci and prevented the colorectal neoplasia (Kunnumakkara et al. 2017; Carroll et al. 2011). In vitro models revealed that treatment with curcumin induced apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase, decreased the cell population as well as inhibited the proliferation and mutation of COLO 320DM cells (Dasiram et al. 2017). Additionally, curcumin treatment stimulated 50AMP-activated protein kinase, sup- pressed the phosphorylation of p65 NF-jB, downregulated MMP-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression as well as reduced the binding ability of NF-jB DNA in LoVo and SW480 cells leading to inhibition of colon cancer invasion (Tong et al. 2016). Curcumin treatment downregulated chemokine receptor 4 expression, upregulated naked cuticle homolog 2 expression and supressed Wnt signaling. In addition, curcumin treatment downregulated vimentin and upregulated E-cadherin expression, which leads to inhibition of proliferation and epithelial mes- enchymal transition in SW620 human colon cancer cells (Zhang et al. 2016d). Evidence suggested that curcumin treatment downregulated the expression of p-glycoprotein (Neerati, Sudhakar, and Kanwar 2013) and upregulated PPAR-cprotein (Liu et al. 2015), the potential mechanism by which curcumin can be used for the treatment of colon cancer (Neerati, Sudhakar, and Kanwar 2013).

Bladder cancer | In animal model, curcumin suppressed the invasion and growth of bladder cancer via induction of apoptosis and arresting G1/S phase transition in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced bladder tumor in rats (Pan et al. 2017). Curcumin treatment suppressed the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced urothelial tumor in rats. In cell lines studies, curcumin treatment is known to downregulate the expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 and reduces the IGF1R and IRS-1 phosphorylation in T24 and UMUC2 bladder cancer cells. In this regards curcumin functions through suppression of IGF-2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal transduction (Tian et al. 2017). Curcumin treatment reversed the transition of epithelial-mesenchymal cells via reducing ERK5/AP-1 signaling pathway in SV-40 human urothelial cells which might be the potential drug candidate for prevention of bladder cancer (Liu et al. 2017). In human bladder cancer cell lines, curcumin treatment exert multiple effects like inhibition of MMP-2/9, generation of ROS, upregulated the expression of HO-1, increased the hypomethylation of the miR-203, upregulated the expression of miR-203, inhibited Aurora A promotor activity, downregulated histone H3 activation, induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and COX-2, decreased VEGF level, decreased c-myc, decreased Bcl-2 expression, downregulated Survivin protein, upregulated the expression of p53 and Bax, induced fragmentation of DNA, downregulated cyclin A expression and decreased NF-kB expression thereby inhibited the cancer cell invasion, viability of cancerous cells and growth (Imran et al. 2016; Saini et al. 2011).
Blood cancer (Multiple myeloma and leukemia) | Curcumin against resistant leukemia showed inhibition in growth and clonogenicity to curcumin treatment in dose and time-dependent manner. In this study, Curcumin showed an IC50 value of 35.7 µM against KG1a 23.5 µM against Kasumi-1 on 96 hr exposure and completely stopped colony formation at 20 µM concentration. The mechanistic investigations reflected the role of curcumin in activation of Caspase-3, down-regulation of Bcl-2 mRNA expression and reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential in addition to remarkable morphological changes like cell shrinking and nuclear condensation, which are characteristics of apoptosis. Another drug-resistant leukemia cell line HL60 responded to curcumin with 50% growth inhibition at 30 µM concentration. Cell cycle studies in this experiment established apoptosis as the mechanism of action of curcumin and arrest of the cell cycle in the S-phase was also reported in the same study. Clinically, curcumin administration (5 g for 6 weeks) possessed potent chemosensitizing effect in chronic myeloid leukemia patients, where the patients receiving both curcumin and imatinib exhibited better prognosis with decreased NO levels as compare to the patients receiving imatinib alone (Ghalaut et al. 2012). In animal study, curcumin treatment significantly decreased tumor growth in the chronic myeloid leukemia xenograft mice via release of exosomes enriched miR-21 in plasma (Taverna et al. 2015). In cell line studies, curcumin treatment upregulated apoptosis inducing factor, caspase-3, cleaved PARP-1 while downregulated Bcl-2 resulting in induction of apoptosis in lymphoblastic leukemia cells (Mishra, Singh, and Narayan 2016). Curcumin incubation (10 lM, for 6 days) increased the level of ROS, induced genomic instability, mediated reversal of p15 promoter methylation and induced apoptosis in Raji cells (Sharma et al. 2014). Curcumin treatment (40 mmol/L, for 48h) downregulated the protein expression of nuclear NF- jB P65 as well and its translocation alongside inhibited pro- liferation of acute myeloid leukemia in KG1a and Kasumi-1 cells (Rao et al. 2015). Also, curcumin treatment (25 lM, for 24–48 h) arrested cell cycle in the S-phase, increased the number of annexin V-FITC(þ)/PI(-) cells and inhibited the proliferation of SHI-1 cells. In addition, curcumin upregulated FasL and downregulated NF-jB, ERK, Bcl-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions. Further, curcumin induced the activation of MAPK, p38, caspase-3 and JNK resulted in inhibition of SHI-1 cell invasion (Zhu et al. 2016). Curcumin treatment downregulated the expression of VEGF and decreased the phosphorylation of AKT. Curcumin mediated increased miR-196b levels caused downregulation of Bcr-Abl expression in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells (Taverna et al. 2015). Curcumin incubation downregulated Mcl-1 expression and associated with apoptosis in human myeloma cell lines (Gomez-Bougie et al. 2015). Curcumin treatment simultaneously inhibited RAF/MEK/ERK and AKT/mTOR pathway activation resulting in induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human leukemia THP-1 cells (Guo et al. 2014). Curcumin incubation increased the generation of intracellular ROS, depletion of intracellular GSH, and activation of caspase enzyme.

Cervical cancer | Curcumin administration (12,000 mg/day for 3 months) reduced the risk of cervical cancer and is found to be safe and well tolerated chemotherapeutic in phase I clinical trial (Cheng et al. 2001). In animal model, curcumin suppressed nuclear b-catenin, decreased oncogenic miRNA-21 and abrogated E6/E7 HPV expression in orthotopic mouse model of cervical cancer (Zaman et al. 2016). Curcumin administration (1000 or 1500 mg/kg, for 30 days) significantly downregulated the expression of VEGF, COX-2, EGF-R and inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth in cervical cancer xenografts model of nude mice (Yoysungnoen-Chintana, Bhattarakosol, and Patumraj 2014). In cell line studies, curcumin treatment (13 mM) upregulated the expression of early-onset breast cancer 1, O6- methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1, p-H2A.XSer140 and p-p53 as well as induced translocation of p-H2A.XSer140 and p-p53 from cytosol to nuclei, resulting in chromatin condensation and induction of DNA damage in HeLa human cervical cancer cells (Shang et al. 2016a). Curcumin activated ATF6, PERK, IRE-1aand elevated the levels of ROS intracellularly as well as induced apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation of cervical cancer cells (ME180, C33A, HeLa and CaSki) (Kim et al. 2016a). Curcumin counteracts estradiol induced proliferation of cer- vical cancer via induction of apoptosis in cervical cancer cells (Singh and Singh 2011). Incubation with curcumin (20 mM, for 72 h) reversed the hypermethylation and reactivation of the RARb2 gene in cervical cancer cell lines (Jha et al. 2010). Curcumin (50 or 100 mM, 24 h) dose dependently reduced the phosphorylation of ERK, increased the activity of caspase 3 and caspase 9, upregulated AIF, Bax, cytochrome cwhile downregulated Bcl-XL, Bcl-2 in cervical cancer cells. Curcumin treatment downregulated the expression of cyclin D1, iNOS and COX-2 in HeLa, SiHa and Ca Ski cells, and acts as an anti-proliferative agent (Singh and Singh 2009).
Thyroid carcinoma | In cell line studies, curcumin treatment upregulated E-cadherin while downregulated vimentin and MMPs expressions along with reduced metastasis, cell spreading and cell migration in human papillary thyroid carcinoma cells. Curcumin suppressed TGF-b1 mediated transcription, activation and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. It also inhibited TGF-b1 induced Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells (Zhang et al. 2016a). Curcumin treatment induced DNA damage in thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells via upregulation of H2A.X phosphorylation at Ser139 and ATM-mediated activation of Chk2-Cdc25C-Cdc2 pathway. Moreover, curcumin induced caspase mediated apoptosis in BCPAP cells (Zhang et al. 2016b). Curcumin downregulated the expression of HIF-1aand its binding to hypoxia response element in K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells. In addition, curcumin upregulated the expression of E-cadherin, inhibited the activity of MMP-9 (Zhang et al. 2013a) and weakened K1 cells migration resulting in anti-metastatic effect (Tan et al. 2015). Curcumin treatment reduced the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt pathway, and downregulated the expression of MMP-1/7 and COX-2 leading to inhibition of cell migration, growth and invasion of thyroid cancer cells (FTC133) (Xu, Qin, and Liu 2014). Curcumin instigate the production of ROS, reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and altered intracellular calcium concentration thereby mediate apoptotic induction in papillary thyroid cancer cell line K1 (Song et al. 2012).
Skin cancer | Skin cancer is an abnormal growth of the skin cells. Curcumin decreased the phosphorylation of IRS-1, ILGF-1 receptor, Akt, 4EBP1 and S6K in the mouse keratinocyte cells alongside exerted significant anticancer activity against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate induced skin cancer in mice (Kim et al. 2014). In in vitro studies, curcumin treatment is reported to upregulate mmu-miR-205-5p expression, block proliferating cell nuclear antigen, downregulate Bcl-2 expression and sup- press JAK-2/STAT3 pathway which in turn induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation and invasion (Lelli, Pedone, and Sahebkar 2017). Curcumin treatment arrested the G2/M phase of cell cycle as well as induced autophagy in human melanoma cells (A375 and C8161). In addition, curcumin reduced the activation of P70S6K, and downregulated AKT and mTOR expressions which might offer plausible target in the treatment of human melanoma (Zhao et al. 2016a). In another study, curcumin decreased the invasion of squamous cell carcinoma by suppressing STAT3 signaling pathway in A431 cells (Wu, Lu, and Cui 2015). Curcumin induced the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and melanoma cell death in WM-115 melanoma cells (Qiu et al. 2014). Curcumin inhibited NF-jB pro-survival pathway, upregulated the p53 tumor suppressor protein and downregulated Bcl-2 expression resulting in apoptosis and reversal of skin cancer (Chinembiri et al. 2014).
Brain cancer | Curcumin against brain cancer in vivo model of Human glioma U-87 cells in athymic mice on intraperitoneal dose of curcumin (120 mg/kg/day) showed less than 50% decrease in median tumor volume in subcutaneous xenograft while in the orthotopic model, the average life span of group receiving similar dose increased by 12% as compared to the control group. In Female SCID mice xenograft model, human primary medulloblastoma cells (DAOY) were subcutaneously injected and after 30 days, the animals were given oral gavage of curcumin (1 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil. The tumor growth inhibition in curcumin treated group was significantly noticeable as compared to the control group. The group of Smo/Smo transgenic medulloblastoma mice receiving oral dose of curcumin was reported to have a median survival time of 192 days as compared to the control group, which had a median survival time of 144 days. This observation is in agreement with earlier claims of ability of curcumin to cross Blood Brain Barrier. Mechanistic insights in xenografted human medulloblastom D425 cells in athymic mice showed overexpression of p65 subunit of NF-κB and the curcumin treated group showed tumor growth inhibition which can be partially attributed to down regulation of p65 subunit. In another in vivo investigation, human glioblastoma U87-MG cells-inoculated nude mice were administered with 100 mg/kg per day of curcumin in DMSO in Phosphate Buffer Saline through intra-tumoral injections. After seven days, significant decrease in tumor size was observed in curcumin treated group. Microscopic examination post Acridine Orange staining showed increased acidic vesicular organelles in curcumin treated cells with intact nuclei, pointing towards curcumin-induced autophagy being responsible for cell deaths.
Medulloblastoma | Medulloblastoma is the common malignant brain tumor in pediatrics. In animal model, curcumin inhibited tumor growth and increased the survival rate in Smo/Smo transgenic medulloblastoma mice (Lee et al. 2011). In cell line studies, curcumin treatment arrested G2/M phase of cell-cycle, activated GSK-3band suppressed Wnt/b-catenin path- way resulting in inhibition of proliferation in DAOY medul- loblastoma cell line (He et al. 2014). Curcumin treatment upregulated the PTEN gene expression and downregulated the expression of E2F1, CDK2 and cyclin E1 gene resulting in growth arrest at G2/M phase in medulloblastoma cells. In addition, curcumin treatment increased caspase-3/7 activity, overexpressed Bax while downregulated Bcl-2, Bcl-Xl and surviving expression, which leads induced apoptosis of human medulloblastoma cells (Bangaru et al. 2010). Curcumin treatment inhibits telomerase activity and gene expression of hTERT resulting in telomere shortening in medulloblastoma cell lines (A172, KNS60, U251MG and ONS76) (Khaw et al. 2013). Curcumin phosphorylates Cdc27, a component of the anaphase promoting complex/ cyclosome, which is known to ubiquitinate securing and cyclin B, resulting in proteolysis and apoptosis of DAOY medulloblastoma cell (Lee and Langhans 2012). Further, it was reported that, curcumin treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest possibly through downregulation his- tone deacetylase 4 and enhanced tubulin acetylation. Curcumin treatment inhibited the sonic hedgehog-glioma associated oncogene-1 pathway via downregulating the protein expression of sonic hedgehog ligand, and its most important downstream targets glioma associated oncogene-1 and patched-1 receptor. Furthermore, curcumin reduced the levels of b-catenin, N-myc, C-myc, cyclin D1 and induced apoptosis in DAOY medulloblastoma cells (Elamin et al. 2010).
Other cancer | Curcumin treatment significantly downregulated LRP6, phospho-LRP6, Wnt3a, b-catenin, phospho-b-catenin, sur- viving and C-myc resulting in inhibition of gastric carcinoma. In addition, curcumin prevents the proliferation of uterine leiomyosarcoma via induction of apoptosis, autophagy, ERK 1/2 activity and fragmentation of DNA in gastric carcinoma cells (Imran et al. 2016). Curcumin treatment suppressed JAK-STAT signaling thus reducing tumor cell growth in ovarian (OVCA 420 and OVCA 429) and endometrial (RL95-2 and Ishikawa) cancer cell lines (Saydmohammed, Joseph, and Syed 2010). Curcumin down- regulated the expression of IL-6, IL-11 and NF-kB which leads to induce apoptosis of fibrosarcoma cells resulting in anticancer activity against bone cancer (Kondo et al. 2001; Kwak et al. 2006). Curcumin induced cell cycle arrest in G2/ M phase, apoptosis and cytotoxicity in squamous carcinoma cells as well as reduced tumor volume in head and neck cancer (Borges et al. 2017). Curcumin treatment reversed the migration and proliferation of hepatic carcinoma by downregulating the expression of HIF-1a. In addition, curcumin reduced the level of MMP-2 and MMP-9 as well as decreased the phosphorylation of p38, which is associated with suppression of cancer invasion and migration in hep- atic carcinoma. Additionally, curcumin treatment exhibited anti-proliferative effect in MHCC97H liver cancer cells through generation of ROS, apoptosis and activating toll like receptor -4/MyD-88 pathway (Imran et al. 2016; Liang et al. 2014). Curcumin treatment significantly upregulated the expression of p21/CIP1 and p27/KIP1 CDK, and downregulated the expression of cyclin D1 resulting in decreased proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Apart from this, curcumin induced apoptosis via downregulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and increasing the activation of caspase-9/3 in pancreatic cancer cells. Curcumin treatment inhibited PI3K/ Akt pathway and induced forkhead box O1 in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells leading to apoptosis (Zhao et al. 2015). Curcumin suppressed the oral tumor volume, numbers of dysplasic lesions, papillomas and squamous cell carcinoma (Imran et al. 2016). Interestingly, curcumin treatment has potential for many cancer types like esophagus cancer, testicular cancer, sarcoma and lymphoma (Kunnumakkara et al. 2017).
 
 
How may Curcumin work against Rheumatoid arthritis and Osteoarthritis?

Arthritis is a pro-inflammatory disorder. A recent study out of Japan evaluated its relationship with the inflammatory cytokine known to be involved in in the rheumatoid arthritis process. Scientists discovered that curcumin “significantly reduced” these inflammatory markers. In fact its anti-inflammatory qualities are so strong a 2007 study compared curcumin and cortisone and found they were equal in potency. A few studies have found that curcumin can reduce pain from rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, sometimes as much as anti-inflammatory drugs. An Iranian clinical trial in Phytotherapy Research in 2014 found that curcumin taken for six weeks, improved symptoms of knee osteoarthritis, compared to a placebo. Most pharmaceutical anti-inflammatories are contraindicated to use over the long-term, but turmeric is not only safe but beneficial for your overall wellbeing. Curcumin's anti-inflammatory properties also make it a strong candidate for treating inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis. A 2014 study in the Clinical Interventions in Aging found that curcumin extracts "were as effective as ibuprofen for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis." All current drugs approved for arthritis have anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor) therapy has been approved for this disease. Curcumin has been shown to both suppress the TNF production, block the action of TNF, and have activity against arthritis. When inflammation is reduced, the added benefit is pain relief. A double-blind, crossover study showed that Curcumin may be  effective in relieving pain and improvements in morning stiffness, walking time, and joint swelling. A preliminary intervention trial that compared curcumin with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) found that improvements in morning stiffness, walking time, and joint swelling after two weeks of curcumin supplementation (1.2 g/day) were comparable to those experienced after two weeks of phenylbutazone (NSAID) therapy (300 mg/day). In a more recent randomized, open-label study in 45 RA patients, supplementation with a mixture of all three major curcuminoids (0.5 g/day for eight weeks) was found to be as effective as diclofenac (NSAID; 50 mg/day) in reducing measures of disease activity, tenderness, and swelling joints. Several studies have shown curcumin’s ability to reduce pain, stiffness, and swelling in joints afflicted by arthritis. The Arthritis Foundation suggests that those with arthritis who wish to seek relief take capsules of curcumin powder, between 400 mg to 600 mg, three times a day. Given that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound, it makes sense that it may help with arthritis. Several studies show this to be true. In a study in people with rheumatoid arthritis, curcumin was even more effective than an anti-inflammatory drug (42). Many other studies have looked at the effects of curcumin on arthritis and noted improvements in various symptoms.  An in vitro and ex vivo study found that curcumin has anti-platelet and prostacyclin modulating effects compared to aspirin, indicating it may have value in patients prone to vascular thrombosis and requiring anti-arthritis therapy. In a randomized, pilot study, curcumin administration (500 mg, b.i.d., p.o., for 8 weeks) reduced Disease Activity Score in rheumatoid arthritis without any adverse events. In addition, the effect of curcumin was better than the patients receiving diclofenac sodium (Chandran and Goel 2012). In animal model, curcumin administration (100 mg/kg orally for two weeks) showed anti-arthritic activity by augmenting the generation of somatostatin in the small intestine of Freund’s complete adjuvant induced arthritic rats (Yang et al. 2015). Curcumin (50 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated the severity and progression of collagen induced arthritis in DBA/1 J mice by decreasing the production of B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family in spleen cells and serum as well as reduction of serum IL-6 and IFNc(Huang et al. 2013). It reduced the pannus formation process that produced through articular cartilage of collagen induced arthritic rats (Kamarudin et al. 2012). In in vitro studies, curcumin treatment (2.5–10 mmol for 14 days) inhibited the osteoclastogenic potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis by decreasing stimulation of ERK 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 and downregulating nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1), receptor activator of NF-jB and c-Fos expression, and reduce bone deterioration during rheumatoid arthritis (Shang et al. 2016b). Curcumin treatment efficiently blocked phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate and IL-1b-induced upregulation of IL-6 expression in MH7A cells and Fibroblast-like synoviocytes. In addition, it inhibited NF-jB activation, induced ERK1/2 dephosphorylation, exerted strong anti-inflammatory activity and induced apoptosis in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, which might use as a natural remedy for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (Kloesch et al. 2013). Mechanistically, curcumin blocks certain cytokines and enzymes that lead to inflammation, and this sheds light on the possibility of curcumin for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis, which is characterized by pain, tenderness, bone spurs, stiffness, and loss of function in the joints (Farzaei et al. 2015). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study, chronic administration of curcumin (180 mg/day, p.o., for 8 weeks) significantly reduced knee pain in osteoarthritic patients as compared to the placebo group (Nakagawa et al. 2014). Curcumin treatment showed protection against osteoarthritis by inhibiting the release of inflammasome NLRP3, followed by downregulation of IL-1b, TNF-aand cleaved caspase-1 in surgical mouse osteoarthritis model (Sun et al. 2017). Mechanistically, curcumin reduced MMP-2, MCP-1, L-selectin, advanced oxidation protein product levels, suppressed the release of proteoglycans, expression of cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin E2 and inflammatory cytokines while increased CD47 levels in chondrocytes (Liu et al. 2016; Chin 2016).
 
How may Curcumin work against Gastrointestinal and Inflammatory bowel disease such as  Crohn's disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Irritable bowel syndrome, gastritis and peptic ulcers?
Because of its scientifically evidenced characteristics to interfere with a variety of signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, and cellular processes, curcumin can potentially be applied in the treatment of many diseases (inflammatory disorders in particular). In this context, curcumin has been used to treat gastrointestinal diseases such as indigestion, flatulence diarrhea, and even gastric and duodenal ulcers. Kwiecien and colleagues summarize in their review curcumin’s protective effects against esophageal and gastric disorders. In addition, curcumin is potentially efficacious against intestinal inflammatory diseases. Burge and colleagues discuss the beneficial effects of curcumin on the microbiome, its antimicrobial properties, inhibition of TLR4/NFκB/AP-1 signal transduction, changes in cytokine profiles, and alterations to immune cell maturation and differentiation. The combination of all these molecular actions makes curcumin a promising candidate to treat intestinal inflammatory diseases like necrotizing enterocolitis, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. Crohn’s disease is a pro-inflammatory disease. All current drugs approved for this disease have anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-TNF therapy has been approved for this disease. Curcumin has been shown to both suppress the TNF production and the TNF action. Several clinical trials suggest that curcumin can help people with this inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology featured a study in 2015 which found that in people with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis who took standard medication (mesalamine), the addition of a high-dose curcumin supplement helped half of them achieve remission after four weeks; none of those given a placebo benefited. Curcumin taken orally has been shown to have activity against inflammatory bowel disease. Study results suggest that Curcumin could have a protective role in ulcerative colitis via regulation of oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and modulation of the release of some inflammatory endocoids, namely TNF-alpha and NO. Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  The development of DSS-induced colitis was significantly attenuated by curcumin. Inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling by curcumin could explain the reduced COX-2 and iNOS immunosignals and the nitrite production in colonic mucosa, reducing the development of chronic experimental colitis. In addition, Curcumin seems promising with regards to remission in patients with quiescent Ulcerative Colitis. Preliminary evidence suggests that curcumin might be useful as an add-on therapy to control disease activity. One multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study has examined the efficacy of curcumin enema (2 g/day) in the prevention of relapse in 82 patients with quiescent UC . Six-month treatment with curcumin significantly reduced measures of disease activity and severity and resulted in a lower relapse rate than with placebo in subjects on standard-of-care medication (sulfasalazine or mesalamine). In another randomized controlled trial in active UC patients treated with mesalamine, the percentage of patients in clinical remission was significantly higher after a one-month treatment with oral curcumin (3 g/day) than with placebo. Curcumin in Combination With Mesalamine Induces Remission in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Controlled Trial. Another study conducted in the UK revealed that those with IBS who took two capsules of turmeric every day over the course of eight weeks experienced less abdominal pain and had more consistent bowel movements. A recent study from the American Gastroenterological Association suggests that curcumin may help ease ulcerative colitis, a form of inflammatory bowel disease that causes ulcers in the digestive tract. Turmeric has been known for a long time to help with digestive problems. For example, it helps very well with bad digestion of fats. But even if you suffer from irritable bowel syndrome or Crohn’s disease, turmeric can mean a great deal to you. This is partly because it prevents inflammation in the intestinal wall. Curcumin can also be a solution for people with a stomach ulcer. Curcumin has a significant role in cases of gastric ulcers. An open, phase II trial was performed on 25 patients with endoscopically diagnosed gastric ulcer. Participants were provided 600 mg powdered turmeric, five times daily. After 4 weeks, ulcers had completely healed in 48% patients. The success rate increased over time, with 76% being ulcer free after 12 weeks of treatment. No significant adverse reactions or blood abnormalities were noted. In a clinical study, five patients with a stomach ulcer were given five times 600 mg of curcumin every day for 12 weeks. Almost half of them had no stomach ulcers after four weeks, and by the end of the study, the gastric ulcer had disappeared by 76%. In a multi-centred, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, curcumin treatment (1 g after breakfast and 1 g after the evening meal with mesalamine or sulfasalazine for 6 months) appeared to be a safe and promising drug candidate for maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis patients (Hanai et al. 2006). In animal study, curcumin administration reversed inflammation of the colonic mucosa, restored colonic length, and reduced colonic weight and colonic damage. In addition, curcumin increased the number of T regulator (Treg) cells while suppressed the secretion of IL (2, 6, 12 and 17) and TNF-a. Curcumin is known to downregulate the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD254 [RANKL], CD54 [ICAM-1], CD205, CD256 [RANK], TLR4 and CD252[OX40 L] against 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced colitis in mice (Zhao et al. 2016b). In a recent experimental study, curcumin administration demonstrated therapeutic potential through downregulation of colonic TNF-a, myeloperoxidase (MPO), p-38MAPK and p-p38MAPK expressions in mouse murine ulcerative colitis model (Khoury et al. 2015). Curcumin treatment is known to reduce interferon (IFN)-c, COX-1, COX-2, TNF-a, NF-jB and iNOS expression. Further, it was reported that curcumin treatment reduces inflammation of colon due to inhibition of chemokinesis and neutrophil chemotaxis (Wan et al. 2014). Moreover, curcumin mitigated inflammatory bowel disease via influencing MAPK, ERK pathways, increasing antioxidants, inducing free radical scavenging and MPO inhibition (Baliga et al. 2012). Mechanistically, curcumin treatment reduced ulcerative colitis by inhibiting neutrophil chemotaxis, suppressing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and inducing antioxidant effects. In a pilot study, administration of curcumin (350 mg, t.i.d. for 1 month followed by 350 mg q.i.d. for another 2 month) reduced the inflammatory response in Crohn’s disease condition. In addition, it reduced the erythrocyte sedimentation rates and Crohn’s Disease Activity Index in patients (Holt, Katz, and Kirshoff 2005). Oral administration of curcumin (40 mg/kg, for 21 days) reversed the visceral nociceptive response to graded intensity of colorectal distension and pellet output associated with chronic acute combined stress mediated depressive and anxiety like behaviors in rats. Mechanistically, curcumin treatment increased the levels of serotonin, BDNF and pCREB in the hippocampus, while these levels were reduced in the colonic of chronic acute combined stressed rats (Yu et al. 2015). The 5-HT1A receptor is known to be involved in the mode of action of curcumin for the management of visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome. In addition, curcumin administration causes remarkable decrease in visceromotor response to colorectal distension in rats (Farzaei et al. 2016b). Adjunctive therapy of curcumin (500 mg/day for 4 weeks) with anti-helicobacter regimen ameliorated the symptoms of dyspepsia in peptic ulcer patients (Khonche et al. 2016). In animal study, curcumin administration reduced the restraint stress and water immersion stress-induced gastric lesions by increasing gastric blood flow and attenuating pentagastrin or histamine-stimulated secretion of gastric acid. In addition, the expression levels of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-awas significantly downregulated in gastric mucosa of curcumin administered rats exposed to restraint stress and water immersion stress, resulting in gastroprotective effect (Czekaj et al. 2016). Curcumin (10, 50 or 100 mg/kg orally for three days) dose dependently reduced LPO and gastric ulcer area and restored GPx, CAT and SOD levels in gastric mucosa of naproxen treated rats (Kim et al. 2016b). Curcumin treatment reversed stress mediated gastric ulceration in rats by reducing the hemorrhage of gastric mucosa, increasing gastric pH values and attenuating ulcer index which is associated with downregulation of histone H3 acetylation at H þ , K þ -ATPase promoter gene (He et al. 2015a). Curcumin treatment decreased pepsin activity, total acid output and ulcer index alongside reduced MDA level, ameliorated mucin, CAT, NO and SOD in gastric mucosa of indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats (Morsy and El-Moselhy 2013). Additionally, curcumin ameliorated indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer by inducing angiogenesis and collagenization of gastric tissue via upregulation of TGF-b, MMP-2, membrane type 1-MMP and VEGF expressions in ulcerated tissues (Sharma et al. 2012). The biological mechanism of curcumin to combat peptic ulcer is mainly due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The gastroprotective effect is also due to inhibition of acid release, amelioration of blood flow, angiogenesis and collagenization of gastric tissue (Sharma et al. 2012; Yadav et al. 2013).  Clinically, curcumin administration (40 mg orally, three times a day, for four weeks) reduced the production of IL-1b, IL-8, COX-2 and TNF-ain gastric mucosa, and attenuated inflammation in gastritis patients infected with H. pylori bacteria (Koosirirat et al. 2010). In a randomized clinical trial, administration of curcumin (700 mg orally, three times a day, for 4 weeks) reduced the level of MDA, DNA oxidative damage, endoscopic and chronic inflammation scores and gluta- thione peroxides in gastritis patients (Judaki et al. 2017). In animal model, curcumin treatment downregulated the expression of chemokines such as CXCL1, CCL5, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL20 and Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 25 in stomach of mice bearing Helicobacter pylori induced gastric inflammation. In addition, curcumin decreased secretion of IL-1b, IL-6 and TNF-aduring H. pylori infection. Further, curcumin supplementation reduced the macromolecular leakage, MyD88 expression and NF-jB activation in gastric cells (Santos et al. 2015). Study suggested that antimicrobial activity of curcumin against H. pylori is responsible for the management of gastritis in mice (De et al. 2009). The biological effect of dietary polyphenol curcumin to reduce chronic gastritis is mainly due to its antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anti-bacterial activities (Yadav et al. 2013), therefore, it can be recommended as a novel drug for management of gastritis.
 
How may Curcumin work against obesity AND metabolic syndrome?
Obesity is Inflammatory Disease. The role of curcumin in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation has far-reaching implications when it comes to overall metabolic health. Studies have suggested that these properties in curcumin may have a positive effect on blood sugar and blood pressure and may also promote weight loss and prevent obesity. Scientists led by Dr David Fairlie from the University of Queensland, Australia, have found abnormal amounts of an inflammatory protein called PAR2 in the fat tissues of overweight and obese rats and humans. PAR2 is also increased on the surfaces of human immune cells by common fatty acids in the diet. When obese rats on a diet high in sugar and fat were given a new oral drug that binds to PAR2, the inflammation-causing properties of this protein were blocked, as were other effects of the high-fat and high-sugar diet, including obesity itself." In the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome, Curcumin has been reported to modulate numerous targets that have been linked to obesity and insulin resistance. 1) Curcumin has been shown to downregulate the expression of TNF in various tissues. 2) Curcumin can suppress NF-κB activation induced by a wide variety of inflammatory agents through inhibition of degradation of IκBα. 3) Curcumin can inhibit the activation of IKK linked to the activation of NF-κB, and this leads to the suppression of expression of inflammatory biomarkers such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor. 4) Curcumin has been shown to downregulate the expression of various NF-κB-regulated proinflammatory adipocytokines including chemokines (such as MCP-1, MCP-4, and eotaxin) (199) and interleukins (IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8). Curcumin also suppressed the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 through the inhibition of the transcription factor early growth response (Egr)-1 gene product that has been closely linked with insulin resistance and obesity. 5) Curcumin has been reported to mimic most antidiabetic drugs in that it activates PPAR-γ in hepatic stellate cells. 6) Curcumin has been shown to downregulate activation of c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase. 7) Curcumin has been shown to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which is closely linked to obesity. Later studies have indicated that Curcumin inhibits Wnt pathway signaling through downregulation of the transcription coactivator p300. Another potential mechanism by which Curcumin could inhibit β-catenin signaling is through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, which directly causes the phosphorylation of β-catenin. Curcumin was found to inhibit GSK-3β with as little as 66 nM IC50 (32). 8) Curcumin has been shown to induce the expression of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1 through the activation of Nrf2 in pancreatic cells and thus mediate the survival of these cells. 9) Curcumin downregulates the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 but induces the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. 10) Curcumin interrupts leptin signaling by reducing phosphorylation levels of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) and its downstream targets. 11) Curcumin suppresses gene expression of Ob-R in HSCs. 12) Curcumin has been reported to increase the expression of adiponectin, which negatively controls obesity. A study conducted by researchers at Tufts University found that curcumin, the predominant polyphenol in turmeric, suppressed the growth of fat tissue in mice and cell models and ultimately reduce weight gain. Two groups of mice were fed high-fat diets—one supplemented with 500 mg of curcumin per kilogram of weight. The curcumin group did not gain weight as the high-fat-only group.  Clinically, chronic administration of curcuminoids (comprising curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin) significantly decreased serum pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, oxidative stress burden (Sahebkar et al. 2013), serum triglycerides (Mohammadi et al. 2013), VEGF, IL-1band IL-4 in obese patients (Ganjali et al. 2014). In animal study, curcumin treatment reduced the level of triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol along- side increased HDL-cholesterol, which is known to ameliorate lipoprotein metabolism. Curcumin administration (0.05% w/w of diet) markedly decreased the plasma level of free fatty acid and triglyceride in the hamsters fed with high-fat diet (10% coconut oil and 0.2% cholesterol w/w) (Ganjali et al. 2017). Curcumin administration (200 mg/kg, dissolved in 0.1% carboxy methyl cellulose, for 10 weeks) significantly decreased body weight, adipose weight, liver weight, plasma levels of triacylglycerol, lipid ratios, hepatic fat accumulation while increased HDL in fructose-fed rats (Maithilikarpagaselvi et al. 2016). Curcumin administration alone (80 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 12 weeks) significantly down-regulated the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-1, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate kinase, 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase, 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, lanosterol synthase, sterol- C4-methyl oxidase-like (Sc4mol), squalene synthase, propro- tein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, LDL-receptor, acetyl- coenzyme A carboxylase-1, ATP citrate lyase, acyl-CoA syn- thetase, fatty acid synthase, fatty acid desaturase-1, fatty acid desaturase-2, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1, glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase, glucose-6-phosphatase and phos- phoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-1 in high fat diet-induced obese mice. In addition, curcumin administration upregulated the hepatic phosphorylation of IRS-1, IRS-2 and Akt at serine 473 resulting in reversal of obesity in mice (Ding et al. 2016). Curcumin administration (200 mg/kg body weight) with high fat diet for 10 weeks significantly decreased the hepatic ERK and p38 signaling pathway activation as well as reduced body weight in rats (Maithili Karpaga Selvi et al. 2015). Curcumin (1 g/kg) along with high fat diet containing 60% of total calories from fat (5.1 kcal/g diet) administration for 16 weeks significantly decreased hepatic lipids levels, lipid peroxidation. Curcumin (100 or 400 mg/kg) along with high fat diet for 8 weeks effectively reduced serum fetuin-A levels and hepatic triglycerides level in obese rats. Curcumin is known to inhibit NF-jB activation and macro- phage infiltration in adipose tissue. In addition, curcumin downregulated the expression of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, TNF-aand MCP-1 while upregulated the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes (Bradford 2013). In in vitro assay, curcumin downregulated the expression of axin, GSK-3b, CK1-a, AP-2 (mature adipocyte marker) and upregulated the expression of Fz2 (Wnt direct receptor), Wnt10b, LRP5 (Wnt co-receptor), c-Myc and cyclin D1 in 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK, JNK, p38 and ERK thereby rescue the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes (Ahn et al. 2010). Curcumin treatment inhibited mitotic clonal expan- sion process and downregulated the expression of PPAR-c, kruppel-like factor 5 and C/EBParesulting in reduced adi- pocyte differentiation (Kim et al. 2011). Mechanistically, curcumin administration inhibits NF-jB activation and macrophage infiltration, reduces the expression of  plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, MCP-1, TNFa, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), cytokines and leptin alongside induced HO-1, fatty acid oxidation, APO-A1 and adiponectin level. In addition, curcumin treatment reduces the incidence of obesity and its associated risk factors, mainly due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities (Alappat and Awad 2010).
 
How may Curcumin work against liver diseaseS such as fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatitis?
Alcoholic liver disease is damage to the liver and alteration of its function due to alcohol abuse. In animal study, curcumin administration (60 mg/kg for 4 weeks) inhibited the bio- synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids synthesis in ethanol treated mice. In addition, ethanol induced hepatic steatosis was reversed by curcumin treatment (Guo et al. 2017). Animal studies have shown that curcumin adminis- tration reduced the ethanol-induced increase in MDA content, decreases the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increases the GSH levels. In addition, it is known to reduce fatty liver, oxidative stress, inflammation and necrosis (Nabavi et al. 2014; Nanji et al. 1999; Ghorbani, Hajizadeh, and Hekmatdoost 2016). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an umbrella term for a variety of pathological conditions including steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and steatohepatitis, caused by accumulation of fat in the liver. It is closely correlated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, overweight and type 2 diabetes in pediatric and adult individuals (Nabavi et al. 2014). In randomized placebo-controlled trial, curcumin administration (70 mg/day for two months) significantly reduced the liver fat content, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, serum levels of total cholesterol, body mass index, ALT, AST, glycated hemoglobin and glucose in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as compared to placebo group (Rahmani et al. 2016). Additionally, curcumin upregulated the expression of adiponectin precursor and reduced its methylation in experimental model of fatty liver disease (Park et al. 2016). In methionine and choline feed deficient mouse model, curcu- min administration inhibited the activation of NF-kB and reduced the inflammatory recruitment in steatohepatitis (Leclercq et al. 2004). Curcumin administration downregu- lated the intrahepatic expression of procollagen type I, CD11b, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease (TIMP)-1, mono- cyte chemoattractant protein-1 and a-smooth muscle-actin in methionine and choline feed deficient mouse model of steatohepatitis alongside reduced the oxidative stress in cultured stellate cells (Vizzutti et al. 2010).  Curcumin administration reduced the serum hepatic markers viz., AST, ALT and MDA thereby attenuated lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine induced liver damage in rats. In the same study, curcumin administration reduced the NF-jB activation and TNF-a level in liver and serum. Furthermore, curcumin upregulated Nrf-2-dependent antioxidant defense genes like quinone (NQO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, glutamate-cysteine ligase and heme oxygenase-1 which is responsible for the hepatoprotective activity (Xie et al. 2017). Curcumin administration ameliorated the barrier integrity of intestine, reduced ectopic fat deposition in liver and modulated the gut microbiota which in turn reversed hepatic steatosis in high fat diet fed rats (Feng et al. 2017). Curcumin administration elicited hepatoprotective effect via reversal of reduced GPx, CAT and SOD levels in tartrazine induced liver injury. In addition, it reduced the intracellular vacuolization, dilation of central vein and sinusoids as well as necrosis in hepatotoxic rats (El-Desoky et al. 2017). Recent experimental evidence suggests that curcumin administration reduced Gr1hi monocytes infiltration in liver, downregulated the expression of MCP-1, TNF-aand TGF-b1 in mouse model of CCl 4 induced liver fibrosis (Huang et al. 2016b). Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by progressive inflammation and destruction of the bile ducts which subsequently causes liver scarring, cirrhosis and fibrosis (Nabavi et al. 2014). It was reported that curcumin administration prevents bile duct ligation induced cirrhosis in rats via inhibition of oxidative stress and downregulation of TGF-b(Reyes-Gordillo et al. 2008). Curcumin administration (200 mg/kg, for 3 weeks) ameliorated the functional properties of hepatocytes and downregulated the expression of NF-jB and iNOS in liver of biliary duct ligated rats (Barta et al. 2015). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA member of the genus Orthohepadnavirus (Hepadnaviridae family) that causes liver infections resulting in hepatic disorders like cirrhosis and hepatitis (Nabavi et al. 2014). A recent in vitro study demonstrated that curcumin treatment time and dose dependently reduce the expressions of HBV surface antigen and e-antigen in HBV transfected HepG2.2.15 cell line. In addition, curcumin inhibited replication of HBV gene via down-regulation of cccDNA-bound histone acetyl- ation (Wei et al. 2017). Study revealed that curcumin treat- ment inhibits HBV via downregulation of the metabolic coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1a). It has been reported that combination of nucleotide/nucleoside analog with curcumin can synergistically reduce the replication of HBV (Nabavi et al. 2014; Mouler Rechtman et al. 2010). Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. HCV causes liver fibrosis, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis (Nabavi et al. 2014). It was reported that co-incubation of HCV with curcumin and its derivatives potently inhibits the entry of all major HCV genotypes, except tetrahydrocurcumin, which support the importance of a,b-unsaturated ketone groups in the anti-viral efficacy. Curcumin affects the membrane fluidity resulting in impairment of viral binding and fusion thereby inhibits cell-to-cell transmission in human liver cells (Colpitts et al. 2014). Co-administration of curcumin and IFN-aprofoundly inhibited HCV replication in Huh7 cells and found to be effective against HCV infections (Kim et al. 2010). Moreover, curcumin exhibited anti-HCV activity by inducing HO-1 and modulating ERK and NF-jB activities in Huh7.5 cells expressing the HCV genotype 1 b subgenomic replicon (Chen et al. 2012). Mechanistically, curcumin shows hepatoprotective action due to its antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against NF-jB that is known to regulate different pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, curcumin supple- mentation reduced liver marker enzymes, cholesterol levels and replication of hepatitis B and C viruses (Nabavi et al. 2014).
 
How may Curcumin work as an antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Antiviral, antiparasitic,and Antifungal?
It has been demonstrated that curcumin as a plant derivative has a wide range of antiviral activity against a variety of viruses including parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3), feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), flock house virus (FHV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) assessed by MTT test showed the potent antiviral activity of curcumin and its bioconjugates against different viral pathogens for further studies. Curcumin showed the anti-influenza activity against influenza viruses PR8, H1N1, and H6N1. The results showed more than 90% reduction in virus yield in cell culture using 30 μM of curcumin. In H1N1 and also H6N1 subtypes, the inhibition of haemagglutinin interaction reflected the direct effect of curcumin on infectivity of viral particles and this has proved by time of drug addiction experiment. Additionally, unlike amantadine, viruses developed no resistance to curcumin.  These results proved the significant potential of curcumin for inhibition of influenza. Antimicrobial activities for curcumin and rhizome extract of C. longa against different bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been reported. The promising results for antimicrobial activity of curcumin made it a good candidate to enhance the inhibitory effect of existing antimicrobial agents. Curcumin has shown antibacterial activity effectively against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Trichophyton gypseum, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The antibacterial activity of the aqueous extracts from turmeric is believed to be due to the anionic constituents like nitrate, sulphates, chlorides, and thiocyanate. The ethanol extracts of turmeric exhibit better effects compared to the aqueous extracts. Organic solvent extract dissolves the organic compounds rapidly, which results in the availability of a greater amount of vigorous antimicrobial constituents. The antimicrobial actions of various phenolic components are due to inhibition of different cellular enzymes involved in the penetration and permeability of the membrane. Thus, by changing cell membrane permeability, the antimicrobial action of the compound works. Phenolic compounds possess the capability to disrupt the cellular membranes, cellular integrity, and promotes cell death. Antibacterial activity of curcumin was also studied in endodontic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus casei, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Enterococcus faecalis, and a significant inhibition of bacterial growth was observed. Curcumin is very effective against several pathogenic Gram +ve bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus species that cause many infections such as skin problems, pneumonia, meningitis, and urinary tract infection. The study of curcumin against 14 strains of Candida including 4 ATCC strains and 10 clinical isolates showed that curcumin is a potent fungicide compound against Candida species with MIC values range from 250 to 2000 μg/mL. In another study, anti-Candida activity of curcumin was demonstrated against 38 different strains of Candida. A recent study revealed that, curcumin exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against most prevalent organisms like Enterococcus faecalis,Prevotella intermedia,Porphyromonas gingivalis,Actinomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus casei,Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Mandroli and Bhat 2013). Moreover, curcumin demonstrated its effectiveness against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus intermedius,Sarcina lutea,Sarcina lutea and Neiserria gonorrhoeae (Tyagi et al. 2015; Marathe et al. 2011). Curcumin treatment reduced growth of gut microbiota like Bifidobacterium,E. faecalis,Bifidobacterium. pseudocatenulatum G4,Bifidobacterium. longum BB536,E. coli K-12, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei thereby inducing the susceptibility to infectious disease (Marathe et al. 2011). Curcumin inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Curcumin effectively reduced the infectious disease caused by various species of Staphylococcus aureus (Tong et al. 2015;Teowetal.2016). Mechanistically, curcumin interfere with quorum sensing, virulence and biofilm initiation, and inhibits bacterial cell by suppressing its dynamic assembly. Curcumin demonstrated its effectiveness against parasites like Trypanosoma,Plasmodium and Giardia. In parasites culture, curcumin treatment induced DNA damage via its prooxidant activity and inhibited histone acetyltransferases in Plasmodium falciparum resulted in cytotoxicity, which can be targeted for treatment of malaria (Cui, Miao, and Cui 2007), revealing its therapeutic potential against cerebral malaria as adjunctive therapy (Mimche, Taramelli, and Vivas 2011). Curcumin induced DNA damage and apoptosis and effectively inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia (Perez-Arriaga et al. 2006). Moreover, curcumin administration mediates anti-parasitic activity against Trypanosoma, a parasite which is responsible for sleeping sickness and Chagas disease (Marathe et al. 2011). The biological effect of curcumin to reduce these infections is mainly due to its pro-oxidant and apoptotic activities, therefore, it can be recommended as a novel drug for management of giardia, trypanosoma and plasmodium infections. Curcumin treatment upregulated the transcription of chitin synthase-1, chitin synthase-3 and PKC in Sporothrix schenckii thus reduced virulence in infected mice (Huang et al. 2016a). Curcumin induced photodynamic inactivation of the fungus Candida albicans in murine model of oral candidiasis (Dovigo et al. 2013). Also, curcumin exhibited therapeutic potential against oropharyngeal candidiasis in a mouse model (Karaman et al. 2011). In fungal cell cultures, curcumin inhibited the growth of wide range of pathogenic fungus that includes Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus IMI190443,  Aspergillus nomius ATCC 15546, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 16913, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis B339, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis MG04, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 17, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 608, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb01, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis MG05, Sporothrix schenckii ATCC 10212, Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 32608, Candida dubliniensis (Cd28), Candida dubliniensis (Cd22), Candida glabrata ATCC 2001, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 20019, Candida krusei ATCC 20298, Candida tropicalis ATCC 750 and Candida albicans ATCC 18804 (Martins et al. 2008). Curcumin (500 mg/L) also exhibited antifungal effects against Phytophthora infestans,Pu. Recondite and Rhizoctonia solani (Kim, Choi, and Lee 2003). Curcumin demonstrated fungicidal activity against the clinical isolates of Candida species like Candida tropicalis, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans at MIC value of 32–128 mg/mL (Zorofchian Moghadamtousi et al. 2014). The suggested anti-fungal mechanisms of curcumin includes the leakage of intracellular component through the flappy membrane, disruption of fungal plasma membrane, generation of oxidative stress, induction of early apoptosis, inhibition hyphae development, upregulation of chitin synthase and PKC etc (Lee and Lee 2014; Sharma et al. 2010). These evidences on the mechanistic action of curcumin could be employed in improving the treatment strategies for fungal infections. A recent study has shown that the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects conferred by curcumin protect from human cytomegalovirus infection in Balb/c mice (Lv et al. 2014). Among various phytochemicals evaluated for antiviral activity against norovirus, curcumin exhibited most potent anti-noroviral effects. In a cell culture infection model, curcumin exposure for 3 days was found to reduce norovirus infectivity by 91%. Thus, curcumin might be a promising anti-noroviral candidate to prevent foodborne illness (Yang et al. 2016).  Curcumin demonstrated promising anti-influenza activity against influenza viruses PR8, H1N1 and H6N1 by interfer- ing with viral hemagglutination activity (Chen et al. 2010; Dao et al. 2012; Ou et al. 2013). In dengue infected BHK-21 cells, curcumin administration reduced the number of plaques produced, intracellular accumulation of viral proteins and increased the level of Lys48 ubiquitin-conjugated proteins in dengue virus (Padilla-S et al. 2014). In in vitro assays, curcumin demonstrated potent antiviral effect against Human enterovirus 71 (EV71). Curcumin inhibited viral RNA synthesis and expression of viral protein, thereby decreasing production of viral progeny (Qin et al. 2014). Proteomics analysis indicated that curcumin (15–240 lM) pretreatment exert antiviral activity by downregulating heat shock cognate 71 and inhibited the replication of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (Jeong et al. 2015). On the other hand, curcumin exhibited remarkable antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by blocking the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and expression of viral immediate-early genes (Kutluay et al. 2008). In another study, curcumin and its metallo derivatives, viz. gallium-curcumin and Cu-curcumin also exhibited remarkable anti-HSV-1 activity in vitro (Zandi et al. 2010). Moreover, curcumin administration conferred significant protection against intra-vaginal HSV-2 infection (Bourne et al. 1999). Curcumin inhibited both HIV-1 (IC 50 -100mM) and HIV-2 protease (IC 50 -250mM) thereby suppressed the replication of viral genes and prevent multiplicity of HIV (Sui et al. 1993). Curcumin mediated inhibition of HIV protease and inte- grase (IC 50 40 mM) resulted in anti-retroviral activity (Mazumder et al. 1997; Mazumder et al. 1995). Curcumin induced anti-HIV activity can be attributed to degradation of Tat via proteosomal pathway and inhibition of Tat pro- tein acetylation by p300/CREB-binding protein thereby sup- pressed HIV-1 multiplication (Ali and Banerjea 2016; Balasubramanyam et al. 2004). Curcumin demonstrated strong anti-HPV activity in cervical and oral cancer cells through downregulation of HPV oncogene expression (E6 and E7) of highly oncogenic HPV, HPV-16 and HPV-18 (Divya and Pillai 2006; Mishra and Das 2015; Prusty and Das 2005). Curcumin downregulated the transcription factor, AP-1 in HeLa cells which is critical for transcription of HPV-16 and HPV-18 (Prusty and Das 2005). Curcumin mediated downregulation of viral oncogenes is attributed to its ability to modulate apoptosis and prevent NFkB and AP- 1 translocation thereby suppressing the transcription of HPVs (Divya and Pillai 2006; Prusty and Das 2005). Curcumin exhibited potent antiviral effect against coxsackie virus by inhibiting viral replication, RNA expression and protein synthesis via ubiquitin-proteasome system mediated protein modification or degradation (Si et al. 2005; Si et al. 2007). Mechanistically, curcumin treatment downregulated JunD protein, reduced production of infective viral particles, downregulated genomic transcription and translation, inhibited viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 expressions, suppressed the Akt/sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)- 1 pathway, increased p53 level, inhibited hemagglutination, inhibited proteases, integrase and Tat protein acetylation (Zorofchian Moghadamtousi et al. 2014; Mazumder et al. 1995; Balasubramanyam et al. 2004; Dutta, Ghosh, and Basu 2009). The extensive research on antiviral activities of curcumin against different viral pathogens nominates this compound as a potent antiviral drug candidate.
 
How may Curcumin work against depression and major depressive disorder?

The core issue of depression has finally been identified as inflammation, and curcumin has been found to be comparable to prescription antidepressant drugs. In one 2014 study published in Phytotherapy Research, scientists studied 60 patients with serious depression over a six-week trial and found that turmeric was as effective at treating depression as Prozac.  This randomized control trial took 60 volunteers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and compared the effect of curcumin to fluoxetine (Prozac). Researchers discovered that the principal curcuminoid in turmeric is not only as effective as Prozac in managing depression, but it doesn’t carry with it all the dangerous side effects as anti-depressive drugs do. One-third of the participants in the study were given 20 mg of fluoxetine (which is sold under the prescription names Prozac and Sarafem), one-third were given 1,000 mg of curcumin (the active ingredient in turmeric), and one one-third were given a combination of both.  "Curcumin, an active ingredient of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), has shown potential antidepressant-like activity in animal studies,” the researchers wrote. “The objectives of this trial were to compare the efficacy and safety of curcumin with fluoxetine in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).” They concluded that curcumin was “well tolerated” by all the patients. All three groups showed approximately equal improvement in their depression, whether they were taking the turmeric, the antidepressant or a combination of both.“This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders. Curcumin, a natural compound derived from the herb Curcuma longa, exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties and thus has been considered as a potent antidepressant drug. Curcumin may exhibit multiple antidepressant activities: (a) modulating the neurotransmitter levels including DA, NE, 5‐HIAA and inhibiting the expression of monoamine oxidase enzymes; (b) reducing the inflammatory response by regulating the production of pro‐inflammatory markers; (c) repairing neurodegeneration and enhancing neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity typically increased BDNF levels; (d) improving the activities of antioxidant enzymes; (e) decreasing the nitric oxide levels; (f) regulating mitochondrial disturbances; and (g) moderating hypothalamus‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) disturbances. The multiple mechanisms of curcumin provide a unique advantage in the medication of depression, especially in the term of adverse effects. A new study, published online ahead of print in the Journal of Affective Disorders, finds that the spice curcumin, a derivative of turmeric, may be an effective treatment for depression. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (the gold standard methodology for medication studies). The researchers found that curcumin was better than a placebo treatment, and those with atypical depression were far more likely to improve.The use of curcumin appeared especially effective for those with atypical depression. Atypical depression, despite its name, is relatively common (around 40% of MDD cases). The “atypical” moniker refers to its particular features: excessive sleep, weight gain, mood improvement in response to positive events, heavy, immovable feelings in the limbs, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity. Atypical depression is considered to have a more chronic course, with worse outcomes overall, so the potential for a viable treatment with fewer side effects than current medications provides hope for an improved prognosis. Previous studies have shown evidence that curcumin could be an effective treatment for depression and found minimal side effects. This study adds to the literature by comparing several doses of curcumin as well as a curcumin/saffron combination treatment. A 2006 study published in Brain Research examined the effects of curcumin administration to laboratory rats after exposure to a chronic stress protocol. Researchers found that curcumin supplementation had a beneficial effect on reducing stress-related symptoms of depression. A 2008 study in Psychopharmacology showed curcumin increased serotonin production and had an antidepressant effect on laboratory mice exposed to several lab tests. In a six-week, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 60 MDD patients, supplemental curcumin (~880 mg/day of curcuminoids) alone yielded a similar response rate to the antidepressant, fluoxetine (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor [Prozac]; 20 mg/day) in terms of depressive symptoms. A 2009 review published in Scientific World Journal hypothesizes that curcumin from turmeric may provide benefits for depression by assisting with the regulation of brain neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin and inhibiting the monoamine oxidase enzyme, which plays a role in breaking down these neurotransmitters.  The neurotransmitters are also what Prozac treats, helping serotonin be used effectively by the brain.  Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with abnormal neurotransmission; it is primarily treated with drugs that improve the bioavailability of neurotransmitters like serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine in the brain. Characteristics of MDD also include alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, increased neuroinflammation, defective neurogenesis, and neuronal death. A few clinical studies have examined the effect of curcumin alone or with conventional antidepressant drugs in MDD patients. A recent meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found that supplementation with curcumin significantly reduced depression symptoms. Moreover, in a randomized controlled study in 100 participants taking escitalopram (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor [Lexapro]; 5 to 15 mg/week), supplemental curcumin (1,000 mg/day) for six weeks increased the antidepressant effect of the medication. Curcumin also induced a reduction in plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers and an increase in plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor compared to placebo (antidepressant drug alone). A 2014 study involving 56 people with major depressive disorder revealed that 500 mg of curcumin taken twice a day for eight weeks could ease mood-related symptoms.  In a controlled trial, 60 people with depression were randomized into three groups. One group took Prozac, another group one gram of curcumin and the third group both Prozac and curcumin. After 6 weeks, curcumin had led to improvements that were similar to Prozac. The group that took both Prozac and curcumin fared best. According to this small study, curcumin is as effective as an antidepressant. Depression is also linked to reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a shrinking hippocampus, a brain area with a role in learning and memory. Curcumin boosts BDNF levels, potentially reversing some of these changes. There is also some evidence that curcumin can boost the brain neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. A 2011 study published in the journal Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica found that curcumin compared favorably to both drugs in reducing depressive behavior in an animal model. Depression and anxiety are different neurological disorders, but depressive patients often experience symptoms like anxiety disorder, such as irritability, nervousness, and problems in concentrating and sleeping. Depression and anxiety disorders have its own pathophysiology as well as behavioral and emotional symptoms. In a double blind, cross-over clinical trial, curcumin administration (1 g/day for 30 days) significantly reduced anxiety like behavior. Chronic curcumin administration (500 mg, twice daily for eight weeks) is associated with elevated urinary level of substance P and thromboxane B2 as compared to the placebo group. In addition, curcumin administration ameliorated the plasma endothelin-1 and leptin which is associated with greater reductions in IDS-SR30, a major depressive epi- sode (Lopresti et al. 2015). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, curcumin treatment (500 mg twice daily) for 4 to 8 week provides partial improvement in people with major depressive disorder (Lopresti et al. 2014). A recent meta-analysis data suggest that, curcumin supplementation appears to be efficacious, safe and well-tolerated anti-depressant and anxiolytic in patients (Ng et al. 2017). In animal study, curcumin treatment is reported to attenuate depressive phenotype during chronically stressed condition via several mechanisms viz., reduction in adrenal gland to body weight ratio, reduction in serum corticosterone level, reduction in adrenal cortex thickness as well as upregulation of BDNF and COX-2 expression and reduction in (pCREB/ CREB) levels in brain. Curcumin administration increased the level of synaptophysin and BDNF in amygdala alongside reduced depressive like behavior in chronically stressed rats (Zhang et al. 2014). Curcumin treatment is known to inhibit the release of glutamate in synaptosome and induce activation of GluN2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits resulting in antidepressant like action (Zhang et al. 2013c; Lin et al. 2011). Curcumin administration significantly reduced anxiety like effect in ovariectomized (Morrone et al. 2016) and stressed rats (Haider et al. 2015). The general mechanism of action of curcumin treatment includes, inhibition of brain monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A/ B activity, modulation of serotonin receptor, amelioration of brain dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline levels, increase the neurotrophic factor, enhance neuronal growth, increase neuroprotection, reduce neuroinflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress (Lopresti 2017; Choi et al. 2017).
 
How may Curcumin work as an Anti-inflammatory?

Did evolution give us inflammatory disease? Researchers demonstrate that some variants in our genes that could put a person at risk for inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, have been the target of natural selection over the course of human history. -  Science Daily Magazine. One 10-day “study of origin” suggests that a short period of return to the “conditions of existence” similar to those on which our genome is based may improve anthropometrics and metabolism by favorably challenging the immune system in apparently healthy subjects. The “return” may come with some costs in more active infection, as a trade-off for the “chronic systemic low-grade inflammation” typical of our current lifestyle of affluence. Chronic inflammation may be the engine that drives many of the most feared illnesses of middle and old age. This concept suggests a new and possibly much simpler way of warding off disease. Instead of different treatments for, say, heart disease, Alzheimer's and colon cancer, there might be a single, inflammation-reducing remedy that would prevent all three. This 'inflammation theory' explains how immune-system errors are linked to more illnesses. Medical researchers are becoming increasingly convinced that the most primitive part of the immune system (inflammation), may play a crucial role in some of the most devastating afflictions of modern humans, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's. In another study, findings suggest that in the past, gene variants rose in frequency in the human population to help protect us against viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. But now in our modern world, the environment and exposure to pathogens has changed, and the genetic variants that were originally meant to protect us, now make an autoimmune reaction more likely. These results are consistent with the hygiene hypothesis in which our cleaner environment is thought to contribute to the increasing prevalence of inflammatory diseases.  While short-term inflammation in the body is a necessary component of a functioning system, helping to fight off pathogenic invasion and repairing tissue and muscle damage, chronic inflammation is widely attributed with almost every disease known to the Western world. This includes heart disease, cancer and a whole host of neurological disorders. Curcumin reduces inflammation by lowering histamine levels and by increasing the production of natural cortisone by the adrenal glands. Extensive research over the past 30 years has shown that Curcumin plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of various pro-inflammatory chronic diseases including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and malignant diseases. Oral administration of curcumin in instances of acute inflammation was found to be as effective as cortisone or phenylbutazone, and half as effective in cases of chronic inflammation. Its anti-inflammatory properties may be attributed to its ability to inhibit both biosyntheis of inflammatory prostaglandins from arachidonic acid and neutrophil function during inflammatory states.The high concentrations of curcumin contained in turmeric act to target multiple steps in the inflammatory pathway, blocking inflammatory markers at the molecular level and thereby significantly lowering long-term inflammation in your body. Whether we are healing from an injury or an autoimmune disease, inflammation is a common health challenge. Nutritionists, functional medicine GP’s and physiotherapists commonly use curcumin for it’s anti-inflammatory qualities. And it’s no wonder considering six major scientific trials all found curcumin to possess a potent anti-inflammatory action, which is completely non-toxic in nature.

A study evaluating several pharmaceutical anti-inflammatories found that aspirin and ibuprofen are the least potent, while curcumin is among the most potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative agents available. Inflammation is thought to be one of the major factors in all kinds of diseases, and turmeric contains loads of curcumin, a powerful anti-inflammatory substance. It's been shown to alleviate joint pain, and can even help with heartburn and indigestion. Researchers are also looking at curcumin for its anti-aging properties. Turmeric is safe and non-toxic and has been studied for anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting various molecules that contribute to inflammation such as lipooxygenase, COX-2, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, interferon-inducible protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12).  One study compared the effectiveness of Curcumin – the active ingredient in turmeric – and a popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) called phenylbutazone. At the end of the six days, those taking the Curcumin and the NSAID enjoyed a significantly better anti-inflammatory response than placebo. Curcumin in inflamed organs (liver, lung, brain and kidneys) reduces the expression levels of NLRP3, IL‐1β, IL‐18 and caspase‐1 and inhibits the inflammasome. Curcumin activated Nrf2 and inhibited NF‐kB. In the liver, curcumin directly targets 3'UTR‐rTXNIP with the help of miR200a and inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome. Curcumin reduces the severity of neurotoxicity by inhibiting the formation of TXNIP/NLRP3 complex associated with ER stress through the regulation of AMPK. Curcumin in LPS‐stimulated mouse macrophages inhibits the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome by inhibiting potassium excretion, mitochondrial instability, ASC oligomerization and speckle formation. In addition to the above, ROS, autophagy, Sirtuin‐2 and acetylated alpha‐tubulin are the targets used by curcumin in inhibiting the inflammasome. In the lungs, curcumin effectively prevented the increasing Notch1. In addition to inflammasome components, curcumin effectively inhibits TLR4 and MyD88 expression and IBB phosphorylation. Curcumin has a regulatory effect on several molecules in the intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in inflammation, including ERK1, 2AP‐1, TGF‐β, TXNIP, STAT3, PPARγ, JAK2‐STAT3, p38MAPK and AMPK (Figure 1). Curcumin down‐regulates the expression of inflammatory enzymes, such as COX2 and iNOS, inhibits the expression of the 5‐LOX pro‐inflammatory enzyme and chemokines and reduces the expression of CRP and inflammatory cytokines of TNF‐α, IL‐6 and IL‐8. Studies have shown that severe inflammation and cytokine storm in the COVID‐19 infection develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute lung injury (ALI) and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS) such as the lungs, liver, kidneys, brain and eventually death. Oral curcumin supplementation may potentially play a role in inhibiting the COVID‐19 inflammation along with other drug regimens by affecting these pathways and molecules and due to applying anti‐inflammatory, antioxidant and anti‐apoptotic properties without specific side effects. The spice worked as well as the drug, but without the negative side effects. Because of the crucial role of inflammation in most chronic diseases, the potential of Curcumin has been examined in neoplastic, neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic diseases. The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of Curcumin have been examined in animals and in humans.  Clinically, chronic curcumin administration (375 mg, t.i.d., p.o., for 6–22 months) reduced the symptoms associated with idiopathic inflammatory orbital pseudo-tumors in patients (Lal et al. 2000). It is also known to reduce the irritation symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. It decreased the post-operative pain in patients (Cosentino, Fratter, and Cosentino 2016). Curcumin administration attenuated the degenerative and inflammatory conditions associated with eye like recurrent uveitis, dry eye, glaucoma, maculopathy and diabetic retin- opathy in patients (Allegri, Mastromarino, and Neri 2010). Clinical studies revealed the effectiveness of curcumin against wide range of conditions like ulcerative proctitis, diabetic nephropathy, biliary dyskinesia, chronic periodontitis, b-thalassemia, Dejerine-Sottas disease, lupus nephritis, human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. (Kunnumakkara et al. 2017; Prasad and Tyagi 2015).

Curcumin has also been shown to inhibit mediators of the inflammatory response, including cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, growth factors, and enzymes like cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor that binds DNA and induces the transcription of the COX-2 gene, other pro-inflammatory genes, and genes involved in cell proliferation, adhesion, survival, and differentiation. The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin result from its ability to inhibit the NF-κB pathway, as well as other pro-inflammatory pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)- and the Janus kinase (JAK)/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-dependent signaling pathways. Inhibition of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis by curcumin in mice has been associated with a downregulation of the expression of p38-MAPK and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and a reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration in intestinal mucosa. Curcumin has also been shown to improve colitis by preventing STAT3 activation and STAT3-dependent induction of cell proliferation in mouse colon. Moreover, curcumin was shown to attenuate the immune response triggered by collagen injections in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, partly by blocking the proliferation of T lymphocytes in mouse splenocytes. In addition, curcumin has been found to reduce the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β and the production of COX-2-induced prostaglandin G2. In one study, curcumin inhibited the secretion of matrix metalloproteins (MMPs) — responsible for the degradation of the synovial joints — in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in human articular chondrocytes. Curcumin has also been found to alleviate neuro-inflammation in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury, reducing macrophage and microglial activation and increasing neuronal survival. A placebo-controlled trial in 40 men who had surgery to repair an inguinal hernia or hydrocele found that oral curcumin supplementation (1.2 g/day) for five days was more effective than placebo in reducing post-surgical edema, tenderness and pain, and was comparable to phenylbutazone therapy (300 mg/day). Scientists now believe that chronic, low-level inflammation plays a major role in almost every chronic, Western disease. This includes heart disease, cancer, metabolic syndrome, Alzheimer's and various degenerative conditions. Therefore, anything that can help fight chronic inflammation is of potential importance in preventing and even treating these diseases. Curcumin is strongly anti-inflammatory. In fact, it’s so powerful that it matches the effectiveness of some anti-inflammatory drugs, without the side effects. It blocks NF-kB, a molecule that travels into the nuclei of your cells and turns on genes related to inflammation. NF-kB is believed to play a major role in many chronic diseases. The key takeaway is that curcumin is a bioactive substance that fights inflammation at the molecular level.  A 1999 study published in the journal Phytotherapy Research found that the primary polyphenol in turmeric, the saffron colored pigment known as curcumin, compared favorably to steroids in the management of chronic anterior uveitis, an inflammatory eye disease. A 2008 study published in Critical Care Medicine found that curcumin compared favorably to the corticosteroid drug dexamethasone in the animal model as an alternative therapy for protecting lung transplantation-associated injury by down-regulating inflammatory genes. An earlier 2003 study published in Cancer Letters found the same drug also compared favorably to dexamethasone in a lung ischaemia-repurfusion injury model. A 2004 study published in the journal Oncogene found that curcumin (as well as resveratrol) were effective alternatives to the drugs aspirin, ibuprofen, sulindac, phenylbutazone, naproxen, indomethacin, diclofenac, dexamethasone, celecoxib, and tamoxifen in exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activity against tumor cells.
 
How may Curcumin work against CARDIOVASCULAR HEART Disease like coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension, and stroke?
Curcumin's protective effects on the cardiovascular system include lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels, decreasing susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to lipid peroxidation, and inhibiting platelet aggregation. These effects have been noted even with low doses. A study of 18 atherosclerotic rabbits administered low-dose (1.6-3.2 mg/kg body weight, daily) turmeric extract demonstrated decreased susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation in addition to lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Higher doses decreased lipid peroxidation of cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Curcumin's effect on cholesterol levels may be due to decreased cholesterol uptake in the intestines and increase conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver. Curcumin may help reverse many steps in the heart disease process. Perhaps the main benefit of curcumin when it comes to heart disease is improving the function of the endothelium, which is the lining of your blood vessels. It’s well known that endothelial dysfunction is a major driver of heart disease and involves an inability of your endothelium to regulate blood pressure, blood clotting and various other factors. Several studies suggest that curcumin leads to improvements in endothelial function. One study found that it’s as effective as exercise while another shows that it works as well as the drug Atorvastatin (30, 31). In addition, curcumin reduces inflammation and oxidation (as discussed above), which play a role in heart disease as well. One study randomly assigned 121 people, who were undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, either a placebo or 4 grams of curcumin per day, a few days before and after the surgery. The curcumin group had a 65% decreased risk of experiencing a heart attack in the hospital. A study in Nutrition Research in 2012, postmenopausal women who took curcumin for eight weeks had an improvement in arterial function, comparable to that seen in women who engaged in aerobic exercise. Another study in Phytotherapy Research in 2013 found that curcumin reduced triglycerides, while a study in 2014 found that curcumin significantly reduced LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and triglycerides in people with metabolic syndrome. Curcumin also helps the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels) to function at its optimum level, similar to the effect found during intense exercise. Studies have shown that endothelial dysfunction is a common cause of heart disease, occurring when the endothelium is no longer able to regulate blood pressure, clotting and a number of other factors. Therefore, by improving endothelial function, curcumin lowers your risk of heart disease. In addition to helping out the endothelium, curcumin also reduces inflammation and oxidative damage, two factors that are also common contributors to heart disease. One study on 121 people—all of whom were undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery—found that the group taking 4 grams of curcumin for a few days before and after the surgery were much less likely to experience a heart attack. Other studies have revealed that the anti-inflammatory action of turmeric helps prevent artery disease. Valdez points out that recent studies suggest curcumin can protect the heart from ischemia—an inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, particularly the muscles within the heart. A 2008 study published in the journal Drugs in R & D found that a standardized preparation of curcuminoids from Turmeric compared favorably to the drug atorvastatin (trade name Lipitor) on endothelial dysfunction, the underlying pathology of the blood vessels that drives atherosclerosis, in association with reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. Curcumin tablets were found to enhance the functioning of endothelium lining in the heart’s blood vessels. Any abnormality in the endothelial functioning can cause blood pressure or cause blood clotting. This dysregulation then leads to heart disease. Recent research literature on Curcumin supplement intake suggest its treatment potential on par with the drug Atorvastatin or regular moderate exercise. Moreover, the already proven benefits of Curcumin/Turmeric in terms of their anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation properties has a benign influence on the heart as well. Even coronary artery bypass surgery patients were found to have a significant decreased risk of suffering a relapse heart attack upon starting a Curcumin capsule regimen. curcumin adminis- tration (4 g/day beginning from 3 days before the surgery and continued up to 5 days after surgery) significantly atte- nuated myocardial infarction associated with coronary artery bypass grafting via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects (Wongcharoen et al. 2012). In animal study, curcumin sup- plementation (10, 20 or 30 mg/kg) significantly reduced oxi- dative stress, apoptosis and infract size via stimulating janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator 3 of transcription (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway thus protects myocardium in ischemia reperfusion rats (Liu et al. 2017). In another study, curcumin administration (150 mg/kg) downregulated the NF-jB expression, upregulated PPAR-cand Bcl-2 expression, thereby attenuated apoptosis and inflammation in rats with myocardial infarction injury (Lv et al. 2016). Curcumin is reported to protect hypoxia-induced cardio- myocytes apoptosis via downregulation of specific protein 1 (SP1) and upregulation of miR-7a/b expression in mice (Geng et al. 2016). It is known to reduce fibrosis by activating cardiac NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT)-1 expression during myocardial infarction in mice (Xiao et al. 2016). Curcumin treatment inhibited the activity of MMPs, reduced MDA level, restored extracellular matrix degradation and decreased deposition of collagen in ischemic/ reperfused myocardium of rats. In addition, curcumin supplementation downregulated phospho-Smad2/3 and TGFb1 expression while upregulated mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 expression in the infarcted myocardium, which might prove to be effective for the management of heart attack (Wang et al. 2012). In in vitro study, curcumin attenuated apoptosis and induce autophagy by upregulating Bcl-2 and downregulating the expression levels of beclin-1, Bax, SIRT1 and Bcl2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-inter- acting protein 3 (BNIP3) in hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced H9c2 myocytes (Huang et al. 2015b). These findings revealed that curcumin reverses myocardial infarction and heart attack via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Coronary atherosclerosis is a disease where the coronary arteries become narrowed and hardened due to excessive accumula- tion of cholesterol plaque around the artery wall. In randomized controlled trial, administration of C. longa extract (standardized to 250 mg curcuminoids) for 6 months increased the level of adiponectin in serum, decreased pulse wave velocity and reduced the level of leptin, uric acid, triglyceride, total body fat, visceral fat and insulin resistance alongside lowered the atherogenic risks in type 2 diabetic population (Chuengsamarn et al. 2014). In animal study, curcumin administration reported to possess anti-atherosclerotic activity by downregulating the expression of lipocalin-2 in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (Wan et al. 2016). Curcumin supplementation downregulated monocyte chemotactic protein-1, P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and MMP (1, 2 and 9) expressions, exerting anti-atherosclerotic activity. It oxidized LDL and lowered lipid levels in the serum of hypercholesterolemic rabbits (Um et al. 2014). Another mechanistic study revealed that curcumin supplementation suppresses the expression of CD36 and aP2 in macrophages of atherosclerotic mice (Hasan et al. 2014). In murine macrophage line RAW264.7, curcumin reduced ox-LDL- induced TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6 production and apoptosis along with upregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) and CD36 expressions, thereby inducing lipid disposal and removal. Hypertension is a condition in which the pressure on blood vessels is greater than the normal pressure. A clinical study demonstrated that turmeric (standardized to 22.1 mg of active curcumin) supplementation (3 capsules daily for three months) attenuated hematuria, proteinuria and systolic blood pressure associated with refractory or relapsing nephritis in patients without any adverse events (Khajehdehi et al. 2012). In animal study, curcumin administration downregulated the expression angiotensin I receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, curcumin reduced angiotensin II-induced high blood pressure in C57Bl/6J mice associated with downregulated expression of angiotensin I receptor and decreased vasoconstriction in the mesenteric artery (Yao et al. 2016). Further, curcumin administration upregulated eNOS expression, decreased superoxide enzyme level and downregulated p47phox NADPH oxidase expression in vascular tissues, which is known to be responsible for 2kidney-1clip induced hypertension in rats (Boonla et al. 2014). In another study, curcumin treatment increased the expression of eNOS, decreased oxidative stress, restored glutathione redox ratio in aortic tissues along with decrease in plasma protein carbonyls, MDA and urinary nitrate/ nitrite levels in cadmium intoxicated mice resulting in anti- hypertensive effect (Kukongviriyapan et al. 2014). In conclusion, curcumin supplementation effectively reduce hypertension via blocking angiotensin I receptor, reducing circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme, inducing vasodilation and mediating nephroprotection. Stroke, sometimes called a “brain attack”, occurs when blood circulation to a part of the brain is blocked or ruptured. In animal studies, curcumin pre- and post-treatment significantly improved CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and SOD, while reduced TNF-a, IL-6, MDA and xanthine dehydrogenase levels in forebrain tissue. In addition, curcumin treatment significantly reduced apoptotic index induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion/reperfusion in rats (Altinay et al. 2017), increased the numbers of BrdU-positive cells, BrdU/doublecortin-positive cells, activated notch signaling pathway and stimulated neurogenesis during stroke (Liu et al. 2016). Curcumin pretreatment (200 mg/kg, i.p., for 7 days) significantly decreased MDA, NO, TNF-a, IL-1b, caspase-3, while increased SOD and GPx levels in the spinal cord of ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Further, curcumin administration reduced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in spinal cord as well as reversed locomotor deficit in rats (Gokce et al. 2016). Curcumin administration upregulated eukaryotic initiation factor 4 A, adenosylhomocysteinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, ubiquitin carboxyterminal hydrolase L1, while downregulated pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase expressions in the cerebral cortex of rat (Shah et al. 2016a). Curcumin treatment (50 mg/kg, i.p., for five days) downregulated TNF-a, IL-6, Ac-p53 and Bax, while upregulated Bcl-2 and SIRT1 expression in brain. In addition, curcumin increased mitochondrial cytochrome clevels, mitochondrial complex I activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, while decreased cytosolic cytochrome clevels in brain resulting in reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion stroke model of rat (Miao et al. 2016).
 
How may Curcumin work against kidney disease?
Kidney disease is a condition in which the kidneys lose the ability to balance fluids and eliminate waste. In animal model, curcumin treatment significantly reduced plasma MPO activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, superoxide anion generation while increased GSH levels in rat ischemia reperfusion model of acute kidney injury. In addition, curcumin reduced plasma potassium level, plasma uric acid level, microproteinuria and blood urea nitrogen along with induced NMDA receptor antagonism during acute kidney injury resulting in nephroprotective effect (Kaur et al. 2016). Curcumin administration (200 mg/ kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the level of MPO, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-a, MDA and caspase-3 resulting in protective effect against cisplatin induced renal dysfunction in male Wistar albino rats (Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Sapmaz-Metin, and Karaca 2016). Curcumin administration downregulated the expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits (p22phox, p47phox and p67phox), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and nitrotyrosine renal protein. In addition, curcumin decreased inflammatory cytokine like IFNc, IL-1band TNF- a. Besides, the expression of glucose regulated protein 78, MAPKs, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were downregulated. In the same study, curcumin administration reduced apoptosis signaling proteins (cleaved caspase-12 and cleaved caspase-3) in low-dose streptozotocin with high-fat diet induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis kidney disease in mice (Afrin et al. 2017). Curcumin amelio- rated kidney function via reducing plasma adiponectin, plasma sclerostin, plasma cystatin C while increasing renal CAT, SOD, Nrf2, GSH in adenine induced chronic kidney Figure 4. Modulation of growth factor pathways and intracellular signaling components by curcumin in its anticancer effects. Curcumin treatment blocked the effect of Shh-Gli1, Wnt/b-catenin, ATKs and AR pathways as well as its downstream signaling components which lead to reduce cancer incidence, cancer progression, treatment resistance and disease relapse (Ali et al. 2018). Moreover, curcumin administration reduced renal mesangial matrix expansion, reduced renal hypertrophy, downregulated fibronectin and collagen IV expressions, decreased the levels of NLRP3 protein, cleaved caspase-1 and IL-1bin the renal cortices of db/db mice (Lu et al. 2017). Curcumin treatment reduced fibrosis of kidney by decreasing the methylation of CpG in the klotho promoter, resulting in induction of klotho expression and inhibition of TGF-bsignaling in cyclosporine A induced mouse model of kidney disease (Hu et al. 2016). In earlier study, curcumin administration reduced superoxide produc- tion, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 level, carbonylation of protein, nitrotyrosine -protein level, autophagy and mitochondrial fission while increased GSH/ GSSG ratio which leads to reversal of nephrotoxicity induced by maleate treatment in rats (Molina-Jij on et al. 2016). Experimental data have conclusively proved that, curcumin treatment reduces fibronectin and collagen IV expres- sions, suppresses TGF-bsignaling and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic potential thereby ameliorating kidney functions.
 
How may Curcumin work against skin disorders such as Psoriasis and Dermatitis?
Psoriasis is another pro-inflammatory disease. Considerable evidence, both in animals and humans, indicates that Curcumin may be effective against psoriasis. It was also found to reduce wound-healing time, increase collagen growth and increase blood flow to the skin. Curcumin application (1% alcoholic gel preparation) effectively reduced the level of phosphorylase kinase in the skin of psoriatic subjects. In addition, the effectiveness of curcumin to reduce phosphorylase kinase level was more pronounced than calcipotriol (Thangapazham, Sharma, and Maheshwari 2007). Clinically, oral curcumin administration (20 mg, p.o., b.i.d.) reduced the level of serum IL-22 and alleviated psoriasis vulgaris (Antiga et al. 2015). In animal study, curcumin administra- tion (40 mg/kg, for 20 day) exhibited significant reduction in ear thickness, ear weight, ear redness and lymph node weight in the keratin 14-VEGF transgenic mouse model of psoriasis. Furthermore, curcumin treatment downregulated the serum levels of IL-2, IL-12, IL-22, IL-23, IFN-cand TNF-ain psoriatic mice. Curcumin administration inhibited Kv1.3 channel and suppressed the cytokines expression and T cells proliferation resulting in reduction of psoriasis phenotype (Kang et al. 2016). Curcumin treatment decreased incrassation and skin inflammation in mouse ear induced by imiquimod. Curcumin application promoted epidermal TCR cd-cell proliferation and downregulated C-C chemokine receptor type 6 expression in the ear skin of imiquimod-induced psoriasis (Sun, Zhao, and Hu 2013). Curcumin reduces psoriasis-associated inflammation as well as hyper- proliferation of keratinocyte that suggest its role in develop- ment of antipsoriatic drug (Aggarwal, Surh, and Shishodia 2007). This study on curcumin and skin found it is highly beneficial for scleroderma, psoriasis and skin cancer.  Dermatitis, also called as eczema, is a group of disease that describes the inflammation of skin. The polyphenol curcumin has been traditionally used by Asian countries to manage dermatitis (Gupta, Kismali, and Aggarwal 2013a). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, curcumin administration (6g/day, p.o., t.i.d, during radiotherapy) was reported to reduce the dermatitis severity in breast cancer patients (Ryan et al. 2013). In animal model, curcumin treatment reduces the inflammation of mouse epidermis by reducing the activity of epidermal COX and lipoxygenase (LOX). The biological effect of curcumin to reduce dermatitis is mainly due to inhibition of COX and LOX activities.
 
How may Curcumin work against Endocrine disorders such as Osteoporosis, Hypothyroidism, and Hyperthyroidism?
Curcumin administration ameliorated microarchitecture of tibia bone through down-regulation of MMP-9 expression, inhibition of osteoprotegerin (OPG)/RANK ligand/RANK signaling and the activation of microRNA-365 in dexamethasone treated mice (Li et al. 2015a). It has been indicated that MiR-365 act as an upstream regulator of MMP-9 during osteoporosis. Mechanistically curcumin treatment ameliorated bone deteriorations through the activation of miR-365 via suppressing MMP-9 (Li et al. 2015a). One study revealed that, curcumin administration increased the ratio of osteoprotegerin to receptor activator for NF-kB ligand, ameliorated the proliferation of osteoblasts and activated the Wnt signaling thereby alleviated osteoporotic symptoms induced by glucocorticoid in rats (Chen et al. 2016). Curcumin treatment (100 mg/kg for 2 month) increased bone mineral density, downregulated the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, downregulated cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and cleaved caspase-3, upregulated p-ERK1/2 expression as well as reduced femoral osteoblast apoptosis in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis rat model (Chen et al. 2016). Recently, report suggests that curcumin reversed hind-limb suspension-induced bone loss in rats via upregulation of vitamin D receptor expression and attenuation of oxidative stress (Xin et al. 2015). In in vitro studies, curcumin treatment ameliorates the viability of Saos-2 cells, reduces apoptosis, improves the mitochondrial membrane functions and its potential, upregulates GSK3b and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. These evidences of curcumin administration supporting its potential for management of osteoporosis (Dai et al. 2017). Curcumin reduce the risk of osteoporosis via several mechanisms including reduction of apoptosis, amelioration of mitochondrial membrane function, PKB phosphorylation, microRNA-365 activation and osteoblasts proliferation. upregulated expression of hepatic glutathione reductase, GPx-1 and CAT were mitigated by concomitant administration of curcumin and vitamin E in 6-propyl-thio-uracil induced hypothyroid rats. In addition, curcumin and vitamin E supplementation reduced the enhanced activity of MnSOD-2, GPx-1 and suppressed activity of glutathione reductase in mitochondrial fraction. It was concluded that curcumin and vitamin E supplementation modulate hepatic antioxidant gene expression during hypothyroidism (Subudhi and Chainy 2012). Curcumin administration significantly reduced the level of LPO in cerebellum and cere- bral cortex of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. In addition, curcumin reversed the decreased level of translated products SOD1 and SOD2 in rats with hypothyroidism (Jena et al. 2012). Interestingly, an earlier study suggested that, vitamin E and curcumin administration restore the activity of serum transaminase, altered rectal temperature and hepatic histoarchitecture in rats with hypothyroidism induced by 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (Subudhi et al. 2009). Hyperthyroidism In animal study, curcumin administration reduced lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex of l-thyroxine induced hyperthyroid rats. Interestingly, curcumin reduced the activity of SOD, SOD1 and SOD2 in cerebral cortex, while enhanced the SOD and SOD1 activity in the cerebellum of hyperthyroid rat (Jena, Dandapat, and Chainy 2013). In another study, curcumin and vitamin E administration reversed the reduced levels of hepatic SOD and CAT. Besides, curcumin administration upregulated the expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 and glutathione reductase in rat liver. In the same study, co-treatment of curcumin along with vitamin E alleviated oxidative stress and liver damage in l-thyroxine induced hyperthyroid rats (Subudhi and Chainy 2010). Further, l-thyroxine induced hyperthyroidism and its associated increase in activity of ALT and AST in rat serum were reduced by curcumin and vitamin E treatment resulting in hepatoprotection (Subudhi et al. 2008). These finding suggest that, curcumin administration exerts neuromodulatory and hepatoprotective activity during hyperthyroidism mainly due to its antioxidant effect.
 
How may Curcumin work against Respiratory disorders such as asthma, pulmomary disease, Pneumonia, and allergies?
Asthma is a chronic lung disease involving the inflamed, swell and narrowed airways that produce extra mucus, which causes breathing difficulties. Clinically, curcumin administration (500 mg/day for 30 days) ameliorated the mean forced expiratory volume one second values resulting in alleviation of airway obstruction alongside improved haematological parameters in asthmatics (Kunnumakkara et al. 2017). In animal study, intranasal curcumin administration attenuated the pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation of airway by downregulation of MMP-9, eotaxin, TIMP-1 and a-smooth muscle actin expressions in the lung tissue of ovalbumin-induced chronically asthmatic mice (Chauhan, CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 15 Dash, and Singh 2017). In another study, curcumin administration reduced inflammatory markers like IL-4 and INF-c levels in lung tissue alongside reduced asthma symptoms by activation of Wnt/b-catenin signaling pathway in ovalbumin challenged mice (Yang et al. 2017c). Further, curcumin administration suppressed the activation of JNK54/ 56, ERK 42/44 and p38 MAPK resulting in inhibition of COX-2 expression and prostaglandin (PG) D2 release, which is known to reduce airway obstruction, inflammation and asthma progression in ovalbumin challenged mouse model of asthma (Chauhan et al. 2016). Evidence suggested that lipopolysaccharide exposure causes increase in level of IgE, IL-4, IL-5, histamine and MPO resulting in exacerbation of airway inflammation in rats and these effects were efficiently reversed by curcumin administration (Kumari, Dash, and Singh 2015). Curcumin treatment is reported to attenuate the production of IgE, accumulation of inflammatory cells and hyperplasia of goblet cell alongside ameliorated the secretion of mucus and hyperresponsiveness of airway in asthmatic mice. In addition, curcumin administration increased the activity of HO-1 and Nrf-2 while reduced p-IjB and NF-jB levels in the lung tissue of ovalbumin challenged female specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice (Liu et al. 2015). Their mechanism of action is associated essen- tially due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in asthma. At molecular and cellular levels, curcumin treatment reduces asthma symptoms mainly due to inhibition of histamine release, attenuation of IgE, inhibition of COX-2 enzyme and suppression of JNK54/56, ERK 42/44 and p38 MAPK activation (Chauhan et al. 2016;He et al. 2015c).  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive inflammatory lung disease that causes obstruction in airflow and difficulty in breathing. In animal study, curcumin administration is known to ameliorate right ventricular hypertrophy index and right ventricular systolic pressure via activation of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 3/ JAK2/STAT signal transduction in lung tissue of rat with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Lin, Chen, and Liu 2016). Curcumin treatment downregulated macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2a, IL-8 and MCP-1 expressions while upregulated histone deacetylase 2 expression, ameliorated methylation of H3K9 and reduced H3/H4 acetylation in type II alveolar epithelial cells during cigarette smoke exposure induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rats (Gan et al. 2016). Further, it was reported that, curcumin administration reduce TNF-a, IL-6, IL-8 level, macrophages count, neutrophil numbers and total cell numbers alongside reversed ultrastructural damage and emphy- sema in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of cigarette smoke exposure combined intratracheally administered lipopolysaccharide induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rats. Additionally, curcumin downregulated alveolar epithelia p66Shc and p-p66Shc expression, which is associated with protection of alveolar epithelial injury (Zhang et al. 2016c). We conclude that curcumin suppresses the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by inhibiting the inflammation of airways. These findings suggest that curcumin could be used to protect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in human and animals. Pneumonia Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi in one or both lungs. In animal model, curcumin treatment reduced pneumonia in female C57BL/6J mice caused by Staphylococcus aureus via inhibiting the pore-forming activity of a-hemolysin, an extracellular protein secreted by bacteria that is known to induce the lung infection (Wang et al. 2016a). Further, curcumin significantly reduced S. aureus-mediated lung edema, barrier disruption, vascular leakage and pneumonia. In addition, curcumin administration significantly reduced neutrophils infiltration and attenuates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activation, resulting in reduction of chemokines and cytokines in staphylococcus aureus-infected mouse model of pneumonia (Xu et al. 2015). Thus, continued studies of the potent anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant agent, curcumin, will likely use to reverse or slow the progression of pneumonia, ultimately, leading to novel treatments for pulmonary dysfunction in critically ill patients (Avasarala et al. 2013). Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions in which the immune system reacts abnormally to a foreign substance. In a randomized, double-blind study, chronic curcumin administration (500 mg/day, p.o., for consecutive 2 months) significantly alleviated rhinorrhoea, sneezing and nasal congestion in patients by reducing nasal airflow resistance. In addition, curcumin administration suppressed TNF-a, IL-4 and IL-8, while increased the production of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule and IL-10 (Wu and Xiao 2016). Curcumin administration (2.5 or 5 mg/kg, for four days) suppressed the level of IgE in the serum of asthmatic mice. Further, it reduced the level of secretory phospholipase A2, COX-2, nitric oxide, IL-4 and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, curcumin administration downregulated the expression of p38, COX-2, p-ERK and p-JNK in the lungs tissue of ovalbumin challenged mice (Chauhan et al. 2016). Study revealed that curcumin treatment significantly reduce histamine release and downregulate TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6, IL- 8, p-ERK, p-p38, p-JNK, p-IkBaand NF-kB p65 expressions in mast cells. Besides it decreased the levels of IgE, hista- mine, TNF-a, Src kinases, Fyn, Lyn and Syk in the serum of mice with allergic rhinitis induced by ovalbumin (Zhang et al. 2015b). Curcumin supplementation significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide induced allergic asthma by reducing airway inflammation and decreasing IgE level, histamine release and oxidative stress in mice (Kumari, Dash, and Singh 2015). Further, curcumin administration inhibited intestinal mastocytosis, expression of Th2 cytokines, intestinal anaphylaxis and activation of NF-jB in ovalbumin. These findings suggest that, the anti-allergic mechanism of curcumin is essentially due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. At cellular and molecular levels, curcumin treatment reduces allergic symptoms mainly due to attenuation of IgE, inhibition of histamine release, inhibition of COX-2 enzyme, stimulation of Nrf- 2/ HO-1 pathway etc (Chong et al. 2014; Kurup and Barrios 2008; Lee et al. 2008).
 
What are the scientific properties of Curcumin?
Chemical Name Diferuloylmethane
Definition A β-diketone that is methane in which two of the hydrogens are substituted by feruloyl groups
Systemic Name (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione)
Chemical Formula C21H20O
Molar mass 368.38 g/mol
Appearance Bright yellow-orange powder
Melting Point 183 °C, 361 °F
PubChem 969516
Biofunction Enzyme cofactor
Chemical Taxonomy Organic Chemicals / Hydrocarbons / Aromatic Compounds /  Phenols / Catechols / Curcuminoids
Chemical Structure
Organic Taxonomy Kingdom
Subkingdom
Superdivision
Division
Class
Subclass
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Plantae (Plants) 
Tracheobionta (Vascular plants)
Spermatophyta  (Seed plants) 
Magnoliophyta  (Flowering plants)
Liliopsida  (Monocotyledons) 
Zingiberidae
Zingiberales
Zingiberaceae  (Ginger family) 
Curcuma (Curcuma)
Curcuma longa  (Turmeric)
 

Why Turmeric root extract Curcumin may provide health benefits?

Natural plant products have been used throughout human history for various purposes. Having co-evolved with animal life, many of the plants from which these natural products are derived are billions of years old.  Certain plants manufacture chemicals that repel predators, herbivores, parasites and diseases. These chemicals are produced as secondary metabolites by higher plants as a natural defense mechanism against disease and infection. Many of these natural chemicals have pharmacological or biological activity, and these medicinal plants have played a pivotal role in the health care of many cultures, both ancient and modern. Like most of these pharmacologically-active metabolites, Curcumin is involved in self-defense. Over time, plants with higher levels of organic compounds that deter attackers become more successful, because of their advanced protection. In nature's never-ending interaction between predator and prey, insects evolve the ability to digest plant toxins, while plants evolve stronger chemicals to deter their enemies. Monitoring this evolution between plants and insects represents an important field of ecological research. Scientists have discovered that many phytochemicals manufactured in plants and roots not only prevent insect attack or fight plant infections, but also provide human health benefits. Many cultures create their own botanical pharmacies as the lore of medicinal plants and remedies is handed down through generations of healers. Medicinal plants have been used as a traditional treatment agent for numerous human diseases since ages in many parts of the world. In rural areas of the developing countries, they continue to be used as the primary source of medicine. With the advent of sophisticated laboratory testing, biologists are finding that the many indigenous plants and roots from around the world provide medicinal value, and their metabolites are candidates for research. Pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals have been developed by researching and analyzing compounds derived from plants. These include aspirin, which contains salicylic acid derived from willow bark, morphine derived from Papaveraceae somniferum (opium poppy), and chemotherapeutic drugs including paclitaxel (taxol) derived from Taxus brevifolia (Pacific Yew), vinblastine and vincristine derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus), taxotere (docetaxel) derived from the European yew (Taxus baccata) and fungal metabolites, etoposide derived from the roots of mayapple plants (Podophyllum peltatam), tenioposide derived from the wild mandrake (Podophyllum peltatum), and many others like resveratrol from grapes, pterostilbene from blueberries, and catechins from green tea which contain polyphenolic antioxidants and have been studied for medicinal or preventive value. Turmeric derived from the Curcuma longa plant contains the polyphenols curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, and it has caught the attention of researchers due to its extensive use as a culinary ingredient (the bright yellow color of curry is attributed to turmeric) in most Asian countries and the many reports of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin (diferulolylmethane) is extensively utilized in a variety of settings including cosmetic and herbal supplementation, and its medicinal properties have been investigated for more than 30 years. Curcumin’s structure is similar to other natural polyphenolics (chemicals containing multiple "phenol" groups) produced by plants in response to infectious attack. These natural polyphenols often have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as immune support health benefits. Every medicinal molecule in all of botany is made out of carbon dioxide. CO2 is the key source of carbon used by plants to synthesize everything from curcumin to resveratrol. Every healing nutrient in basil, oregano, cinnamon, turmeric, garlic and pomegranate fruit is made out of carbon dioxide. Curcumin, a powerful anti-cancer nutrient found in turmeric, is made from carbon dioxide, with 21 carbon molecules manufactured from atmospheric carbon dioxide. Curcumin has been studied for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities, mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered TNF blockers (humira, remicade and enbrel), vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (avastin), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (erbitux, erlotinib, and geftinib), and HER2 blocker (herceptin).  With antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties, curcumin has received much attention in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s (AD), Huntington (HD) and Parkinson’s diseases (PD). Extensive research over several decades has sought to identify the mechanisms of molecular action of curcumin. It regulates inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, growth factor receptors, enzymes, adhesion molecules, proteins related to apoptosis and cell-cycle proteins, such as cyclin, and modulates its molecular targets by altering their gene expression, signaling pathways or through direct interaction. Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multi-targeted therapy is better than mono-targeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin is a phytonutrient that can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life". More than 5000 papers published within the past two decades have revealed that curcumin has extraordinary potential in promoting health through modulation of numerous molecular targets. The importance of curcumin can be estimated by the fact that thirty-seven cases of clinical trials of curcumin  were completed by December 2017 and FDA (Food and Drug administration) clinical phase 4 trials have been completed.

 

What is the history of Curcumin and Turmeric?

Turmeric | Turmeric is a product of Curcuma longa, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the ginger family Zingiberaceae, which is native to tropical South Asia.  Individual plants grow to a height of 3 feet (1 m), and have long, oblong, lance-shaped leaves and spikes of yellow flowers that grow in a fleshy rhizome or in underground stem. The rhizome, from which the turmeric is derived, is tuberous, with a rough and segmented skin. They are yellowish brown with a dull orange interior.  When the turmeric rhizome is dried, it can be ground to a yellow powder with a bitter, slightly acrid, yet sweet, taste. The name turmeric derives from the Latin word terra merita (meritorious earth), referring to the color of ground turmeric, which resembles a mineral pigment. An yellow-orange pulp contained inside the rhizome constitutes the source of turmeric medicinal powder. The use of turmeric dates back nearly 4000 years to the Vedic culture in India, where it was used as a culinary spice and had some religious significance. According to Sanskrit medical treatises and Ayurvedic and Unani systems, turmeric has a long history of medicinal use in South Asia. Susruta’s Ayurvedic Compendium, dating back to 250 BC, recommends an ointment containing turmeric to relieve the effects of poisoned food. Researchers in India recently identified mineral remnants of turmeric on the cooking pots of ancient Indus River remains, one of the first urban civilizations. These ancient civilizations have vast trial and error experience with many different herbal remedies and food preparations and they selected curcumin for medicinal use based on efficacy. It reached China by 700 ad, East Africa by 800 ad, West Africa by 1200 ad, and Jamaica in the eighteenth century. The Western world was introduced to turmeric via Marco Polo in 1280, who described this spice, marveling at qualities so similar to that of saffron: "There is also a vegetable which has all the properties of the true saffron, as well as the color, and yet it is not really saffron. Turmeric is held in great estimation, and being an ingredient in all their dishes, it bears, on that account, a high price."
Curcumin | Curcumin is a yellow-orange pigment in the Turmeric plant rhizome (Curcuma longa), which is chemically known as diferuloylmethane. It was first isolated in 1815 by two German Scientists, Vogel and Pelletier, who reported on the “yellow coloring-matter” from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) and named it curcumin.  Curcumin’s chemical structure was determined and characterized by MiłobeRdzka, Kostanecki, and Lampe in 1910.  An early mention of curcumin in modern medical literature was its first clinical trial, appearing in the Lancet in 1937, one of the most prestigious medical journals. The article, describing curcumin applications to humans, was written by Albert Oppenheimer—then an assistant professor at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, who applied curcumin orally (up to 800 mg daily) for the treatment of 67 patients suffering from various forms of subacute, recurrent, or chronic cholecystitis. The positive therapeutic response recorded then, was the basis for future interest in curcumin and its healing properties, especially its anti-inflammatory properties, which were among the first studied. The first study on its biological activity as an antibacterial agent was published in 1949 in Nature. Although the current database indicates over 12,000 publications on curcumin, until 1990 there were less than 100 papers published on this nutraceutical. At the molecular level, this multitargeted agent has been shown to exhibit anti‐inflammatory activity through the suppression of numerous cell signalling pathways including NF‐κB, STAT3, Nrf2, ROS and COX‐2. Numerous studies have indicated that curcumin is a highly potent antimicrobial agent and has been shown to be active against various chronic diseases including various types of cancers, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, this compound has also been shown to be synergistic with other nutraceuticals such as resveratrol, piperine, catechins, quercetin and genistein. Hundreds of clinical trials have been completed with curcumin, which clearly show its safety, tolerability and its effectiveness against various chronic diseases in humans. Components of tumeric are named curcuminoids, which include mainly curcumin (diferuloyl methane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. The best-researched active constituent is curcumin, which has been used extensively in ayurvedic medicine for centuries, as it is nontoxic and has a variety of therapeutic properties including antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic activity, and anticarcinogenic activity.  It is a diferuloylmethane polyphenol characterized by two phenolic rings, an active component of turmeric and it is extracted from the rhizome of the tropical plant Curcuma longa (family Zingiberaceae).
 The high degree of reverence is established by the fact that it is used in so many cultures: Arabic Kurkum, Uqdah safra. Armenian Toormerik, Turmerig. Assamese Halodhi. Bengali Halud. Bulgarian Kurkuma. Burmese Hsanwen, Sanwin, Sanae, Nanwin. Catalan Cúrcuma. Chinese Yu chin, Yu jin, Wohng geung, Geung wohng, Wat gam, Huang jiang, Jiang huang, Yu jin, Yu jin xiang gen. Croatian Indijski šafran, Kurkuma. Czech Kurkuma, Indický Šafrán, Žlutý kořen, Žlutý zázvor. Dhivehi Reen’dhoo. Danish Gurkemeje. Dutch Geelwortel, Kurkuma Tarmeriek, Koenjit, Koenir. English Turmeric, Curcumin, Indian saffron. Estonian Harilik kurkuma, Kurkum, Pikk kollajuur, Lŏhnav kollajuur, Harilik kurkuma, Kurkum, Pikk kollajuur, Lŏhnav kollajuur. Farsi Zardchubeh. Finnish Kurkuma, Keltajuuri. French Curcuma, Safran des Indes, Terre-mérite, Souchet des Indes. Galician Cúrcuma. German Curcuma, Sárga gyömbérgyökér. Greek Kitrinoriza, Kourkoumi, Kourkoumas Gujarati Halad, Haldar. Hebrew Kurkum, Kurkume. Hindi Haldi. Hungarian Kurkuma, Sárga gyömbérgyökér. Icelandic Túrmerik. Indonesian Kunyit, Kunir, Daun kunyit. Italian Curcuma. Japanese Ukon, Tamerikku Kannada Arishina, Arisina. Khmer Romiet, Lomiet, Lamiet. Korean Kang-hwang, Keolkuma Kolkuma, Sim-hwang, Teomerik, Tomerik, Tumerik, Ulgum, Ulgumun. Laotian Khi min khun, Khmin khÜn. Latvian Kurkuma. Lithuanian Ciberžole, Kurkuma, Dažine ciberžolé. Malay Kunyit basah. Malayalam Manjal Marathi Halad. Nepali Haldi, Hardi, Besar. Norwegian Gurkemeie Pahlavi Zard-choobag. Pashto Zarchoba. Polish Kurkuma, Ostryź długi, Szafran indyjski. Portuguese Açafrão da Índia, Curcuma. Punjabi Haldi. Romanian Curcumǎ. Russian Koren, kurkumy, Kurkuma. Sanskrit haldi. Singhalese Kaha. Slovak Kurkuma. Slovenian Kurkuma. Spanish Cúrcuma, Azafrán arabe. Swahili Manjano. Swedish Gurkmeja. Tagalog Dilaw. Tamil Manjal. Telugu Haridra, Pasupu. Thai Kha min chan, Kha min; Wanchakmadluk. Tibetan Gaser, Sga ser. Turkish Hint safrani, Sari boya, Zerdeçal, Safran kökü, Zerdali, Zerdeçöp, Zerdecube. Ukrainian Kurkuma. Urdu Haldi, Zard chub. Vietnamese Bot nghe, Cu nghe, Nghe, Uat kim, Khuong hoang.
 
Why hasn't the pharmaceutical industry patented Curcumin?
Pharmaceutical corporations tried registering patents for curcumin and turmeric because of the much heralded scientific evidence and the long history of its healing properties. However, that same evidence and history of curcumin being used medicinally for centuries was the reason the United States Patent and Trademark Office rejected and revoked the rights for turmeric patent 5401504 on the grounds that the claims were not new: "USPTO unequivocally rejected all six claims made on August 13, 2001 while ruling that Turmeric's medicinal properties were not patentable."  University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center states "in the case of curcumin, a natural compound, no company can reap the benefits if turmeric shows itself to be an effective anti-cancer drug."   And because curcumin is not economically interesting, "it is almost impossible to get financial support to conduct a clinical trial with a substance that cannot be patented. The greatest challenge will be to find sponsors for clinical research on curcumin, as this promising plant-derived compound cannot be exploited economically."
 
news and published studies on Curcumin and Turmeric

June 2021

Promising role of curcumin against viral diseases emphasizing COVID-19 management
Journal of Functional Foods
| June 2021
Curcumin has already acknowledged immense interest from both medical and scientific research because of its multifaceted activity. To date, the promising effects of curcumin were perceived against numerous inflammatory diseases. Besides, curcumin’s role as a medicine has been studied in many virus infections like influenza and HIV. The popular use of curcumin in research is mainly due to its pleiotropic properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities (Ahmad et al., 2020). Curcumin can inhibit the inflammatory mediators, oxidation processes, and oxidative stress thereby acts as an anti-inflammatory agent against many diseases (Wal et al., 2019). Praditya et al. (2019b) have shown curcumin as an anti-bacterial agent against several strains of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Helicobacter and Pseudomonas mainly by growth inhibition. They also reported the anti-fungal property of curcumin. Different studies identified the efficacy of curcumin against Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Hepatitis viruses etc. (Praditya et al., 2019a, Prasad and Tyagi, 2015, Vitali et al., 2020). Although there are some controversies, the majority of the studies support the potential role of curcumin in inhibiting viral replication and growth inhibition (Mathew & Hsu, 2018). Apart from these, long-term intake of curcumin can improve systolic blood pressure (Hadi et al., 2019), control obesity (Jarząb & Kukula-Koch, 2019), Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Pivari et al., 2019). Also, curcumin often acts as a cardio-protective, nephroprotective, anti-neoplastic, hepato-protective and anti-rheumatic compound. While the entire world is putting efforts into the discovery of a vaccine against coronavirus infection, the antiviral potential of curcumin against SARS-CoV-2 shows a promising role in COVID-19 management. Since ancient time, curcumin possesses a multifaceted role in several disease management. As an antiviral agent, existing literature suggested that targeting viral lifecycle and cellular responses are important strategies to combat viral infection. The present review emphasized the molecular mechanism of host-pathogen interaction and subsequent immune response in the host. In this background, curcumin can potentially inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 entry within human mainly by blocking the ACE2 receptor, hinder viral genome replication by altering viral non-structural protein activity. Not only viral entry, curcumin indeed can prohibit ‘cytokine storm’-induced multi-organ failure by constraining the inflammatory response and other cellular immune response.

Curcumin reverses doxorubicin resistance in colon cancer cells at the metabolic level
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | June 2021
Natural product curcumin was demonstrated to have a variety of pharmacological effects, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidation and anti-aging activities.  Curcumin increased the cytotoxicity of Dox in SW620/Ad300 cells. Curcumin reduced the biosynthesis of polyamine and D-glutamine metabolism to reverse MDR. Curcumin inhibited the ODC expression, thererby decreasing the biosynthesis of polyamine.  Curcumin could be a promising multidrug-resitance reversal agent for cancer treatment.

Curcumin suppresses the malignancy of non-small cell lung cancer
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy | June 2021
Curcumin exerts a suppressive effect in tumor growth by acting as a modulator of multiple molecular targets.  Curcumin, a traditional herbal medicine, is discovered in Curcuma longa. It is a polyphenol and has many activities, including controlling diabetes, improving brain function, oxidation, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and so on. It has been reported that curcumin plays an important role in various cell signal transduction by acting as a modulator of multiple molecular targets. Also, curcumin plays a repressive role in the advancement of NSCLC. Zhang et al. manifested that curcumin synergistically constrained cell malignancy. Furthermore, curcumin played an anti-tumor activity in NSCLC cells. Curcumin has attracted the attention of scientific researchers all over the world because of its anti-cancer potential. Accumulated studies have revealed that curcumin can target cell signaling pathways related to cancer development. For example, curcumin elevated miR-99a expression in retinoblastoma cells, thereby blocking the JAK/STAT pathway and repressed cell malignancy. Moreover, curcumin inhibited the proliferation of glioblastoma cells via blocking the AKT/mTOR pathway. Recent research revealed that curcumin elevated nasopharyngeal cancer radio-sensitization through regulating the circRNA/miR/mRNA network. Herein, we discovered that curcumin curbed the malignancy of NSCLC cells through repressing the circ-PRKCA/miR-384/ITGB1 pathway.

Curcumin and rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review of literature
International Journal of Clinical Practice | June 2021
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol and the main compound from the rhizome of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and other Curcuma species. It has been widely used for different medical purposes, such as improvement of pain and inflammatory conditions in various diseases. Most studies have shown the curative effects of curcumin on clinical and inflammatory parameters of RA and reported different mechanisms; inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, activator protein-1 and nuclear factor kappa B are the main mechanisms associated with the anti-inflammatory function of curcumin in RA. The results of the only human study showed that curcumin significantly improved morning stiffness, walking time and joint swelling. In conclusion, curcumin seems to be useful, and it is recommended that more human studies be performed to approve the cellular and animal results and determine the effective and optimal doses of curcumin on RA patients.

The efficacy and safety of Curcuma longa Extract and curcumin supplements on osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Bioscience Reports | June 2021
Curcuma longa Extract and curcumin may be a safer and effective supplement for osteoarthritis patients. It is recommended to use Curcuma longa Extract and curcumin supplement for osteoarthritis patients for more than 12 weeks. Curcumin is a natural active oxygen scavenger and active nitrogen provider, and has been proven to be effective in treating pain caused by arthritis and osteoarthritis. Compared with NSAIDs, Curcuma longa Extract and curcumin have similar effects on joint pain, function and stiffness. However, the incidence of adverse events in Curcuma longa Extract and curcumin was lower.  Compared with the NSAIDs group, Curcuma longa Extract and curcumin+NSAIDs can also relieve pain (decrease the VAS and WOMAC score-pain), improve the joint function (decrease the WOMAC score-function), and improve the joint stiffness (decrease the WOMAC score-stiffness); in terms of adverse events, the addition of Curcuma longa Extract and curcumin to NSAIDs did not increase adverse events. Our meta-analysis also showed that Curcuma longa Extract and curcumin can improve oxidative stress in patients with osteoarthritis. Our meta-analysis shows that the combination of Curcumin and NSAIDs does not increase the occurrence of adverse events and has better efficacy. This is a promising result, because adding Curcumin supplementation in the case of using NSAIDs may increase the efficacy and perhaps reduce the dosage of NSAIDs.

The Effects of Curcumin on Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in Endocrinology | June 2021
Curcumin is a bioactive component found Curcuma longa, which exhibits several physiological and pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, and anti-diabetic activities. The results showed that curcumin’s anti-diabetic activity might be due to its capacity to suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory process. Also, it significantly reduces fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and body mass index. The main part of the plant is the rhizomes, and the most prevalent active components are the curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin). Curcuminoids are nontoxic polyphenolic that exerts a wide range of biological activities, such as the production of significant immunosuppressants. Curcuminoids can also regulate apoptosis and suppress neurotoxic factors in macrophages and alveolar monocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharides. Besides, it inhibits phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha) and activates the γ receptor mechanism activated by peroxisome proliferator, reducing inflammation pattern induced by NF-κB pathway. The peculiar characteristics that attract scientists’ attention are the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and the safety of its pharmacological profile. The mechanism of action in several molecular pathways is due to curcumin’s particular chemical structure, capable of having many molecular targets.

The Role of Curcumin in Gastrointestinal Cancers
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | June 2021
Curcumin has been used in combinations with many anti-tumor drugs to increase their anticarcinogenic properties. Taken together, curcumin falls within the category of plant-derived substances capable of preventing or treating gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin is a natural compound derived from turmeric with a wide range of biological activities. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the effects of curcumin on gastrointestinal cancers. In the current review, we aimed to provide an updated summary on the recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of curcumin on different gastrointestinal cancers in the recent decade. For this purpose, ScienceDirect,” “Google Scholar,” “PubMed,” “ISI Web of Knowledge,” and “Wiley Online Library” databases were searched using “curcumin”, “cancer”, and “gastrointestinal organs” as keywords. In vitro studies performed on different gastrointestinal cancerous cell lines have shown that curcumin can inhibit cell growth through cycle arrest at the G2/M and G1 phases, as well as stimulated apoptosis and autophagy by interacting with multiple molecular targets. In vivo studies performed in various animal models have confirmed mainly the chemopreventive effects of curcumin.

Effect of eight-week curcumin supplementation with endurance training on glycemic indexes in middle age women with type 2 diabetes
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews | June 2021
Eight weeks of curcumin supplementation and endurance training, whether done separately or simultaneously, significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and serum insulin levels (P < 0.05). The combination of curcumin supplementation and endurance training compared to the other two interventions caused a significant further decrease in these glycemic indexes (P < 0.05). The findings of this study showed that eight weeks of curcumin supplementation and endurance training helped each other in improving the glycemic indexes of women with type 2 diabetes.

Curcumin promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cells
Oncology Reports | May 2021
Curcumin, a phytochemical from rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa, has been reported to exert potential anticancer properties in various cancer types, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Collectively, the present study demonstrated that curcumin exerted anti-AML roles by inactivating AKT and these findings may aid in the treatment of AML.

Effects of curcumin supplementation on sport and physical exercise
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | May 2021
Curcumin supplementation displayed significant reductionof inflammation derived from the physical exercise. After curcumin supplementation there was a significantimprovement in some aspects of muscle recovery and performance in exercise. Curcumin has recently drawn worldwide attention ofresearchers (Salehi et al.2019), who conducted studies thatindicated that its medicinal properties are associated withthe reduction of pain (Karlapudi et al.2018; Sun et al.2018), anti-inflammatory effects (Ghandadi and Sahebkar2017; Mollazadeh et al.2019), besides prevention and treat-ment of cardiovascular (Li et al.2020; Momtazi-Borojeniet al.2019) and gastrointestinal (GI) diseases (Ghosh et al.2018; Mazieiro et al.2018), cancer (Kunnumakkara et al.2017; Mizumoto et al.2019; Talib et al.2018) and otherchronic diseases (Kunwar and Priyadarsini2016; Prasadet al.2014; Salehi et al.2019; Sharan Patel et al.2019).Also, studies that employed animal models reportedpositive results of curcumin supplementation for physicalactivity and sport performance (Huang et al.2015), thussupporting muscle recovery and reduction of inflammation(Davis et al.2007), improvement of mitochondrial biogen-esis (Ray Hamidie et al.2015), reduction of oxidative stress(Kawanishi et al.2013), prevention of fatigue and muscledamage (Huang et al.2015; Sahin et al.2016).  The evidences presented indicate that cur-cumin supplementation in human beings is likely safe andbeneficial for sport and physical activity, due to the reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, reduction of painand muscle damage, improved muscle recovery, sport performance, psychological and physiological responses (thermal and cardiovascular) during training, as well as the GI function.

Role of Curcumin in Regulating Long Noncoding RNA Expression in Cancer
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | May 2021
Phytochemicals are various compounds produced by plants. There is growing evidence on their potential health effects. Some of these compounds are considered as traditional medicines and used as painkillers, anti-inflammatory agents, and for other applications. One of these phytochemicals is curumin, a natural polyphenol derived from the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.). Curcumin is widely used as a food coloring, preservative and condiment. It has also been shown to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, there is growing evidence that curcumin alters long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in many kinds of cancer. These noncoding RNAs can cause epigenetic modulation in the expression of several genes. This study reviews reports of curcumin effects on lncRNAs in lung, prostate, colorectal, breast, pancreatic, renal, gastric, and ovarian cancers.

The effect of curcumin and zinc co-supplementation on glycemic parameters in overweight or obese prediabetic subjects
Phytotherapy Research | May 2021
Curcumin and zinc have been studied as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antidiabetic agents. Based on these results, zinc and curcumin supplementation exerted a beneficial effect on several key glycemic parameters.

Curcumin Reduces Neuroinflammation and Improves the Impairments of Anesthetics on Learning and Memory
Neuroimmunomodulation | May 2021
Cur has a protective effect on ISO-induced cognitive dysfunction, which may be achieved by regulating the expression of miR-181a-5p.

Curcumin: A small molecule with big functionality against amyloid aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases and type 2 diabetes
BioFactors | May 2021
Polyphenolic phytochemicals such as curcumin and its derivatives have anti‐amyloid effects both in vitro and in animal models; however, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. In this review, we summarized possible mechanisms by which curcumin could interfere with self‐assembly processes and reduce amyloid aggregation in amyloidosis. Furthermore, we discuss clinical trials in which curcumin is used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diseases linking to protein aggregates.

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Curcumin on Rheumatoid Arthritis
Pharmaceuticals | May 2021
Recent studies reveal that curcumin, a natural dietary anti-inflammatory compound, can modulate the response of the cells engaging in RA course. Interestingly, many studies have described the potential role of curcumin as an epigenetic modifier. This potent herbal drug has been identified as an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), regulator of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), deacetylases (HDACs), and microRNAs, as well as a DNA binding agent. Curcumin has been found to significantly reduce H3ac levels in the IL-6 promoter as well as IL-6 mRNA expression in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). The role of curcumin as an epigenetic modifier has been well documented in cancer, neurological disorders, and some inflammatory diseases. Curcumin is a polyphenolic substance naturally occurring in turmeric, especially in Curcuma Longa, with broad anti-inflammatory properties and proven positive effects in autoimmunological disease therapies, including Rheumatoid Arthritis. Curcumin is an antioxidant, which means it can efficiently reduce the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), weaken redox signaling, and reduce inflammation [22]. In addition to having direct antioxidant properties, curcumin also blocks the activity of ROS-generating enzymes like lipoxygenase (LOX), cyclooxygenase (COX), xanthine dehydrogenase, and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Despite reducing ROS levels, curcumin also possesses numerous other properties that enable its usage as a potential therapeutic drug targeted against Rheumatoid Arthritis. Interesting insights into this matter are provided by recent studies, which found that this natural compound can suppress proinflammatory pathways related to the immune cells crucial in RA development. Therefore, curcumin’s daily consumption can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress, contributing to the immune system’s modulation and alleviating the rheumatoid arthritis course.

Curcumin and cancer biology: Focusing regulatory effects in different signalling pathways
Phytotherapy Research | May 2021
Curcumin is a bright yellow substance isolated from the plant rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. To this molecule a high therapeutic benefit has been underlined, being able to alter the development of cancer by different mechanisms, such as regulating multiple microRNA expression, modifying a series of signalling pathways, that is, Akt, Bcl‐2, PTEN, p53, Notch, and Erbb. Another major pathway that curcumin targets is the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene expression. In this review, we have attempted to describe the curcumin regulatory effect on different cell signalling pathways involved in the progression of different types of cancers.

Curcumin prevents obesity by targeting TRAF4‐induced ubiquitylation in m6A‐dependent manner
EMBO Reports | May 2021
Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound present in turmeric, has been shown to have a protective effect on against obesity and metabolic diseases. m6A‐dependent TRAF4 expression upregulation by ALKBH5 and YTHDF1 contributes to curcumin‐induced obesity prevention. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into how m6A is involved in the anti‐obesity effect of curcumin.

Curcumin alleviates high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and obesity in association with modulation of gut microbiota in mice
Food Research International | May 2021
Curcumin alleviated hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in obese mice. Curcumin increased abundance of Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Alistipes and Alloprevotella. Curcumin increased the caecal and colonic short chain fatty acids (SCFA) contents. Curcumin reduced endotoxin-producing Desulfovibrio bacteria and circulating serum LPS. The dominant bacterial taxa altered by Cur were related with improvement of obesity.

The Effects of Curcumin on Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in Endocrinology | May 2021
The genus Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) includes perennial rhizomatous plants native to subtropical to tropical regions. The main part of the plant is the rhizomes, and the most prevalent active components are the curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin). Curcuminoids are nontoxic polyphenolic that exerts a wide range of biological activities, such as the production of significant immunosuppressants that inhibit the production of IL-2 and IL-12. This compound inhibits the expression of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2), lipoxygenase-5, and many other pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8. Curcuminoids can also regulate apoptosis and suppress neurotoxic factors in macrophages and alveolar monocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharides. Besides, it inhibits phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha) and activates the γ receptor mechanism activated by peroxisome proliferator, reducing inflammation pattern induced by NF-κB pathway. The peculiar characteristics that attract scientists’ attention are the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and the safety of its pharmacological profile. The mechanism of action in several molecular pathways is due to curcumin’s particular chemical structure, capable of having many molecular targets. The biological effects may include the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, playing a fundamental role, particularly for diseases related to oxidative stress and inflammation, such as DM. Figure 3 shows some systemic effects of curcumin. Curcumin is a bioactive component found Curcuma longa, which exhibits several physiological and pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, and anti-diabetic activities. For these reasons, our objective is to systematically review the effects of Curcuma longa or curcumin on DM. Databases such as PUBMED and EMBASE were searched, and the final selection included sixteen studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The results showed that curcumin’s anti-diabetic activity might be due to its capacity to suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory process. Also, it significantly reduces fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and body mass index. The singular characteristic of this plant is the presence of curcumin, which shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Besides that, curcumin has a potential role in preventing and treating several diseases due to various actions such as anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-viral, and anticancer activities. Curcuminoids have been shown to improve insulin resistance, decrease glucose and insulin levels, increase adiponectin release, and reduce the levels of leptin, resistin, interleukin (IL)-6 IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in patients with T2DM. These findings suggest that these compounds can affect glucose homeostasis and diabetic complications, and the vascular risk of patients with T2DM. Some studies have shown that supplementation of curcuminoids improves the lipid profile and increases the total antioxidant capacity of patients with T2DM, thus supporting other available evidence on the role of curcuminoids in modifying cardiometabolic risks.

Possible Mechanisms and Special Clinical Considerations of Curcumin Supplementation in Patients with COVID-19
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | May 2021
Mechanisms and special clinical considerations of supplementation with curcumin as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound in the setting of COVID-19 clinical research.

Anticancer Mechanism of Curcumin on Human Glioblastoma
Nutrients | May 2021
Curcumin is the most studied compound described as a potential anticancer agent due to its multi-targeted signaling/molecular pathways properties. Curcumin possesses the ability to modulate the core pathways involved in GBM cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy, paraptosis, oxidative stress, and tumor cell motility. This review discusses curcumin's anticancer mechanism through modulation of Rb, p53, MAPK, P13K/Akt, JAK/STAT, Shh, and NF-κB pathways, which are commonly involved and dysregulated in preclinical and clinical GBM models.

Micronutrients and bioactive substances: Their potential roles in combating COVID-19
Nutrition | April 2021
A study has shown that curcumin interfered with the binding of enveloped viruses to cell surface. Derivatives of curcumin exhibited antiviral activity against enveloped viruses. Direct treatment of a virus with curcumin reduced the infectivity of the virus in a dose–time-dependent manner for enveloped viruses, as well as the vesicular stomatitis virus. Curcumin also exhibited antiviral properties against dengue virus and hepatitis C virus. Having immunomodulating, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral properties, such micronutrients and bioactive substances are consequently promising alterative nutritional approaches to combat COVID-19 infection.

Curcumin suppresses colorectal cancer stem cells
Journal of Natural Medicines | April 2021
Curcumin is a polyphenol extracting from Curcuma longa. It has been demonstrated that curcumin possesses extensive therapeutic activities against multiple ailments, such as inflammation, metabolic syndrome, liver disease, arthritis, and neurodegenerative disease. In the recent years, researchers found that curcumin has played an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. For instance, curcumin induced apoptosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells, partially dependent on its iron-chelating properties; curcumin could overcome gefitinib-resistance in nonsmall-cell lung cancer cells via inducing autophagy-related cell death. Other studies indicated curcumin suppressed oncogenicity of human colon cancer cells, through covalent modification of SIRT1 at the cysteine 67 residue and the proteasomal degradation of oncogenic SIRT1. In this study, we observed that curcumin inhibited tumorsphere formation, decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin also promoted apoptosis of LGR5(+) colorectal CSCs. In addition, curcumin can induce autophagy in many tumor cells. For example, curcumin inhibited proliferation, induced the autophagy and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Similarly, our data suggest that curcumin increased tumor cell death partly by inducing autophagy, because the effect of curcumin-induced cell proliferation inhibition was decreased by co-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor, HCQ. Therefore, these results reveal that curcumin-induced autophagy may contribute to the antitumor effects of curcumin on LGR5(+) colorectal CSCs.  In summary, we found that curcumin suppresses the proliferation of LGR5(+) colorectal CSCs by inducing autophagy and transcriptionally repressing the oncogenic TFAP2A-mediated ECM pathway. Lastly, while our study entailed mostly in vitro experiments, further studies, especially in vivo, are needed to understand the mechanism of effect of curcumin in LGR5(+) colorectal CSCs and to evaluate this potential therapeutic approach to CRC. In addition, the correlation between TFAP2A-mediated ECM pathway and autophagy also deserves further study.

Beneficial Effects of Curcumin Supplementation on Sports Performance and Physical Exercise
Designs For Health | April 2021
Turmeric has three main bioactive components: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. These curcuminoids have many biological effects, including properties that are anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor, antimicrobial, and antiviral. This review investigated the evidence for the effects of curcumin supplementation for humans on sports performance and physical exercise. Curcumin possesses the ability to inhibit transcription factors (e.g., nuclear factor [NF]-κβ) that are responsible for activating pro-inflammatory enzyme and cytokine expression, such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, 5-lipoxygenase (LOX-5), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-8, suggesting their importance in helping to reduce post-exercise inflammation. The treatment groups with doses ranging from 180 mg to 5 g of curcumin per day showed significant reductions in inflammation caused by physical exercise compared to the placebo group, whose participants displayed elevated IL receptor agonist activity of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, and TNF-α concentrations. Compared to the treatment group, a gastrointestinal (GI) barrier damage marker (fatty acid−binding protein) was elevated after aerobic exercise in the placebo group, suggesting curcumin may improve GI function during exercise-induced exertional heat stress. Overall, the results of this systematic review showed positive effects with no adverse symptoms or injuries reported. Curcumin supplementation improved exercise-induced muscle recovery, muscle performance, psychological and physiological parameters, function, and reduced inflammation, oxidative stress, pain, and muscle damage caused by aerobic and resistance training. Although larger clinical trials are needed, the evidence suggests that curcumin supplementation may be a safe and effective option for supporting sports and exercise performance in humans.

Curcumin suppresses colorectal tumorigenesis
Oncology Letters | April 2021
Curcumin, a natural product extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is a drug with strong pharmacological effects and limited side effects. Increasing evidence have confirmed that curcumin exerts antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferation and anticancer effects. Furthermore, curcuminoids have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as ‘Generally Recognized As Safe’ (GRAS) and clinical trials have demonstrated good tolerability and safety profiles, at doses between 4,000–8,000 mg/day. In another phase I clinical trial, curcumin (at doses 0.45–3.6 g) was administered to 15 patients with advanced CRC who were resistant to chemotherapy for 4 months. The results demonstrated that treatment with CUR was well tolerated and there was no toxicity at any doses. Previous studies have reported several molecular mechanisms for the anticancer effects of curcumin . For example, curcumin inhibits Axin2 expression in the colorectal cancer line, HCT116, and modulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Yan et al demonstrated that Axin2 is upregulated and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is activated in human colon tumor samples. It has also been reported that curcumin can target colorectal stem cells via the Wnt pathway to inhibit their proliferation and drug resistance to chemotherapy, indicating the important role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the tumorigenesis of CRC. Another study demonstrated that curcumin inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer cells via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the results of a squamous cell carcinoma study reported that curcumin inhibits cancer cell proliferation via the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. In addition to the effects of curcumin on CRC progression through the NBR2/AMPK/mTOR pathway, curcumin regulates the NF-κB and Src protein kinase signaling pathways by inhibiting IκBα kinase activation and IκBα phosphorylation. Collectively, these results indicate several molecular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of curcumin in vitro. However, the in vivo mechanism remains to be elucidated. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effects of curcumin and determine its underlying mechanisms in CRC, in vivo.

Protective Effects of Curcumin on Sperm and Stereological Parameters in Testes of Formaldehyde-Exposed NMRI Mice: An Experimental Study
International Journal of Medical Laboratory | April 2021
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid of turmeric, which is a known spice. It has been shown that curcuminoids are polyphenols and are responsible for the yellow-orange color of turmeric. Noorafshan and colleagues previously showed that curcumin protects the Leydig cells against metronidazole treatments. In another study, curcumin reduced testicular damage in diabetic rats by reducing oxidative stress.Moreover, Farombi et al. used curcumin to prevent oxidative changes and enhance sperm motility and reduce sperm abnormalities. This study showed that curcumin could reduce formaldehyde-induced damage to the testis structure and sperm parameters, possibly by inhibiting oxygen free radicals’ production.These results suggest that curcumin is a potential therapeutic agent on spermatogenesis caused by a testicular injury triggered by FA in mice.

Antiviral activities of curcumin and 6‐gingerol against infection of four dengue virus
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology | April 2021
The compound curcumin showed antiviral properties as described. In conclusion, curcumin and 6‐gingerol exhibit antiviral properties against DENV infection and could provide a new therapeutic approach for dengue disease treatment strategies.

Telomerase: A Target for Therapeutic Effects of Curcumin in Cancer
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | April 2021
Curcumin has been shown to be effective against several types of malignancies and has also been shown to have inhibitory effects on telomerase activity. Based on the findings obtained from the different studies here, we conclude that the telomerase inhibitory effects of curcumin are integral to its anticancer activity, and thus curcumin may be useful therapeutically in the cancer field.

Curcumin as Anti- infective Agents
Current Medicinal Chemistry | April 2021
Curcumin, a redox-active natural product, has for centuries been used in Asian traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. It is known for possessing multiple biological and pharmacological activities. Curcumin has been investigated extensively over the years for its anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiparasitic, antiviral and antibacterial activities, and no toxicity is associated with the compound. Curcumin is still in clinical trials for the treatment of diseases, such as tuberculosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Chron’s disease, colorectal cancer and multiple myeloma, among many others as potential antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antiviral agents for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

The Antioxidant Effect of Curcumin and Rutin on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers
Molecules | April 2021
Curcumin, from the root of the turmeric plant Curcuma longa, is an extended pseudosymmetric polyphenol (diferuloylmethane). Zhou et al. showed that curcumin prevents bone loss in an experimental periodontitis model. In association with studies that do demonstrate an effect on the prevention of bone loss, these investigations have shown that curcumin has a profound effect on inflammation by significantly reducing the development of an inflammatory infiltrates within the periodontal lesion while simultaneously stimulating an increase in the collagen content, as well as an increase in the number of fibroblastic cells within the periodontium and associated lesions when curcumin was administered daily to rats with experimentally induced periodontitis. Curcumin, the major component of turmeric, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant action. In vitro studies, animal studies and clinical studies have demonstrated that there is a positive association between curcumin and the evolution of periodontitis. It can be concluded that the oral administration of curcumin and rutin, single or combined, could reduce oxidative stress both in gingival tissue and blood and enhance the antioxidant status in hyperglycemic periodontitis rats. Modeling oxidative stress, these two antioxidants may have an inhibitory effect on inflammation.

Curcumin induces ferroptosis in non‐small‐cell lung cancer
Thoracic Cancer | April 2021
Emerging studies showed curcumin can inhibit glioblastoma and breast cancer cells via regulating ferroptosis. Curcumin is a yellow polyphenol compound derived from the turmeric plant, which shows anticancer properties through a variety of mechanisms, including inhibition of tumor proliferation, invasion and metastases, regulation of apoptosis, and autophagy. Recent studies showed that curcumin can treat glioblastoma and breast cancer via regulating ferroptosis. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that curcumin could induce ferroptotic cell death of NSCLC cells via activating autophagy.

Curcumin Ameliorated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation-Related Muscle Disorders
Antioxidants | April 2021
Curcumin has also been reported to possess diverse pharmacological effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, it has been suggested that curcumin alleviated chronic kidney disease-induced muscle atrophy by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β.  The present study demonstrated that curcumin  in C2C12 myoblast cells showed in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Specifically, curcumin enhanced DPPH radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner, and it did not affect the cell viability of C2C12 cells with concentrations up to 30 μg/mL. Furthermore, curcumin significantly suppressed H2O2-induced cell toxicity, ROS generation, and lipid peroxidation and restored GSH depletion, which involved an increase of antioxidant genes through Nrf2 activation, providing evidence that curcumin can protect cells by reducing oxidative stress. Besides, curcumin significantly inhibited LPS-mediated IL-6 productions. Therefore, curcumin could be a useful candidate against oxidative stress and inflammation-related muscle disorders.

Curcumin Reduces Cognitive Deficits by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation
ACS Omega | April 2021
Curcumin is a polyphenolic substance extracted from turmeric, a plant of the curcuma family. Toxicity studies have shown that it is quite safe even at high doses (up to 12 g in humans). Curcumin’s pharmacological action is exerted at multiple sites, including enzymes, transcription factors, growth factors, neurotransmitter receptors, inflammatory mediators, and a large number of protein kinases. It has anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidative, and antibacterial effects. Curcumin has been used as a condiment in food in Southeast Asia for centuries. According to the initial epidemiological analysis of the Indian population, curcumin has a strong potential to treat Alzheimer’s disease. The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease was 4.4-fold lower in long-term curcumin users than those without curcumin in the United States. Curcumin, as an effective anti-inflammatory small molecule, was shown to inhibit the COX-2 expression in human colon cancer cells. Recently, Wang et al. have proven that curcumin can inhibit ApoE4-induced injury by upregulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ to inhibit the activation of NF-κB signaling in SH-SY5Y cells. Apart from the anti-inflammatory role, curcumin also acts as a known antioxidant that scavenges reactive oxygen species. Zheng et al. found that curcumin can protect SH-SY5Y cells against appoptosin-induced intrinsic caspase-dependent apoptosis by increasing heme oxygenase-1 expression and reducing ROS production.  Chhunchha et al. also proposed that curcumin could reinforce the naturally occurring Prdx6 expression, attenuate ROS-based ER stress and NF-κB-mediated aberrant signaling, then improve the survival of mouse hippocampal cells (HT22), and may provide an avenue to treat and/or postpone diseases associated with ROS or ER stress. In the findings of Feng et al.,they indicated that curcumin could inhibit the PERK–eIF2α–CHOP axis of the ER stress response through the activation of SIRT1 in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-treated rat chondrocytes and ameliorated osteoarthritis development in vivo. Together, the previous studies focused either on the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin in vitro under various stimuli or on its protection against ER stress in other inflammatory diseases.

Curcumin protects against inflammation and lung injury in rats with acute pulmonary embolism
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | April 2021
Curcumin decreased miR-21 expression by downregulating Sp1 to upregulate PTEN and to impair the NF-κB signaling pathway, thus suppressing lung injury and inflammation in APE rats.

Antiviral and immunomodulatory activity of curcumin: A case for prophylactic therapy for COVID-19
Heliyon Cell Press | March 2021
Curcumin, a bioactive compound in turmeric, exerts diverse pharmacological activities and is widely used in foods and traditional medicines. This review presents several lines of evidence, which suggest curcumin as a promising prophylactic, therapeutic candidate for COVID-19. First, curcumin exerts antiviral activity against many types of enveloped viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, by multiple mechanisms: direct interaction with viral membrane proteins; disruption of the viral envelope; inhibition of viral proteases; induce host antiviral responses. Second, curcumin protects from lethal pneumonia and ARDS via targeting NF-κB, inflammasome, IL-6 trans signal, and HMGB1 pathways. Third, curcumin is safe and well-tolerated in both healthy and diseased human subjects. In conclusion, accumulated evidence indicates that curcumin may be a potential prophylactic therapeutic for COVID-19 in the clinic and public health settings.

Curcumin suppresses the stemness of non‐small cell lung cancer cells
Environmental Toxicology | March 2021
Curcumin has been shown to suppress the progression of lung cancer, however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Our results suggest that curcumin can attenuate the stemness of lung cancer cells through promoting TAZ protein degradation and thus activating Hippo pathway.

The Effect of Curcumin Supplementation on Overweight or Obese Adults
Nutrients | 2021
Curcumin has been shown to play a beneficial role in obesity management. Therefore, exploring the effects of certain herbs or dietary spices on obesity may be promising. Among these spices, curcumin, which is the primary component of the spice turmeric, has gained great interest for its multiple health benefits. Several randomized controlled trials have investigated the potential favorable effects of curcumin supplementation on anthropometric measures. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of curcumin supplementation on the anthropometric indices among overweight or obese adults. Curcumin supplementation may exert beneficial effects against obesity among overweight or obese adults.

Anticancer Mechanism of Curcumin on Human Glioblastoma
Nutrients | 2021
Curcumin is the most studied compound described as a potential anticancer agent due to its multi-targeted signaling/molecular pathways properties. Curcumin possesses the ability to modulate the core pathways involved in GBM cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy, paraptosis, oxidative stress, and tumor cell motility. This review discusses curcumin’s anticancer mechanism. Curcuminoids (especially curcumin) have been gaining immense attention because of its anticarcinogenic, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions. Curcumin is the most abundant compound and has been widely studied as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, and autoimmune diseases. For instance, curcumin was able to restore oxidative stress and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) functions against diabetic retinopathy. Curcumin also acts as a wound healing promoting agent by facilitating collagen synthesis and fibroblast migration. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies also reported its anticancer effects in colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, and GBM. Curcumin can modulate multiple cellular signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in GBM tumor growth, migration, invasion, cell death, and proliferatio. Retinoblastoma (Rb), p53, MAP kinase (MAPK), P13K/Akt, JAK/STAT, sonic hedgehog (Shh), and NF-κB pathways are the most common targeted dysregulated pathways found in GBM and modulated by curcumin. Moreover, curcumin is highly lipophilic and able to cross the blood–brain barrier.

Curcumin + Celecoxib: a synergistic and rationale combination chemotherapy for breast cancer
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences | March 2021
This study is designed to explore the synergistic inhibitory effect of the combination of curcumin and celecoxib on the growth of human breast cancer cells. Our findings show the prominent anti-proliferative effects of celecoxib and/or curcumin on MDA-MB-231 cells, providing a rationale for further detailed preclinical and potential clinical studies of this combination for breast cancer therapy. Further, these computed parameters suggested that curcumin possesses a high tendency to act as an adjuvant drug with celecoxib in the treatment of breast cancer.

Immune-Stimulatory Effects of Curcumin on the Tumor Microenvironment in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Cancers | March 2021
Curcumin is known to have immune-modulatory and antitumor effects by interacting with more than 30 different proteins. An important feature of curcumin is the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa of activated B-cells (NF-κB).  Curcumin was more effective in inhibiting PIC-dependent NF-κB activation and Treg attraction compared to known NF-κB inhibitors BAY 11-7082 or caffeic acid phenethyl ester. The presented results show, for the first time, the immune-modulating effects of curcumin in HNSCC, with potent inhibition of the Treg-attracting effects of PIC. Hence, curcumin presents a promising drug in cancer therapy as a supplement to already established treatments.

Curcumin with Promising Protection against Herpesvirus Infections and Their Associated Inflammation
Microorganisms | March 2021
Curcumin is the key component of the yellow pigment and the main bioactive molecule of turmeric. Chemically, this compound belongs to the class of natural phenolic compounds and has been broadly identified in diverse Curcuma spp. In 1910, curcumin was characterized as a symmetrical molecule of two 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl rings fastened by α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups, while its synthesis was defined in 1913. Curcumin has been employed widely in the traditional medicine systems of various countries and regions in the world. Since the complete information about chemical structure and synthesis is acquired, curcumin has been extensively studied in various biological assays and has proven to induce numerous pharmacological and beneficial impacts on human health, including but not limited to the potential treatment of various viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza A virus, human papillomavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, arboviruses, and noroviruses. Unlike the notable antimicrobial actions, this biomolecule induces several biological effects including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. We reviewed the curative properties of curcumin, a principal bioactive phenolic compound of the spice turmeric, in regard to various human and animal herpesvirus infections and inflammation connected with these diseases. According to the reviewed studies, this paper presents curcumin as a promising natural drug for the prevention and treatment of herpesvirus infections and their associated inflammatory diseases. In recent years, curcumin as a nutraceutical agent has attracted major attention in many research fields due to its great therapeutic potential against various biological targets. We have comprehensively reviewed the curative values of curcumin against numerous animal and human herpesviruses along with the mechanisms by which this compound induces antiherpetic properties, which were examined in vitro and in vivo investigations. Based on several structure-activity relationship studies, hydroxyl groups, carbonyl groups, and phenyl rings of curcumin were observed to be accountable for the induced anti-herpesvirus properties. In conclusion, this review proposes curcumin as a potent and safe drug for the therapy of herpesvirus infections as well as inflammation associated with these infections.

Roles of Curcumin in Sensitising the Cisplatin Effect on a Cancer Stem Cell-Like Population Derived from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules | March 2021
Natural compounds such as curcumin that contain high amounts of polyphenols can have a chemosensitivity effect that sensitises CSCs to cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin.  Curcumin significantly suppressed colonies formation by 50% and shrank the spheroids in cancer stem ce subpopulations, indicating inhibition of their self-renewal capability. This effect also was manifested by the down-regulation of SOX2, NANOG, and KLF4. Curcumin also regulated the niche of cancer stem cells  by inhibiting chemoresistance proteins, aldehyde dehydrogenase, metastasis, angiogenesis, and proliferation of cancer-related proteins. These results show the potential of using curcumin as a therapeutic approach for targeting cancer stem cells  subpopulations in non-small cell lung cancer. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a naturally occurring polyphenol extract that is found in turmeric. Curcumin has long been used as a food, cosmetic, and traditional herbal medicine. Significant evidence indicated that curcumin’s anti-cancer potential against many types of cancer, including breast, pancreas, prostate, lung, melanoma, and head and neck cancers. Unlike many ‘targeted’ chemotherapeutic drugs that suffer from toxicity and resistance, curcumin by itself can target specific molecules and pathways without any associated toxicity or resistance. One of the most compelling reasons for exploring curcumin is its sensitiser properties, which influence a diverse range of molecular targets within cells. Combining curcumin with chemotherapy drugs led to the hypothesis that efficacy could be enhanced by adding two or more targeted agents to combat cancer cells’ resistance mechanism. Our previous study has shown that curcumin was able to increase the efficacy of cisplatin

Focus on Multi-targeted Role of Curcumin: a Boon in Therapeutic Paradigm
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | March 2021
After thoroughly studying several articles on combination therapy of curcumin through authenticated book chapters, websites, research, and review articles available at PubMed, ScienceDirect, etc., it has been observed that multi-targeted curcumin possess enormous anticancer potential and, with whatever drug it is given in combination, has always resulted in enhanced effect with reduced dose as well as side effects. It is also capable enough in overcoming the problem of chemoresistance. Combining all the factors together, we can conclude that combination therapy of drugs with curcumin should be explored extensively

Efficacy of curcumin/turmeric on liver enzymes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Integrative Medicine Research | March 2021
Meta-analysis of 4 randomized controlled trials including 228 subjects showed a trend toward significant reduction of ALT blood concentrations in subgroup with ≥1000 mg/day curcumin supplementation. Meta-analysis showed a significant reduction of AST in studies with 8-weeks administration. Conclusion This review suggests that curcumin/turmeric might have a favorable effect on NAFLD in higher dosage.

Curcumin suppresses tumor growth of gemcitabine-resistant non-small cell lung cancer
Clinical and Translational Oncology | March 2021
Curcumin has been reported to block cancer development by modulating multiple signaling pathways. The results showed that curcumin suppressed gemcitabine-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Curcumin upregulated the expression of lncRNA-MEG3 and PTEN, and MEG3 overexpression could increase the level of PTEN expression, while MEG3 knockdown decreased the level of PTEN expression in gemcitabine-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells. These findings show the antitumor activity of curcumin for potential clinical application in gemcitabine-resistant non-small cell lung cancer treatment.

Curcumin anti‐tumor effects on endometrial cancer with focus on its molecular targets
Cancer Cell International | March 2021
Curcumin is a phenolic antioxidant extracted from turmeric, which is frequently used as a spice and has a yellow color. The rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa is the origin of turmeric that contains turmerin protein as well as analogs of curcumin, demethoxycucumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione is the chemical name of curcumin and C21H20O6 is its empirical formula. Since curcumin and its two analogs have the same molecular and biological characteristics, it is suggested that bisdemethoxycurcumin converts to demethoxycucumin, which in turn, transforms into curcumin. While curcumin plays a variety of beneficial roles, studies on animals and humans have concluded that it is a safe agent even at high doses. Curcumin acts as an anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-malarial, anti-HIV, and anti-angiogenic agent. Furthermore, it can be used in the treatment of inflammation, skin wounds, and neurodegenerative diseases.  Curcumin has complex chemistry and it is capable of targeting some signaling pathways. Moreover, it can interact with several intracellular and extracellular molecules. These features lead to anti-tumor effects of curcumin on various cancer cells and is useful at different stages, including prevention, treatment, and controlling the symptoms of cancers. There are studies concerned with the anti-tumor effects of curcumin in the treatment of EC. Curcumin plays these roles by involving various targets, such as signaling pathways, proteins, genes, and RNAs. Induction of apoptosis, reducing inflammation, and inhibiting cell migration are the results of curcumin treatment. Furthermore, there are some miRNAs whose effects on EC have been identified and curcumin has been observed to impact on these miRNAs but in other cancers. Altogether, curcumin should be considered as a therapeutic target in EC and its anti-tumor effects on this cancer deserve further exploration.

The protective effects of curcumin in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury through PKC-θ signaling
Cell Cycle | March 2021
Curcumin, a known antioxidant, has been found to have neuroprotective effects. To determine the protective mechanism of curcumin in ischemic stroke, oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) was used to treat PC12 cells to mimic the cerebral I/R cell model. Our results demonstrated that curcumin could reverse the MCAO/R-induced increase in Ca2+ concentration and blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Our study demonstrates the mechanisms by which curcumin exhibited a protective function against cerebral I/R through PKC-θ signaling by reducing BBB dysfunction.

Curcumin promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cells by inactivating AKT
Oncology Reports | March 2021
Curcumin, a phytochemical from rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa, has been reported to exert potential anticancer properties in various cancer types, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML).  The present study demonstrated the anti-AML effect of curcumin both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that curcumin exerted anti‑acute myeloid leukemia roles by inactivating AKT and these findings may aid in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

Curcumin repairs intestinal mucosal injury induced by 5-FU chemotherapy for colon cancer
National Library of Medicine | March 2021
Curcumin maintained the integrity of mucosal surface and villi structure of jejunum to a large extent, and reduced pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, curcumin could increase the positive expression of occludin, claudin and ZO-1(P&lt;0.05 or P&lt;0.01), repair intestinal barrier function, downregulate the protein expression of IL-6, p-STAT3, vimentin and N-cadherin in jejunum tissues(P&lt;0.05 or P&lt;0.01), and upregulate the protein expression of E-cadherin(P&lt;0.05). Therefore, curcumin could repair the intestinal mucosal injury induced by 5-FU chemotherapy for colon cancer, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 signal and the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) process.

Effect of Curcumin, Exelon and their Combination on Brain in Alzheimer’s Disease-Induced Rats
 Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research | March 2021
Curcumin is a natural product derived from Curcuma longa (more commonly known as turmeric). Curcumin has anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities, so it can decrease inflammation, amyloid accumulation and oxidative stress which has ability to scavenge free radicals. Also, it has protective potent from lipid peroxidation, and scavenges nitric oxide (NO)-based radicals. Curcumin has ability to inhibit formation of Aβ plaques and lower soluble Aβ levels due to its metal chelation properties as it binds to redox-active metal ions such as iron and copper. These complexes may cause a net protective effect through decreased Aβ aggregation. Curcumin is safe product which large quantities can consumed without toxicity. The results obtained from the present study revealed that curcumin can be effective in various types of oxidative associated Alzheimer’s disease and encouraged further in vitro studies to realize the accurate bio efficacy and bioavailability pathways of curcumin. Regarding the above-mentioned results which demonstrated the biological activities of curcumin in either protecting or treating brain, it is highly recommended to estimate curcumin as a safe and effective natural product for oxidative associated Alzheimer’s diseases. According to these results, curcumin as a dietary supplement has a protective role against the beginning of Alzheimer’s diseases. The intake of a significant content of curcumin in the daily regimen or as dietary supplementation along with specific therapeutic options can provide perfect prevention and treatment for Alzheimer’s diseases.

Synergistic Roles of Curcumin in Sensitising the Cisplatin Effect on a Cancer Stem Cell-Like Population Derived from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules | March 2021
Significant evidence indicated that curcumin’s anti-cancer potential against many types of cancer, including breast, pancreas, prostate, lung, melanoma, and head and neck cancers. Unlike many ‘targeted’ chemotherapeutic drugs that suffer from toxicity and resistance, curcumin by itself can target specific molecules and pathways without any associated toxicity or resistance. One of the most compelling reasons for exploring curcumin is its sensitiser properties, which influence a diverse range of molecular targets within cells. Combining curcumin with chemotherapy drugs led to the hypothesis that efficacy could be enhanced by adding two or more targeted agents to combat cancer cells’ resistance mechanism. Our previous study has shown that curcumin was able to increase the efficacy of cisplatin by enhancing the cisplatin-induced metastatic inhibition and apoptosis of the highly migratory CSC subpopulation of NSCLC cell lines.Natural compounds such as curcumin that contain high amounts of polyphenols can have a chemosensitivity effect that sensitises CSCs to cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin.  Results show the potential of using curcumin as a therapeutic approach for targeting CSC subpopulations in non-small cell lung cancer. Results of this study show that either alone or in combination with cisplatin, curcumin can suppress CSC properties; thus, it could be an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent the emergence of chemoresistance in NSCLC by eliminating CSCs.

How curcumin affects hyperglycemia-induced optic nerve damage: A short review
Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy | March 2021
Curcumin is effective in preventing the progression of diabetic complications and improving complications. Curcumin has healing effects in optic nerve damage with its anti-oxidant properties.

Effects of curcumin administration on Nesfatin-1 levels in blood, brain and fat tissues of diabetic rats
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences | March 2021
Curcumin administration caused significant improvement in fasting blood glucose levels.  For the first time, we found marked improvements in nesfatin-1 levels in blood, brain, and fat tissues of type 2 DM rats. Thus, considering the crucial role of nesfatin-1 in regulation of glucose metabolism, it is logical to expect an interactive relationship between curcumin and nesfatin-1.

Curcumin Supplementation Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote the Anabolism of Articular Chondrocytes and Cartilage Repair
Cell Transplantation | March 2021
Curcumin displayed multiple pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer, and has been employed in different studies involving several pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, cancer, osteoporosis, rheumatic arthritis, and osteoarthritis. It could inhibit the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κβ) and synthesis of reactive oxygen species by reducing the production of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α via various pathways, and is emerged as an effective therapeutic agent. For osteoarthritis treatment, curcumin supplementation exhibited effects mainly based on its anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and antiapoptosis potentials15. In clinical trials, curcumin served as a natural product medicine displayed nearly no side effects, thus making it a potential alternative to NSAIDs and some other medications with known severe adverse effects. In the current study, curcumin enhanced the BMSC function for the proliferation and migration of articular chondrocytes, and anabolic gene expression of ECM in articular chondrocytes in vitro, and the regeneration of articular cartilage in vivo. These results indicated potential clinical application of curcumin cooperation with BMSCs in cartilage repair for osteoarthritis treatment.

Curcumin for amyloidosis and lipid metabolism - a novel insight
eLife Shinshu University | March 2021
Curcumin is a polyphenol compound produced by plants of the Curcuma longa species and has been reported to have many physiological activities, which include anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-amyloid properties. In previous studies, curcumin has been shown to suppress the aggregation and cytotoxicity of many amyloid proteins in vitro, such as amyloid ß (Aß), α-synuclein, transthyretin, and prion protein, and has also been reported to inhibit the deposition of Aß fibrils in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  These findings demonstrate the novel agonistic effect of curcumin on PPARα, which is an important transcription factor for lipid metabolism, and may have far-reaching significance for the treatment of amyloidosis and other metabolic disorders. In addition, it has been regarded that curcumin, as an agonist of PPARγ, exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and antioxidant activities in the past. However, this study demonstrates that curcumin is a PPARα/γ dual activator and may affect expression levels of proteins involved in amyloid deposition and other metabolism functions in a complex manner. By focusing on the PPARα pathway, the group hope to provide an opportunity to reconsider the mechanism of the physiological effects of curcumin.

A protective effect of curcumin on cardiovascular oxidative stress indicators in systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats
Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports | March 2021
Administration of curcumin attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation in the serum, aorta and heart tissues induced by lipopolysaccharide LPS.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Curcumin on Human Vitreous in Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy
Frontiers in Neurology | March 2021
Curcumin, a yellowish non-flavonoid polyphenol that constitutes the main active compound of Curcuma longa, is widely known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Many studies have also described its marked protective effect on retinal cells against oxidative stress and inflammation. Curcumin is a well-known bioactive molecule, largely employed in supplement formulation due to its anti-inflammatory properties. Our study highlighted the ability of curcumin to reduce cytokine levels in the vitreous of diabetic patients. We also observed an additional anti-inflammatory effect when curcumin was combined with homotaurine and vitamin D3, suggesting that these molecules can regulate the inflammatory network between the vitreous and retina at different levels. This effect is confirmed by the gene expression experiment which demonstrated that the combination of curcumin, vitamin D3, and homotaurine down-regulate the cyclinD1 gene and the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes TNFα and IL6 expression.

Curcumin protects cells from oxidative stress and inflammation
International Journal of Molecular Medicine | March 2021
Curcumin is a well‑known antioxidant, the present study demonstrates that curcumin protects BEAS‑2B cells against PM2.5‑induced oxidative damage and inflammation, and prevents cell apoptosis by increasing the activation of NRF2‑related pathways. It is thus suggested that curcumin may be a potential compound for use in the prevention of PM2.5‑induced tissue injury.

Curcumin induces mitochondrial biogenesis by increasing cAMP levels via PDE4A inhibition in skeletal muscle
British Journal of Nutrition | March 2021
Previous research has suggested that curcumin potentially induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle via increasing cAMP levels. The present results suggest that curcumin increases cAMP levels via inhibition of PDE4A phosphorylation, which induces mitochondrial biogenesis through a cAMP/PKA/AMPK signalling pathway. Our data also suggest the possibility that curcumin utilizes a regulatory mechanism for mitochondrial biogenesis that is distinct from the exercise-induced mechanism in skeletal muscle.

Catechin and curcumin interact with S protein of coronavirus SARS-CoV2 and ACE2 of human cell membrane
Scientific Reports | February 2021
Several recent studies have suggested that natural polyphenolic compounds like catechins (GTCs; Green Tea Catechins) and curcumin (diferuloylmethane; from turmeric) have antiviral activities against a broad spectrum of viruses such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Herpes Simplex Virus, Influenza Virus, Hepatitis B and C Viruses (HBV and HCV respectively)14, Adenovirus15 and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Diverse mechanisms have been suggested to explain the antiviral activities of both the polyphenolic compounds. Curcumin has been demonstrated as a potent inhibitor of monophosphate dehydrogenase, a rate limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotide22. Further, it has also been observed that GTCs and curcumin inhibit the expression of ACE2, as evident from animal studies.Both catechin and curcumin bind the interface of ‘RBD/ACE2-complex’ and intervene in causing fluctuation of the alpha helices and beta-strands of the protein complex. Protein–protein interaction studies in presence of curcumin or catechin also corroborate the above findings suggesting the efficacy of these two polyphenols in hindering the formation of S Protein-ACE2 complex. In conclusion, this computational study for the first time predicts the possibility of above two polyphenols for therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV2.

ASU study looks at how Curcumin supplements might help post-COVID
AZFamily.com | February 2021
Researchers at Arizona State University are conducting a study into if whether or not two supplements can help reduce inflammation after having COVID-19. An ASU grad student is part of a research team, hoping to learn whether or not two supplements reduce inflammation after COVID-19. "It can either be Curcumin, which comes from the spice turmeric," said ASU Grad Student Samantha Fessler. "...the other one is Palmitoylethanolamide, and that comes from things like eggs and peanut oil...using these supplements with the flu, they've been proven to improve inflammation associated with the flu viral infection and also post-recovery from other types of chronic issues."

The potential role of curcumin in the prevention of COVID-19
Archives of Microbiology | February 2021
Due to the new coronavirus’ unexplored nature, we shed light on curcumin for its potential role against the disease. The current study showed the use of curcumin against the coronavirus and its possible role in developing medicine against it. Curcuma longa produces turmeric (diferuloylmethane), named Indian saffron in Europe, with its medicinal uses, including antiviral and anti-inflammatory actions. It has shown that curcumin has its inhibitory effects on the virus, including HIV, smallpox, measles, and chickenpox are being among its target. In the current study, we showed the possible use of curcumin in the prevention of COVID-19 by targeting the virus replicase protein Nsp9. Turmeric is the principle source of curcumin, and in India it is used as an essential daily ingredient in the food preparation while it has its own antiviral, antifungal, antiallergic properties. Hence, it is preferred over other medicinal compounds in the present study. As curcumin also showed the antiviral properties, the interaction of curcumin and Nsp9 may be useful in understanding the novel SARS Cov-2.  This supports the use of curcumin to reduce the pathological consequences that emerged due to coronavirus infection. So, by targeting the ssRNA of coronavirus at its initial replication stage, through curcumin, when it enters the human is a matter of immediate in-vivo research to possibly overcome the COVID-19 and explore the inhibitory pathways of curcumin to prevent the new coronavirus replication machinery in the human system.

Curcumin: reclaiming the lost ground against cancer resistancee leydig testosterone
Cancer Drug Resistance | February 2021
Curcumin, a polyphenol, has a wide range of biological properties such as anticancer, antibacterial, antitubercular, cardioprotective and neuroprotective. Moreover, the anti-proliferative activities of Curcumin have been widely studied against several types of cancers due to its ability to target multiple pathways in cancer. A large number of reported studies and increasing interest of researchers have reinforced the claim of curcumin being one of the most sought after natural product in the fight against cancer. Curcumin, is a polyphenolic compound of up to 5% present in turmeric. Curcumin as a phytochemical has been widely explored for its therapeutic potential through in vitro and in vivo investigations. It has been shown to possess biological activity against a large spectrum of physiological conditions, which include antioxidant, chemo-protective, anti-diabetic and anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells. Curcumin has shown commendable potential during in vitro and in vivo studies against vrious cancers. It has also been established through clinical trials that curcumin does not show any adverse effect upto a daily dose of 8 g to 12 g. The combinatorial treatment of curcumin has been shown to sensitize the drug-resistant cancer towards existing anticancer drugs and this aspect of combinatorial treatment can be exploited to fully utilize the curative potential of curcumin. In the near future, curcumin may play an important role in chemotherapeutic regimes against different types of cancers.

Curcumin has the potential to improve motor skills in Parkinson’s disease
Emerging Investigators | February 2021
Curcumin is a polyphenol and an active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), a dietary spice widely used in Indian cuisine and medicine. Curcumin exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, crosses the blood-brain barrier and is neuroprotective in neurological disorders. Several studies in different experimental models of Parkinson’s disease strongly support the clinical application of curcumin in Parkinson’s disease. With India’s apparent resistance to Parkinson’s disease and the Parkinson’s disease clinical applications done with a spice Indians use almost daily, curcumin becomes a logical treatment in PD cases.  Curcumin does have an impact on Parkinson’s disease symptoms, we can conduct further experimentation to see which amount of curcumin in diets have an optimal impact of curcumin in the brain.

A Review of the Possible Effects of Curcumin in the Treatment of COVID-19
Journal of Military Medicine | February 2021
Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound, which could be a potential treatment option for patients with Covid-19. In this study, we review some of the possible effects of curcumin, such as inhibiting virus entry into the cell, inhibiting virus replication and viral protease, as well as modulating some intracellular messenger pathways. To comprehensive literature review, information from an internet search of English language databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and ScienceDirect as well as Persian language databases such as SID using related keywords based on MESH such as COVID-19, SARS-COV-2 , Curcumin and curcuminoid between January 2020 and January 2021 were collected. This review provides some possible effects of curcumin and its mechanisms for the treatment of COVID-19.

Ten Days of Curcumin Supplementation Attenuates Subjective Soreness and Maintains Muscular Power Following Plyometric Exercise
Journal of Dietary Supplements | February 2021
Curcumin has become a popular product used to decrease inflammation and enhance recovery from exercise. Purpose: To determine the effects of curcumin supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle power following plyometric exercise. Conclusion: These data suggest curcumin reduces soreness and maintains muscular power following plyometric exercise.

Curcumin: Natural Antimicrobial and Anti Inflammatory Agent
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International | February 2021
Various studies, conducted as in vitro assays, have revealed different therapeutic applications of curcumin due to its different molecular mechanisms. Findings of the present in vitro study confirmed consideration of curcumin as a natural antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Test curcumin solutions demonstrated strong antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity. With an increase of curcumin concentration antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity increased, which implied that observed activity is dependent upon the concentration of curcumin. In conclusion, the present study emphasises the potential application of curcumin as a natural antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent.

Oral supplementation of curcumin for three months reduces p-CS plasma levels in hemodialysis patients, suggesting a gut microbiota modulation
 International Urology and Nephrology | February 2021
Nutritional strategies, such as bioactive compounds present in curcumin, have been proposed as an option to modulate the gut microbiota and decrease the production of uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate (IS), p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) and indole-3 acetic acid (IAA). After three months of supplementation, the curcumin group showed a significant decrease in pCS plasma levels [from 32.4 (22.1–45.9) to 25.2 (17.9–37.9) mg/L, p = 0.009], which did not occur in the control group.

Management of altered metabolic activity in Drosophila model of Huntington’s disease by curcumin
bioRxiv | February 2021
Curcumin is bioactive component of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), well-known for its ability to modulate metabolic activities. We found that curcumin effectively managed abnormal body weight, dysregulated lipid content and carbohydrate level in Huntington’s disease flies. In addition, curcumin administration lowered elevated reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) levels in adult adipose tissue of diseased flies, and improved survival and locomotor function in Huntington’s disease flies at advanced disease stage. Altogether, these findings clearly suggest that curcumin efficiently attenuates metabolic derangements in Huntington’s disease flies and can prove beneficial in alleviating the complexities associated with Huntington’s disease. Phytochemicals like curcumin that can regulate multiple targets in complex diseases like Huntington’s disease, with least side-effects and maximum benefits, provide a better hope for the treatment of terminally-ill Huntington’s disease patients. Our findings show that curcumin is beneficial in suppression of neurodegeneration with amelioration of metabolic dysregulation. Though curcumin may not completely prevent neurodegeneration or metabolic impairments during terminal stages, it can effectively delay the inception and progression of HD at initial and moderate disease forms. Therefore, curcumin may prove to be a safe and suitable treatment regimen for management of HD that could be of great relief for the patients.

Effects of Curcumin on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profile in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Nutrients | February 2021
Curcumin has been studied to adjunctly treat broad spectrum of disease from type 2 diabetes mellitus to telogen effluvium. Curcumin elicits antidiabetic effects via several mechanisms, including the increase in glycolysis and glycogen synthesis and the decrease in gluconeogenesis in the liver, as well as the increase in glucose uptake, glycolysis, and glycogen synthesis in the skeletal muscle. Curcumin has also been known to reduce plasma cholesterol and triglyceride by increasing the activity of lipoprotein lipase and through mechanisms which alter lipid and cholesterol gene expression. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin have been demonstrated to reduce the oxidative stress in patients with PCOS. Previous literature reveals that curcumin significantly improves fasting blood glucose and triglyceride in patients with metabolic syndrome. In vivo study further demonstrates similar effects in the PCOS model. Curcumin significantly improves fasting glucose, fasting insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance, and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. It also significantly improves high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. Curcumin may improve glycemic control and lipid metabolism in patients with PCOS and metabolic abnormality without significant adverse effects.  Curcumin may improve glycemic control and lipid metabolism in patients with PCOS and metabolic abnormality without significant adverse effects. Further studies are advocated to investigate the potential effects of curcumin on hyperandrogenism.

Curcumin promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia
Oncology Reports | February 2021
Curcumin is the main polyphenol component extracted from rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa, and its therapeutic benefit has been demonstrated in various cancer types, including AML. However, the underlying mechanism is complex and remains poorly understood, as curcumin has multiple targets and is involved in various signaling pathways. Previous studies have reported that curcumin can exert its antitumor effects by acting as an inhibitor of kinases, such as protein kinase B (AKT/PKB) in head and neck cancer cells, JAK1 in retinoblastoma cells and p38MAPK in endothelial cells. The present study demonstrated the anti‑AML effect of curcumin both in vitro and in vivo, and this effect was increased by the combination with afuresertib. Afuresertib has been reported to exert antitumor effects in ovarian cancer, malignant pleural mesothelioma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, to the best of our knowledge, its role in AML has not been previously reported. The present study was the first report that afuresertib could potentially be used for the treatment of AML.In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that curcumin decreased the survival and proliferation of AML cells in vitro, as well as AML cell proliferation in hematopoietic tissue and dissemination into non‑hematopoietic tissues. Mechanistically, curcumin treatment suppressed AKT activation, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

The Multifaced Actions of Curcumin in Pregnancy Outcome
Antioxidants | February 2021
Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), also known as diferuloylmethane, is a polyphenolic yellow substance coming from the rhizomes, the most commonly used plant part, of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae family). Curcumin structure is similar to other bioactive non-volatile curcuminoids such as dimethoxy-curcumin and bisdemethoxy-curcumin, differing only for the number of methoxy groups on their aromatic rings. This plant has been used since ancient times for both food and pharmaceutical purposes, showing a variety of beneficial effects in the organism reducing glycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance  and steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Moreover, due to the cytotoxic effects of curcumin on tumor cells, this compound showed good effects also as an anticancer agent inhibiting tumor proliferation and inducing apoptosis in many cancer types including breast, colon, lung and gastric cancer. In addition, curcumin showed anti-metastatic, radioprotective and chemosensitizer effects reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and leading to the use of nano-formulations of curcumin for the treatment of cancer. Curcumin is generally recognized as a safe substance and its use in humans did not show any toxic effects at the dose of 6 g/day orally for 4–7 weeks. Curcumin has been extensively studied in various fields, showing a wide range of action, including Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-toxicant, anti-apoptotic, anti-diabetic and immunomodulatory actions, demonstrated by in vitro studies and animal models, suggest the use of this compound as a therapeutic agent in counteracting several pregnancy complications. Inflammation, oxidative stress, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation and apoptosis are common conditions usually found in almost all of the pathological placental conditions mentioned above; for this reason, curcumin could play a key role in improving pregnancy outcome in these complications. To date, there are many clinical trials studying the efficacy of curcumin in many types of cancer that generally consider curcumin as well tolerated and efficient adjuvant therapy ameliorating the response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy reducing the side effects of these therapies. Clinical effects of curcumin have also been shown in other pathologies. In fact, curcumin improved the severity of patients affected by non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) disease decreasing the serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α and MCP-1. Moreover, curcumin intake in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) significantly increased gene expression of PGC1α and activity of the Gpx enzyme reducing oxidative stress. Another clinical trial showed that curcumin was able to improve the symptoms in patients affected by knee osteoarthritis. Beneficial curcumin effects were also found in clinical trials focused on its role in body weight regulation, finding a role for curcumin in reducing BMI and increasing weight loss in addition to decreased serum levels of IL1β, IL-4 and VEGF. Moreover, curcumin administration in two clinical trials showed that curcumin could decrease glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to its multifaced role in regulating different signaling and the encouraging data obtained in animal models and in vitro studies, curcumin intake during pregnancy could be beneficial in almost all the pregnancy complications mentioned in this review.

Antioxidant Activity of Curcumin Protects against the Radiation-Induced Micronuclei Formation
International Journal of Radiation Biology | February 2021
Curcumin when treated at a dose of 0.5 μg/mL attenuated micronuclei formation after γ-irradiation by inhibiting the formation of radiation-induced free radicals.

Curcumin significantly alleviated cognitive deficits induced by cerebral ischemia.
Brain Research | February 2021
Curcumin ameliorates acute cerebral ischemia-induced cognitive dysfunction in mice. Curcumin promotes hippocampal NSCs proliferation and differentiation into neurons. Curcumin promotes hippocampal neurogenesis through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

 Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Development of Curcumin, its Combinations, Formulations and Curcumin-like Compounds as Antiinfective Agents
Current Medicinal Chemistry | February 2021
Curcumin, a redox-active natural product, has for centuries been used in Asian traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. It is known for possessing multiple biological and pharmacological activities. Curcumin has been investigated extensively over the years for its anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiparasitic, antiviral and antibacterial activities, and no toxicity is associated with the compound. Despite its potency and safety profile, curcumin is still in clinical trials for the treatment of diseases, such as tuberculosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Chron's disease, colorectal cancer and multiple myeloma, among many others, as it is yet to be qualified as a therapeutic agent.

The effect of curcumin on serum copper, zinc, and zinc/copper ratio in patients with β-thalassemia intermedia: a randomized double-blind clinical trial
Annals of Hematology | February 2021
Due to its significant therapeutic effects, curcumin has led many studies to focus on curcumin.  Curcumin might exert a net protective effect on copper toxicity in thalassemia intermedia patients. The investigation also implicated that curcumin represents an approach to regulating zinc homeostasis and may be useful as a complementary treatment of patients with thalassemia intermedia, especially in patients with zinc deficiency or low serum zinc/copper ratio.

Curcumin promotes AApoAII amyloidosis and peroxisome proliferation in mice by activating the PPARα signaling pathway
Elife | February 2021
Curcumin is a polyphenol compound that exhibits multiple physiological activities. Curcumin, a polyphenol compound, is extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and has a long history of use in traditional medicines. In in vitro experiments, curcumin has been shown to suppress the aggregation and cytotoxicity of Aβ, αSyn, islet amyloid precursor protein (IAPP), ATTR and prion protein (PrP). In 2001, the first evidence of the efficacy of curcumin against Aβ amyloidosis in a transgenic model mice was reported. Curcumin was found to suppress amyloid deposition in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and improve memory function. It was subsequently demonstrated that the amount of amyloid present in TTR-and tau-transgenic mice were reduced by curcumin supplementation. Curcumin is a compound with multiple physiological activities, which includ eanti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, lipid metabolism regulation and anti-amyloid properties.

Curcumin and Metabolic Diseases: The Role of Gut Microbiota
Nutrients | January 2021
Turmeric, also known as Curcuma longa L. belongs to Zingiberaceae (or ginger family) and is a golden-colored spice. Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) is the principle curcuminoid of turmeric used in traditional medicine to cure various kinds of malady, as well as being a food additive and coloring agent in Asian cuisines and in beverage industries. Hewlings and Kalman stated the beneficial effects of curcumin in the treatment of chronic diseases, such as gastrointestinal, neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and several types of cancer. Enzymes of the large intestine metabolise curcumin, and it is carried out in two phases. In phase-1 metabolism, it yields three metabolites, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-dione (tetrahydrocurcumin), 5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-heptanone (hexahydrocurcumin), and 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-diol (octahydrocurcumin) under reduction. After that, curcumin and its metabolites subject to conjugation through phase-II metabolism to yield sulfate and glucuronide O-conjugated metabolites. Curcumin metabolites have properties and potency similar to curcumin and exhibit the same physiological and pharmacological properties. It has been stated that curcumin and gut microbiota have bidirectional interactions such as gut microbiota regulation by curcumin and biotransformation of curcumin by gut microbiota.  Carmody et al reported that the biological properties of curcumin depend on the activity of metabolites produced by gut microbiota digestion. The curcumin metabolic pathways by GM include reduction, methylation, demethoxylation, hydroxylation, and acetylation, and the main products are 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-dione (tetrahydrocurcumin), 3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid (dihydroferulic acid), and 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propanol. Furthermore, curcumin can also be metabolized by Pichia pastoris into four major metabolites, include 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3methoxyphenyl) heptan-3,5-diol, 5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) heptan-3-one, 5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) heptane-3-one, and 5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl) heptan-3-one [101,103]. Many GM, such as E. coli, E. fergusonii (ATCC 35469) Blautia sp. (mrg-pmf1), Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacteria longum BB536, Bifidobacteria pseudocatenulaum G4), Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus), Enterococcus faecalis JCM 5803, Pichia anomala, and Bacillus megateriumdcmb-002, are found biologically relevant in the biotransformation and degradation of curcumin.

Curcumin, a traditional spice component, can hold the promise against COVID-19?
European Journal of Pharmacology | January 2021
Curcumin, known for its pharmacological abilities especially as an anti-inflammatory agent, can be hypothesized as a potential candidate in the therapeutic regimen. COVID-19 has an assorted range of pathophysiological consequences, including pulmonary damage, elevated inflammatory response, coagulopathy, and multi-organ damage. This review summarizes the several evidences for the pharmacological benefits of curcumin in COVID-19-associated clinical manifestations. Curcumin can be appraised to hinder cellular entry, replication of SARS-CoV-2, and to prevent and repair COVID-19-associated damage of pneumocytes, renal cells, cardiomyocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, etc. The modulation and protective effect of curcumin on cytokine storm-related disorders are also discussed. Collectively, this review provides grounds for its clinical evaluation in the therapeutic management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The combination of bromelain and curcumin as an immune-boosting nutraceutical in the prevention of severe COVID-19
Metabolism | January 2021
The antiviral actions of curcumin against multiple viruses (influenza and hepatitis viruses, herpes viruses, human papilloma virus, human immunodeficiency virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other coronaviruses), bacteria and fungi have been established by experimental evidence. Remarkably, recent evidence from in silico studies has demonstrated that curcumin prevents SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells by blocking the viral binding sites and the cell ligands (spike protein, ACE-2 receptors and basigin), downregulating trans-membrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS-2), and by interfering with viral replication through the interaction with various viral proteins Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a natural phenol found in turmeric (Curcuma longa), a member of the ginger family of plants. Curcumin modulates inflammation preventing the subsequent cytokine storm by inhibiting multiple transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3), and downregulating the proinflammatory cytokines, as this has been demonstrated in human macrophages after influenza virus infection. Additionally, curcumin inhibits ACE modulating angiotensin II synthesis and downregulating inflammation, while it also promotes fibrinolysis and the anticoagulation process. Notably, bromelain substantially increases the absorption of curcumin after oral administration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report highlighting the significance of bromelain and, most importantly, the potential preventive value of the synergistic effects of bromelain and curcumin against severe COVID-19.

The potential anti-cancer properties of curcumin in liver cancer
In Vivo | January 2021
Curcumin is a polyphenol that exerts a variety of pharmacological activities and plays an anti-cancer role in many cancer cells. Curcumin increased the expression of the GSDME N-terminus and proteins involved in pyrolysis, promoted HspG2 cell pyrolysis and increased intracellular ROS levels. Moreover, inhibition of the production of intracellular ROS with n-acetylcysteine (NAC) improved the degree of apoptosis and pyrolysis induced by curcumin. Curcumin induces HspG2 cell death by increasing apoptosis and pyroptosis, and ROS play a key role in this process.  This study improves our understanding of the potential anti-cancer properties of curcumin in liver cancer.

The role of curcumin, a potent constituent of turmeric in pleiotropic health beneficial effects
 Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature | January 2021
Curcumin (1,6- heptadiene- 3,5 - dione- 1,7 - bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) - (1E,6E) or diferuloylmethane), isolated from Curcuma longa, is a highly promising natural compound that has several health benefits.  Supplementation of curcumin provided significant (p < 0.05) protection against HgCl2 induced alterations by ameliorating the levels of ROS, PCO, SA, and -SH in erythrocytes membrane and plasma. Thus, the curcumin protects against HgCl2 induced oxidative stress. It also provides an insight into the role of curcumin, a potent constituent of turmeric in pleiotropic health beneficial effects.

 Anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation with curcumin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Nutrition Reviews | January 2021
Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol from turmeric, is a well-known anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical research. Thirty-two trials (N = 2,038 participants) were included and 28 were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model; effect sizes were expressed as Hedges’ g (95%CI).  Pooled data (reported here as weighted mean difference [WMD]; 95%CI) showed a reduction in C-reactive protein (−1.55 mg/L; −1.81 to −1.30), interleukin-6 (−1.69 pg/mL, −2.56 to −0.82), tumor necrosis factor α (−3.13 pg/mL; −4.62 to −1.64), IL-8 (−0.54 pg/mL; −0.82 to −0.28), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (−2.48 pg/mL; −3.96 to −1.00), and an increase in IL-10 (0.49 pg/mL; 0.10 to 0.88), with no effect on intracellular adhesion molecule-1.  These findings provide evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin and support further investigation to confirm dose, duration, and formulation to optimize anti-inflammatory effects in humans with chronic inflammation.

Curcumin has been reported to exhibit protective effects on degeneration in articular cartilage diseases
Cell Biology International | January 2021
Articular cartilage damage and chondrocyte apoptosis are common features of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Curcumin pretreatment reduced IL‐1β‐induced articular chondrocyte apoptosis. Additionally, treatment with curcumin increased autophagy in articular chondrocytes, and protected against IL‐1β‐induced apoptosis.  These results indicate that curcumin may suppress IL‐1β‐induced chondrocyte apoptosis through activating autophagy and restraining NF‐κB signaling pathway.

Curcumin, the primary active ingredient in turmeric, reportedly exerts potent antifibrotic effects
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology | January 2021
These results indicate that curcumin is a promising treatment agent for RIF, and its antifibrotic effects may be mediated by the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activity through the regulation of autophagy and protection of mitochondrial function in UUO rats.

Curcumin Suppresses Cell Growth
Life Sciences | January 2021
Curcumin induced Ac-p53 and p21 to suppress cell proliferation.  Curcumin increased p-Akt and attenuated fluoride-mediated apoptosis and DNA damage.  Curcumin suppressed fluoride-induced p-p21 and increased p21 in the nuclear fraction.

Dichloroacetic acid-induced dysfunction in rat hippocampus and the protective effect of curcumin
Metabolic Brain Disease | January 2021
Various doses of curcumin attenuated DCAA-induced oxidative stress, inflammation response and impaired synaptic plasticity, while elevating cAMP, PKA, p-CREB, BDNF, PSD-95, SYP levels. Thus, curcumin could activate the cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway, conferring neuroprotection against DCAA-induced neurotoxicity.

Curcumin protects radiation-induced liver damage in rats through the NF-κB signaling pathway
Complementary Medicine and Therapies | January 2021
Curcumin has been demonstrated to exert anti-oxidant, anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Our study highlights that curcumin treatment reduces the liver damage caused by radiation through the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.

 Oral administration of curcumin shows hepatoprotective effects
Environmental Toxicology | January 2021
Curcumin pretreatment develops an amelioration of these effects in APAP‐overdose, R‐exposure, or R/APAP treatments. In conclusion, oral administration of curcumin shows hepatoprotective effects against APAP‐overdose induced hepatic damage in normal and gamma‐irradiated rats through prospective regulation of the therapeutic targets CYP2E1, Nrf2, and NF‐κB, via organizing the miR‐122 and miR‐802 gene expression.

Curcumin, as a good all-natural drug for the treatment of IBD, possesses good prospects in clinical application
Molecular Medicine Reports | January 2021
Curcumin is an all-natural compound extracted from plants. It has many biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and immune-regulating, and it protects the intestinal mucosa and repairs the function of intestinal tissue. Other similar studies have shown that in the DSS-induced colitis model, curcumin is found to significantly improve intestinal inflammation, repair the intestinal mucosa and inhibit the expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK. Curcumin itself has anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects. At the same time, curcumin can reduce and inhibit the exudation of neutrophils and macrophages, regulate intestinal immune disorders, reduce intestinal endothelial cell swelling and increase permeability, which further reduces intestinal inflammation. Curcumin can significantly decrease the DAI and SI of the mice with colitis. Curcumin, as a good all-natural drug for the treatment of IBD, possesses good prospects in clinical application.

Effect of Curcumin on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
AIP Conference Proceedings | January 2021
Curcumin has been reported to efficiently inhibit cancer cell lines, including MCF7, K562, HeLa,and 4T1. Previous study of curcumin on 4T1 breast cancer cells showed that the IC50 values were 93,14 μM. The main mechanisms of action by which curcumin exhibits its 040024-2 unique anti-cancer activity include inducing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tumors by suppressing a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Several research on various breast cancer cell lines demonstrate the anti-cancer activity of curcumin through the inhibition of NF-κB activity.  Curcumin, the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric, has been reported to suppress NF-κB. Several studies reported that curcumin inhibits NF-κB through inhibition of IKK phosphorylation and inhibition of translocation to the nucleus. Curcumin selectively inhibits NF-κB p105 mRNA expression on 4T1 breast cancer cell line by interacting with the backbone of Ile residue in RH domain region. This study highlights the potency of curcumin to be developed as a chemotherapeutic targeted NF-κB for triple-negative breast cancer in the future.

Curcumin has a certain antagonized effect on cardiac arrhythmia and has potential application prospects
Frontiers in Physiology | January 2021
Curcumin is a natural yellow polyphenolic substance, the main active alkaloid extracted from the rhizome of turmeric, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, which has been used as an antiseptic and antipyretic folk medicine for centuries. Previous researches have shown that Cur has extensive pharmacological activities and has been put into clinical practice. Increasing evidence showed that curcumin has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. For instance, curcumin can prevent the development of heart failure by inhibiting p300 histone acetyltransferase activity, antagonized sodium fluoride intoxication in rat heart, prevented isoprenaline (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and can have a protective effect against the myocardial infarction injury. In addition, curcumin was reported to prevent the QTc prolongation in ISO-induced myocardial infarction.  Curcumin is also a multi-ion channel blocker that inhibits ICa.L and IKr and preferentially blocks INa.L, shortens APD, suppresses EADs and DADs at the cellular level, prevents I/R-induced arrhythmia at the organ level, and may have potential antiarrhythmic property. Curcumin can prevent the occurrence of arrhythmias after reperfusion, which is beneficial for the recovery of isolated heart suffering from I/R injury.

New evidence for the potential anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular protective effects of curcumin
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | January 2021
Curcumin is the most active component of spice turmeric (also called curry powder), mainly found in turmeric roots (Curcuma longa L.). It has long been studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. In the recent years, curcumin has been extensively investigated for its therapeutic value. Its anti-inflammatory effect which is equivalent to that of steroidal and nonsteroidal drugs, e.g., indomethacin and phenylbutazone, is one of the most studied properties. In various inflammation-related chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, curcumin has shown good therapeutic effects. The present study shows that curcumin suppresses aldosterone-induced CRP generation in VSMCs by interfering with the ROS-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These results reveal a mechanism through which curcumin represses inflammation and confers cardiovascular protection. Our findings further confirm the anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular protective effects of curcumin and suggest its potential clinical use in cardiovascular inflammation.

Curcumin may be an attractive natural candidate for further investigation and development in the quest for Parkinson's disease therapeutics
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | January 2021
The polyphenolic ingredient of dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa), curcumin, has attracted attention due to its multiple benefits to patients with various diseases including Parkinson's disease. Several studies have demonstrated that curcumin treatment significantly inhibits the toxin-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in both cultured cells and animal models. Curcumin was found to exert neuroprotective effects mediating anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties and improve neurological functions in various animal models of Parkinson's disease. Our results demonstrated that intragastric curcumin treatment (200 mg/kg) significantly improved the abnormal motor behavior and offered neuroprotection against the reduction of dopaminergic neurons, as determined by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra and caudoputamen. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that curcumin has a neuroprotective effect in a 6-hydroxydopmine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD via an α7-nAChR-mediated mechanism. The findings of the present study demonstrate that curcumin improves the survival of TH striatal fibers and neurons in SNpc and diminishes abnormal turning behavior in a 6-OHDA-induced rat model of PD. In the present study, abrogation of the protective effects of curcumin by pretreatment with MLA, an α7-nAChR-selective antagonist, clearly demonstrates that neuroprotective effects of curcumin are mediated by α7-nAChRs. Our findings clearly demonstrate that α7-nAChRs may be an attractive therapeutic target for PD and curcumin appears to be the first agent of natural origin to modulate α7-nAChRs in PD. Integrating our earlier observation that curcumin acts as a type II PAM of α7-nAChRs and potentiates receptor function by significantly decreasing desensitization, it is apparent that the PAM action of curcumin on α7-nAChRs exerts beneficial effects in mediating neuroprotective effects. Time-tested safety and neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin and preliminary clinical success of agents targeting nicotinic receptors in Parkinson's disease.

Curcumin has been reported to exhibit protective effects on degeneration in articular cartilage diseases
Cell Biology | January 2021
Articular cartilage damage and chondrocyte apoptosis are common features of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.  These results indicate that curcumin may suppress IL‐1β‐induced chondrocyte apoptosis through activating autophagy and restraining NF‐κB signaling pathway.

Curcumin and NAC may be effective against noise-induced hearing loss
Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery |  January 2021
We investigated the effectiveness of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and curcumin, which have known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, in reducing acoustic trauma. There was a statistically significant difference in the third measurements in both groups 2 and 3, possibly due to curcumin and NAC treatment. This study showed that curcumin and NAC may be effective against noise-induced hearing loss.

Curcumin exhibits beneficial effect on bone fracture healing
Medical Science Monitor | January 2021
Curcumin has been used for a very long time in traditional medicine because of several pharmacological properties. Multiple properties of curcumin include its role as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-fibrotic agent. Additionally, studies have shown tumor growth inhibitory effect and myocardial injury protecting property of curcumin. Although studies on the use of curcumin in bone trauma treatment are limited, reports suggest that curcumin may have a positive effect in bone remodeling. The current study investigated curcumin for bone trauma treatment in a rat model and evaluated the related mechanism. Curcumin activates autophagy and inhibits mTOR activation in bone tissues of rats with trauma. The curcumin promoted myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) proliferation and increased expansion of MDSCs in a rat model of trauma. Therefore, curcumin may have beneficial effect in patients with bone trauma and should be evaluated further for development of treatment.

A novel application of curcumin in tumor therapy
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | January 2021
Curcumin promotes cancer-associated fibroblasts apoptosis via ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol derived from turmeric, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of many types of tumor.  We found that curcumin induced the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of CAFs, which is mainly caused by the ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Our study suggests that curcumin selectively inhibits prostate-CAFs by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G2-M phase, indicating a novel application of curcumin in tumor therapy.

Curcumin may be an alternate to antimicrobial drugs for the therapeutic management of endometritis
Molecular Biology Reports | January 2021
Curcumin inhibited the basal and LTA+LPS induced production of PGE2 and upregulation of PIC production. It was apparent that LPS, but not LTA, is a potent stimulator of PGE2 from the bubaline endometrial stromal cells. Curcumin downregulated the expression of LPS and/or LTA induced PICs and PGE2 and may be an alternate to antimicrobial drugs for the therapeutic management of endometritis.

Curcumin represents a promising therapy for Diabetes mellitus induced cognitive impairments and memory deficits
Neurobiology of Disease | January 2021
Curcumin, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn, is a bright yellow spice that shows strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-tumor activities. Many studies have reported neuroprotective effects of curcumin in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. Our previous study has also demonstrated a protective effect of curcumin on LPS- induced neuroinfammation in vitro. The present study revealed that curcumin treatment effectively protected against DM/CCH-induced cognitive dysfunction, as well as attenuated neuronal injury and death in the CA1, CA3, and DG regions of the hippocampus. Molecular-biology analysis revealed that the underlying mechanisms of curcumin’s protective effects were associated with inhibiting neuroinflammation. We demonstrated that curcumin attenuated DM/CCH-induced cognitive defcits and hippocampal neuronal damage in rats, and that its underlying mechanisms were associated with inhibiting neuroinflammation, regulating the TREM2/TLR4/NF-κB pathway, suppressing excessive apoptosis, and mitigating NLRP3-dependent pyroptosis. These findings suggest that curcumin may be useful as a pharmacological strategy for ameliorating Diabetes mellitus /CCH-induced memory deficits.

Curcumin exhibited renoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties, especially curcumin exerted the most pronounced effect as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic reflecting its powerful effect against bacteria and sepsis-induced kidney injury
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | January 2021
Curcumin a polyphenol extracted from turmeric gained interest as a potentially safe and inexpensive treatment for kidney diseases. Inflammatory markers were greatly reduced by both curcumin and propolis, only curcumin pretreatment attenuated NF-kB activation in kidney tissue of septic rat.

The protective effect of curcumin on ACR-intoxicated brains
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology | January 2021
Curcumin is well known for its classic and strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. As the most active constituent in turmeric, a common spice, with a strong safety record, curcumin has been considered to be a potential natural neuroprotective agent under limelight. Based on its known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis activities, curcumin has been shown to protect the neurons against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, dysfunction linked with Parkinson’s disease mediated by Bisphenol-A, sleep-deprivation induced memory impairments, and depression. Prasad and Muralidhara have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of curcumin in an ACR model of neurotoxicity in an insect species, Drosophila melanogaster. A recently published study reported that curcumin would exert a protective effect against ACR-induced spatial memory impairment in rats. The phenolic structure in curcumin confers electron-capturing properties, which destabilize ROS, explaining the well-accepted antioxidant effects. Curcumin alleviated the augmented production of MDA and the reduction of antioxidant capacity induced by ACR, thus might play a role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated by ACR.  Curcumin could improve the ACR-induced neuroinflammation, which was in accord with its proven anti-inflammatory property.

Curcumin: Could This Compound Be Useful in Pregnancy and Pregnancy-Related Complications?
Nutrients | January 2021
Curcumin, the main polyphenol contained in turmeric root (Curcuma longa), has played a significant role in medicine for centuries.  The pleiotropic and multi-targeting actions of curcumin have made it very attractive as a health-promoting compound. In spite of the beneficial effects observed in various chronic diseases in humans, limited and fragmentary information is currently available about curcumin’s effects on pregnancy and pregnancy-related complications. The reported anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitoxicant, neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, antiapoptotic, antiangiogenic, anti-hypertensive, and antidiabetic properties of curcumin appear to be encouraging, not only for the management of pregnancy-related disorders, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia (PE), depression, preterm birth, and fetal growth disorders but also to contrast damage induced by natural and chemical toxic agents. Curcumin, a compound extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has been extensively studied in light of a wide range of properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-toxicant, antiapoptotic, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, antiangiogenic, anti-hypertensive, and antidiabetic activities, emerging as a candidate therapeutic agent for several diseases. Curcumin, also called diferuloylmethane, is a lipophilic polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma Longa (commonly known as turmeric). It has been widely used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The pharmacological effects of turmeric have been attributed mainly to curcuminoids, comprising curcumin and two related compounds, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which are contained in commercial curcumin. Curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent that exerts a myriad of biological activities by influencing multiple signaling pathways. Curcumin is able to interact with a large number of molecular and cellular targets and regulates gene expression also by modulating epigenetic modifications (i.e., DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA expression). This compound, by mutually interacting with intestinal microflora, ameliorates gut microbiome dysbiosis, and influences the “gut–brain–microflora axis” to preserve and favor brain health. The overall result of these different activities is the improvement in several disease states, including inflammatory, metabolic, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neurological, respiratory, viral, skin diseases, and cancer, as highlighted by the impressive number of in vitro and in vivo studies summarized in recent papers. Numerous clinical trials have shown good tolerability, safety, and efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of multiple chronic diseases—including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegeneration, arthritis, and cancer—at doses up to 6–12 g/day. In light of this, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) curcumin as an ingredient in various food categories (0.5–100 mg/100 g) [29]; and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), defined the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) value of 0–3 mg/kg bw/day of curcumin as a food additive.

Curcumin extract eased pain, stiffness and physical function in those with osteoarthritis of the knee
New York Times | December 2020
Turmeric comes from the root of a plant in the ginger family, Curcuma longa, and contains a chemical compound, curcumin, that has long been used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine. In a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, researchers assigned 70 people with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis to take either two capsules a day of a Curcuma longa extract or two capsules of an identical-looking placebo. They found that pain, stiffness and physical function all improved significantly more in those who took the curcumin extract than in those who used the placebo.

Neonatal curcumin treatment restores hippocampal neurogenesis and improves autism-related behaviors in a mouse model of autism
Psychopharmacology | December 2020
Curcumin has been indicated to be neuroprotective against neurological and psychological disorders. Neonatal curcumin treatment improved autism-related symptoms in BTBR mice, enhancing sociability, reducing repetitive behaviors, and ameliorating cognitive impairments. Furthermore, the suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis in BTBR mice was greatly rescued after neonatal curcumin treatment, leading to an increase in neurogenic processes and an increase in NPC proliferation concomitant with an expansion of the NPC pool on P8, and NPC differentiation towards the neuronal lineage was promoted in the DG of BTBR mice on P24. Our findings suggest that neonatal curcumin treatment elicits a therapeutic response through the restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis in BTBR mice and thus may represent a promising novel pharmacological strategy for ASD treatment.

Curcumin cooperates with anticancer drugs
The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology | December 2020
Curcumin inhibit Lactate-induced onset of chemoresistance through modulation of HCAR-1.  Curcumin modulates Chromatin condensation and acidification of extracellular milieu of cancer cells.

Can Turmeric Help With Knee Arthritis
San Diego Orthobiologics | December 2020
Turmeric, a spice from South Asia derived from the Curcuma longa root, has been used as a medicine for nearly 4000 years. Recent studies have shown that turmeric may help to relieve joint pain caused by arthritis because the active ingredient, curcumin, is now known to have anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin has been shown to have similar efficacy to diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, with fewer side effects. Similar improvements in pain severity and function were seen with curcumin and diclofenac in a randomized, controlled clinical study of 139 patients with knee osteoarthritis. Nineteen patients in the diclofenac group (and none in the curcumin group) required anti-ulcer medications at 28 day followup. Curcumin has also been shown to have a strong antioxidant capacity. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, patients with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis were given the curcuminoid and were compared to a group that received a placebo for 6 weeks. Researchers measured the levels of enzymes known to influence inflammation (e.g. superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA)). The treatment group showed significant changes in these enzymes suggesting that short-term supplementation with curcumin decreases oxidative stress.

5 Good Things About Turmeric
MD News Daily | December 2020
A report about turmeric indicates that study in the European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Studies, Frontiers in Pharmacology, and Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets associate curcumin with weight loss and reduction in body mass index or BMI. Healthy cooking expert and registered dietitian Patricia Bannan said, while increasing our turmeric intake alone is not a great tactic in losing weight, it may contribute to the mitigation of inflammation linked to obesity and offer a slight boost in fat burning.   Curcumin may help protect from inflammation, and inflammation may help in fighting depression. A 2019 meta-analysis of 10 studies of curcumin and depression published in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition proposed that it could alleviate depression and anxiety symptoms. Experts say the most available study specifies that curcumin may help lessen the depression symptoms in individuals who are already using an antidepressant. Previous studies on animals propose that there might be a link between the inflammation-calming action of curcumin in turmeric and cancer. Specifically, Bannan said, curcumin is believed "to have antioxidant properties." Meaning, it may reduce both swelling and inflammation. Nevertheless, research on animals does not always translate humans. Research for curcumin continues, as well as its effect on cancer in people. A study finds people living in India have lower rates of developing Alzheimer's disease than those living in the United States and Europe. The reasons for the difference, the study authors said, are complex and possibly because of several different factors. Typically, turmeric is used in Ayurveda, a holistic healing mechanism that originated in India thousands of years back and remains famous to date. Turmeric is also prominent in Indian cuisine, bringing out the question of whether it is possible that this spice can contribute to the prevention or delay of onset of Alzheimer's. The jury, according to the study, is still out. However, one theory presents, curcumin may contribute to the inhibition of plaques that other studies have linked to "neuron impairment in the brain. Based on a report by the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, more than 100 million adults in the US have developed either prediabetes or diabetes. A study on curcumin, which the Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism published, proposes that it can function as a "hypoglycemic agent," reducing and helping regulate blood sugar levels in people who have type 2 diabetes, CDC said.

Anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation with curcumin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Nutrition Reviews | December 2020
Chronic inflammation is a major contributor to the development of noncommunicable diseases. Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol from turmeric, is a well-known anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical research. Clinical evidence remains inconclusive because of discrepancies regarding optimal dosage, duration, and formulation of curcumin. These findings provide evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin and support further investigation to confirm dose, duration, and formulation to optimize anti-inflammatory effects in humans with chronic inflammation.

Quinacrine and curcumin synergistically increased breast cancer stem cells death
Cancer Biology and Therapeutic Oncology | December 2020
Curcumin and QC synergistically inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of CSCs enriched side population (SP) cells of cigarette smoke condensate induced breast epithelial transformed (MCF-10A-Tr) generated metastatic cells. Curcumin + QC combination increased the DNA damage and inhibited the DNA repair pathways in SP cells. Uptake of QC increased in Curcumin pre-treated SP cells and this combination inhibited the ABCG2 activity by the reduction of ATP hydrolysis in cells. In vitro DNA binding reconstitution system suggests that QC specifically binds to DNA and caused DNA damage inside the cell. Decreased level of ABCG2, representative cell survival and DNA repair proteins were noted after Curcumin + QC treatment in SP cells.

Longevity-Promoting Herb
Well and Good | December 2020
In 2018, Dr. Small authored a small double-blind study showing that taking two 90 mg curcumin supplements daily for 18 months improved memory and attention in older adults with mild memory problems. “We did find it has a significant effect…compared to placebo,” says Dr. Small, who is currently expanding the research to a much larger sample size across the U.S. While he’s not sure exactly how curcumin works to boost brain health, “my best guess is it’s the reduction in inflammation,” he says. Robinette points out that turmeric has been called a “natural immunomodulator,” or a substance that helps keep the immune system in check by boosting immunity when you need it and tamping it down to prevent excess inflammation involved in many chronic conditions. Some research suggests that turmeric could potentially even play a role in preventing and treating cancer, cardiovascular disease, metabolic conditions, neurological disease, and skin diseases. Although it certainly doesn’t hurt to enjoy more foods with turmeric, you’ll need to pop a curcumin supplement to get the full health benefits of the spice. “For therapeutic purposes, you want to take higher doses,” says Robinette. Try to take the supplement when you eat your meals, preferably with fat (like fatty fish or nuts) to increase the bioavailability of curcumin.

Antitumor effects of curcumin in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma
International Journal of Oncology | December 2020
Curcumin (CUR) is a promising drug in complementary oncology with few side effects but proven efficacy in various adult oncological entities. The present study analyzed the effects of curcumin on pediatric (RMS) cell lines in vitro. Curcumin decreased cell viability in all assessed RMS cell lines in a concentration‑dependent manner with IC50=14‑20 µM. Curcumin enhanced the effects of the cytotoxic drugs VCR or DAC, and led to reduced migration and increased cell apoptosis. In combination with PDT, curcumin decreased the cell viability in minute quantities with up to a 10‑fold lower IC50 than without PDT. Curcumin effectively inhibited the malignant properties of pediatric RMS cells and should be focused on as a useful additional agent in standard chemotherapy of RMS in children.

Curcumin in antidepressant treatments
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, December 2020
Curcumin, a natural compound derived from the herb Curcuma longa, exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties and has been considered a potent antidepressant drug with diverse mechanisms including monoaminergic imbalances (associated with serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and glutamate), effect on neurotransmitters, neuroprogression, the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, dysregulated inflammation and immune pathways, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and mitochondrial disturbances. In this review, multiple potential mechanisms of curcumin for treating depression demonstrated in either animal or human studies are summarized.

Curcumin Modulates Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB)-mediated Inflammation in Human Tenocytes in Vitro
Journal of Biological Chemistry, December 2020
Inflammatory processes play essential roles in the pathogenesis of tendinitis and tendinopathy.  Results demonstrate, for the first time, a potential role for curcumin in treating tendon inflammation.

Curcumin in Depression: Potential Mechanisms of Action and Current Evidence
Frontiers in Psychiatry | March 2021
Curcumin is the main active component in the spice turmeric that has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety and depressive disorders. In the past decades, curcumin has drawn researchers' attention and displays a broad range of properties that seem relevant to depression pathophysiology. Curcumin has displayed, in a number of studies, a potency in modulating neurotransmitter concentrations, inflammatory pathways, excitotoxicity, neuroplasticity, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal disturbances, insulin resistance, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and endocannabinoid system, all of which can be involved in MDD pathophysiology. To date, a handful of clinical trials have been published and suggest a benefit of curcumin in major depressive disorder. With evidence that is progressively growing, curcumin appears as a promising alternative option in the management of major depressive disorder. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a yellow spice, part of the ginger family (Zingiberacear). It has been empirically used for centuries in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine in a wide variety of diseases and conditions. Research conducted in the last half century has revealed that the active compounds of turmeric were curcuminoids, which are polyphenolic pigments that give turmeric its yellowish color. Curcumin is the primary curcuminoid and main active component in turmeric and the compound for which most studies have been done. In the past decades, there has been a surge of interest in curcumin as evidence about its efficacy in a wide variety of diseases is growing, including cardiovascular, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases as well as diabetes and cancers. Thus, curcumin displays a broad range of properties that are relevant in the pathophysiology of depression. It has been demonstrated to possess an antidepressant activity in various animal models as well as in clinical trials. A dozen randomized controlled clinical trials have indeed been conducted, altogether suggesting that curcumin may be effective as a treatment (or adjunct treatment) of depression via multiple mechanisms of action.

Anticancer properties of curcumin: a novel natural inhibitor of rDNA transcription
Cell Cycle | November 2020
Curcumin treatment impairs the assembly of the RNA polymerase I preinitiation complex at rDNA promoters and represses rDNA promoter activity, which leads to the decrease of rRNA synthesis. In addition, curcumin treatment stimulates autophagosome formation and promotes autophagic degradation in cells. Mechanistically, curcumin inactivates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the upstream regulator of rDNA transcription and autophagy induction, by inhibiting mTOR lysosomal localization. Functionally, curcumin treatment inhibits protein synthesis, cell growth and cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings identify curcumin as an effective inhibitor of rDNA transcription and provide novel mechanisms for the anticancer properties of curcumin.

Reduce Your Lifetime Risk of Breast Cancer
The Beet | November 2020
Curcumin lowers inflammation, which can lower the risk of breast cancer. Curcumin, the main active ingredient in turmeric, is known for relieving inflammation and pain but also for having an effect on lowering the risk of breast cancer. A study found "curcumin has chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against some aggressive and recurrent cancers," the study said. Another study found curcumin not only stops tumor growth but also prevents malignant cancers from spreading: The "anticancer effect" of curcumin relates to the fact that it appears to half "cell cycle and proliferation," as well as "cancer spread and angiogenesis," the study says, which is how the body supplies new blood vessels to a tumor.

Curcumin against Prostate Cancer: Current Evidence
Biomolecules | November 2020
The available in vitro studies have shown that curcumin is able to inhibit viability, proliferation, survival, migration/invasion, and adhesion of various human prostate cancer cells. Curcumin inhibited both androgen-sensitive and -insensitive prostate cancer cells by targeting a number of signaling cascades responsible for regulating cellular function. The antiproliferative, antisurvival, and antimigratory effects of curcumin in prostate cancer cells may be due to the inhibition of the Akt/mTOR, Ras/MAPK signaling pathways, decreased NF-κB activation, enhanced proapoptoptic caspase and PARP cleavage, and the inhibition of members of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins. Curcumin was also able to induce cell-cycle arrest and enhance autophagy in various prostate cancer cell lines. The available in vivo studies have shown that curcumin administration is able to inhibit the growth/volume, formation, development, proliferation, and angiogenesis of prostate cancer tumors while promoting apoptosis. These effects were observed in mice xenografted with both androgen-sensitive and insensitive prostate cancer cells. Curcumin’s inhibition of prostate tumor growth and progression may be due to its inhibition of Akt expression/activation, decreased NF-κB activation, inhibition of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, increased expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak, and enhanced PARP and caspase expression. These findings from in vivo studies are in agreement with those from the in vitro studies. The downregulation of cell proliferation, paired with the enhanced activity of programmed cell death both in vitro and in vivo, render curcumin an ideal candidate for the development of novel anticancer pharmaceutical agents providing fewer detrimental effects due to its low toxicity.

Metabolites of curcumin and their therapeutic effects
Cell | November 2020
Curcumin, a secondary metabolite from the turmeric plant is one of the most promising natural products, which has been studied extensively for decades. It has demonstrated several pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo. Several diverse therapeutic effects have shown to be exhibited by reduced metabolites of curcumin such as antioxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound which forms a majorcomponent of rhizomes from dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longaa plant belongs to Zingiberaceae family. It is commonly used as a flavouring agent in various foods and also as a traditional medicinal agent. In several studies, curcumin have shown a diverse range of pharmacological effects like, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial activities, free radical scavenging and anti-depression. Owing to these pharmacological effects, curcumin has therapeutic potential over a variety of human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, AIDS, neurological diseases, and Crohn's disease. The importance of curcumin can be estimated by the fact that thirty-seven cases of clinical trials of curcumin  were completed by December 2017 and two cases FDA (Food and Drug administration) clinical phase 4 trials were completed.

Evaluation of the effect of curcumin on pneumonia: A systematic review of preclinical studies
Phytotherapy Research | November 2020
Curcumin is a natural phytochemical with anti‐inflammatory and anti‐neoplastic characteristics. Our results demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated the pneumonia‐induced lung injury, mainly through a reduction of the activity and infiltration of neutrophils and the inhibition of inflammatory response in mouse models. Curcumin ameliorates the severity of pneumonia through a reduction in neutrophil infiltration and by amelioration of the exaggerated immune response in preclinical pneumonia models.

Effects of the Use of Curcumin on Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease: A Systematic Review
Journal of Medicinal Food | November 2020
The results of the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) showed promising results with the use of curcumin in the therapeutic approach of both UC and CD patients. Some meta-analyses show controversial results, possibly due to the presence of bias in the included studies. The actions of curcumin are achieved by several mechanisms, such as reducing the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, it reduces the levels of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anions and malondialdehyde.

Evaluation of Cognitive Performance following Curcumin Supplementation in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Overweight or Obesity
The Journal of Nutrition | November 2020
Curcumin improved CVR in a working memory test and, in males only, performance of a verbal memory test compared with placebo.

Chemotherapeutic efficacy of curcumin and resveratrol against cancer: Chemoprevention, chemoprotection, drug synergism and clinical pharmacokinetics
Seminars in Cancer Biology | November 2020
Curcumin and resveratrol modulate the apoptosis and autophagy mediated cell death pathway for chemoprevention.  Curcumin and resveratrol reduce cytotoxicity and exhibit chemo-protection during chemotherapy.  Drug synergism and advanced drug delivery systems of curcumin and resveratrol enhances the anticancer efficacy.  Enhanced pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are responsible for better pre-clinical and clinical application.

COVID‐19: A Case for Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome, Suppression of Inflammation with Curcumin?
Nordic Pharmacological Society | November 2020
Curcumin is the effective ingredient of turmeric, sometimes used as a painkiller in traditional medicine. Curcumin regulates several molecules in the intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in inflammation, including IBB, NF‐kBERK1,2, AP‐1, TGF‐β, TXNIP, STAT3, PPARγ, JAK2‐STAT3, NLRP3, p38MAPK, Nrf2, Notch‐1, AMPK, TLR‐4 and MyD‐88. Due to anti‐inflammatory and anti‐inflammasome properties without any special side effects, curcumin can potentially play a role in the treatment of COVID‐19 infection along with other drug regimens.

Curcumin Suppresses Tumorigenesis via Promoting SLC1A5-mediated Ferroptosis in Breast Cancer
Surgical Oncology | November 2020
Curcumin treatment significantly suppressed breast cancer cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, curcumin triggered ferroptosis by enhancing the levels of lipid ROS, lipid peroxidation end-product MDA accumulation, and intracellular Fe2+. Mechanistically, curcumin administration impeded tumor growth via upregulating solute carrier family 1 member 5 (SLC1A5)-mediated ferroptosis in breast cancer. In vivo experiments showed that curcumin could effectively hamper the growth of tumors without noticeable side effects. Conclusion: We demonstrated that curcumin exhibits anti-tumorigenesis activity in breast cancer by promoting SLC1A5-mediated ferroptosis, providing a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

Curcumin Inhibits the Migration and Invasion of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells
Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment | November 2020
Curcumin inhibited sE-cad expression and reversed EMT induced by radiation. Furthermore, curcumin suppressed sE-cad-enhanced A549 and A549R cell migration and invasion. Curcumin inhibited MMP9 expression, and silencing MMP9 suppressed sE-cad expression. Taken together, we found a nonclassic EMT phenomenon induced by radiation. Curcumin inhibits NSCLC migration and invasion by suppressing radiation-induced EMT and sE-cad expression by decreasing MMP9 expression.

Can concomitant use of zinc and curcumin with other immunity‐boosting nutraceuticals be the arsenal against COVID‐19?
Phytotherapy Research | November 2020
Curcumin is a natural bioactive polyphenolic compound isolated from the dried powder of Curcuma longa rhizomes, commonly known as turmeric (Haldi in Hindi), and widely used worldwide for cooking. Ayurveda mentioned the use of turmeric for numerous therapeutic purposes like blood coagulation to immune stimulation. An array of systemic antioxidant properties has been attributed to curcumin‐containing nutraceuticals. For example, it exerts an anti‐inflammatory action in arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, reduces lipid levels in cardiovascular diseases, and addresses oxidative stress in skin disorders. Curcumin has an established track record as an antiviral agent against several viruses like Influenza Type A, Hepatitis A, Zika, HIV, etc. The mode of action of curcumin includes—inhibition of viral entry into cells, suppression of viral replication, stimulation of interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines, and inhibition of viral protein expression. In silico studies have also revealed that curcumin binds directly with the receptor‐binding domain of the viral spike protein (involved in host cell binding) and the cognate host cell receptor, angiotensin‐converting enzyme‐2 (serves as a medium of viral entry), of SARS‐CoV‐2 virus. Moreover, curcumin has been reported to inhibit the release and suppress numerous cytokines like IL‐1β, IL‐6, IL8, TNFα, MCP‐1, etc. When investigated in various viral infections set‐up, the mode of cytokine suppression by curcumin can be correlated with clinical improvement in conditions associated with cytokine storm. Following the suggested interaction with these key components of the viral lifecycle and immune system, it is apparent that curcumin could prevent the COVID‐19 infection. Moreover, in recent years, blood coagulation properties of curcumin (by inhibiting platelet aggregation, cyclooxygenase pathway, and blocking of calcium signaling) have been utilized in designing various materials and devices. As the SARS‐CoV‐2 coronavirus infection can be associated with a disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, hence curcumin can be an effective agent against this pathological condition.

Turmeric, Curcumin, and Curcuminoids: A Dermatologic Review
PracticalDermatology.com | November 2020
Research has shown that curcumin, one of the active compounds of turmeric, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-nociceptive, and antineoplastic properties. Specifically, curcumin has been shown to potentially play a role in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing lipid levels, in metabolic syndrome by increasing insulin sensitivity and production, in cardiac diseases by lowering C reactive protein, and even in major depressive disorder via its anti-inflammatory effects. Currently, it is being studied as a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Curcumin is thought to downregulate inflammatory targets, such as lipoxygenase, cycloxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. It has also been shown to inhibit many inflammatory cytokines, including TNF, IL-1, 2, 6, 8, and 12. Moreover, curcumin has been hypothesized to suppress NF-KB, which is a transcription factor that controls cycloxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase and regulates cellular proliferation. These findings make curcumin a suitable candidate for treating skin conditions that are characterized by derangement of the inflammatory response.

The potential therapeutic effects of curcumin on pregnancy complications: Novel insights into reproductive medicine
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | November 2020
Curcumin, the main polyphenolic compound derived from Curcuma longa, is mainly known by its anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant properties. There are in vitro and in vivo reports revealing the preventive and ameliorating effects of curcumin against pregnancy complications. Here, we aimed to seek mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of curcumin on dysregulated inflammatory and oxidative responses in various pregnancy complications.

Effect of topical curcumin on the healing of major oral mucosal ulceration
Eurasian Journal of Biosciences | November 2020
Curcumin was a turmeric extract, its multifaceted biological effects such as, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic and anti-infectious effects.  Results: The present study showed that the curcumin treatment reduce mucosal ulcer area from the 3rd day till 7th day and improved ulcer healing at 14th day by activation of epithelial cell, inhibit inflammatory cells, enhance endothelial cells and promote fibroblast cells.

Effectiveness of Curcuma longa Extract for the Treatment of Symptoms and Effusion–Synovitis of Knee Osteoarthritis
Annals of Internal Medicine | November 2020
Curcumin was more effective than placebo for knee pain but did not affect knee effusion–synovitis or cartilage composition.

Therapeutic Effects of Curcumin Against Colorectal Cancer
Phytochemicals Targeting Tumor in Gastrointestinal Cancer, October 2020
Curcumin is a product of the plant, Curcuma longa, which exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, and anticancer activities. A wide variety of evidences from numerous studies demonstrated that curcumin prevents carcinogenesis, modulates signaling, inhibits angiogenesis and other critical aspects linked to cancer cell survival and proliferation, and induces chemopreventive and anticancer activity against colorectal cancer. Curcumin also showed improved efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in combination studies.

Antitumoral Effects of Curcumin (Curcuma longa L.) on Neuroblastoma Cell Lines
Complementary Medicine Research, October 2020
Overall survival of high-risk neuroblastoma patients is still poor, emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic options. There is evidence for anti-cancer properties of the herbal substances thymoquinone and curcumin. Overall, lower IC50 values could be calculated for curcumin (3.75–7.42 µM) than for thymoquinone (5.16–16.3 µM). Decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis rates were observed under treatment. Conclusions: Both substances showed anti-tumoral properties on neuroblastoma cell lines and should be further investigated as therapeutic agents.

Curcumin reverses diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetes
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, October 2020
Curcumin protects against T1DM-induced nephropathy. Mechanism of protection involves inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Curcumin seems to act by inhibiting PKC-induced activation of Psch66.

Curcumin an aid to Cardiovascular diseases
Financial Express, October 2020
Curcumin plays a very important role in protecting your heart from these cardiovascular diseases because the antioxidants in curcumin have been shown to attenuate adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity and may prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications. The anti-thrombotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin and the effect of curcumin in decreasing the serum cholesterol level may protect against the pathological changes occurring with atherosclerosis.

Health Benefits Of Turmeric
Maine News Online, October 2020
Turmeric is a readily available and natural remedy for chronic inflammation. It contains curcumin, which has excellent anti-inflammatory properties. The curcumin even makes turmeric more effective than most anti-inflammatory drugs. And besides, it is natural, accessible, pocket friendly, and has no known side effects. What curcumin does is to suppress the molecules responsible for the inflammation. By so doing, it will protect you from chronic diseases.The curcumin in turmeric, according to research, can lower oxidative stress. It serves as antioxidants and has the power to stimulate the body’s antioxidant enzymes. Consequently, this strengthens one’s immune system.What makes curcumin beneficial for your heart health is improving the endothelium (blood vessels’ lining) function. Curcumin’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions also make it useful for maintaining your heart health.Studies have identified curcumin, which is present in turmeric, as a potent herb in cancer treatment. The studies also indicated that curcumin’s effect is the same in all cancer types. What curcumin does is that it fights cancer at the molecular level. It prevents the growth, spread, and development of the disease in the body. According to a study conducted by the MD Anderson Cancer Center, researchers discovered that curcumin inhibits melanoma cells’ growth and even cause tumor cells to eliminate themselves. Curcumin can increase BDNF levels in the brain. With this action, it can encourage the reversal or delay of brain-related decline or diseases. Studies have been conducted to confirm curcumin’s potency in arthritis treatment, and the outcome showed great promise. In one of the studies, curcumin proved to be more potent than most anti-inflammatory medication used in treating rheumatoid arthritis. As documented in another study, curcumin’s use led to improvements in various symptoms most arthritis patients had. Turmeric’s effect on mental health has been well-documented. One of its constituents, curcumin, proves useful in the fight against depression. In one study involving 60 participants who had depression, the participants were divided into three groups. The first group was given an antidepressant; the second group had a gram of curcumin, while the third had both the antidepressant and curcumin. After six weeks, curcumin’s effect was similar to the antidepressant. Turmeric’s curcumin has shown promising antiviral properties. It can take down specific viruses, as reported by the Microbiology Society. In a study conducted, curcumin prevented TGEV (Transmissible gastroenteritis virus) from infecting cells. In high dosage, curcumin was able to eliminate the virus particles.

Effect of Curcumin on Testis in Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Tumor
New Trends in Medicine Sciences, October 2020
Findings clearly suggested that antioxidant parameters (except CAT and GPx) had higher value in animal models treated with 25 and 50 mg curcumin groups associated to tumor control group. There was a statistically noteworthy variance between the groups in all parameters. Antitumor effect of curcumin on ascites tumor cells produced by EAT cells evidenced with histopathological while antioxidant and anti-inflammatory biochemical parameters evidenced with biochemical parameters.

An Exploratory Analysis of Changes in Mental Wellbeing Following Curcumin Supplementation in Middle-Aged and Older Adults
Nutrients, October 2020
Curcumin has previously been shown to enhance mood in non-depressed older adults. In a 16 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design trial, we supplemented overweight or obese non-depressed adults (50–80 years) with curcumin (160 mg/day), fish oil (2000 mg docosahexaenoic acid +400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid/day), or a combination of both. Curcumin improved vigour (p = 0.044) compared to placebo and reduced SMCs compared to no curcumin treatment (p = 0.038). This exploratory analysis indicates that regular supplementation with either curcumin (or fish oil limited to APOE4 non-carriers) has the potential to improve some aspects of mental wellbeing in association with better quality of life.

Curcumin administration and the effects on psychological status and markers of inflammation and oxidative damage in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease
Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, October 2020
Curcumin intake significantly decreased Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (β -1.27; 95% CI, -2.27, -0.31; P=0.01) compared to the placebo group. Curcumin intake caused a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) (β -0.20 μmol/L; 95% CI, -0.36, -0.04; P=0.01), significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (β 75.82 mmol/L; 95% CI, 3.400, 148.25; P=0.04) and glutathione (GSH) levels (β 63.48 μmol/L; 95% CI, 26.58, 100.37; P=0.001) when compared with the placebo. Additionally, curcumin intake upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) (P=0.01). Conclusion: Curcumin intake for 12 weeks in patients with T2DM and CHD had beneficial effects on PSQI, TAC, GSH, MDA values, and gene expression of PPAR-γ.

Interaction between Gut Microbiota and Curcumin: A New Key of Understanding for the Health Effects of Curcumin
Nutrients, October 2020
Curcumin, one of the major curcuminoids contained in the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric), is a lipophilic polyphenol that has been used for centuries as an essential tool of traditional medicine in Asia. Curcumin has received considerable attention in the last years for its pharmacological activities. Due to the presence of conjugated double bonds in its chemical structure, this polyphenol serves as an effective electron donor to counteract the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in many redox reactions, acting as a potent antioxidant. In addition, it has other important biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiviral ones. Different studies highlighted that curcumin, like other dietary polyphenols, counteracts the effects of toxic damage in different tissues and, in addition, it is able to interfere with key cancer-associated signaling pathways by directly targeting proteins or regulating gene expression. According to its biological activities, curcumin has been proposed as a potential treatment for many diseases, among which are gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders, diabetes, and several types of cancer . Curcumin, a lipophilic polyphenol contained in the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric), has been used for centuries in traditional Asian medicine, and nowadays it is widely used in food as dietary spice worldwide. It has received considerable attention for its pharmacological activities, which appear to act primarily through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms. For this reason, it has been proposed as a tool for the management of many diseases, among which are gastrointestinal and neurological diseases, diabetes, and several types of cancer. The observed high concentrations of curcumin in the GI tract after oral administration can lead to two major effects: an altered gut microbiota and the modulation of intestinal functions. The scientific literatures were searched for in vivo, experimental and clinical studies, and human randomized controlled trials, reporting results on the interaction between curcumin and gut microbiota and vice versa.

Cardioprotective effect of curcumin against diabetic cardiomyopathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, October 2020
Treatment with curcumin markedly reduced serum cardiac injury markers and lipid profile markers in diabetic animals. Additionally, curcumin treatment mitigated oxidative stress and fibrosis in diabetic rats as evident from the significant suppression in myocardial lipid peroxidation and tumor growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) level, with concomitant significant elevation in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and improvement in histopathological architecture of heart tissue. Curcumin treatment protocol accomplished its cardioprotective effect by depressing cardiac CaMKII/NF-κB signaling accompanied by enhancement in PPAR-γ expression. Conclusively, these findings demonstrated the therapeutic potential of curcumin regimen in alleviating DCM in T1DM through modulation of CaMKII and PPAR-γ expression.

Curcumin Allosterically Inhibits the Dengue NS2B-NS3 Protease by Disrupting Its Active Conformation
ACS Omega, October 2020
Flaviviruses including dengue virus and Zika virus encode a unique two-component NS2B-NS3 protease essential for maturation/infectivity, thus representing a key target for designing antiflavivirus drugs. Here, for the first time, by NMR and molecular docking, we reveal that curcumin allosterically inhibits the dengue protease by binding to a cavity with no overlap with the active site. Moreover, as curcumin has been used as a food additive for thousands of years in many counties, it can be directly utilized to fight the flaviviral infections and as a promising starting for further design of potent allosteric inhibitors.

Fight COVID-19 depression with immunity booster: Curcumin for psychoneuroimmunomodulation
Asian Journal of Psychiatry, September 2020
Curcumin is the bioactive component of turmeric, one of the key ingredients of prescribed ayurvedic interventions and spices used in meal preparation in South-East Asia. Known for immunoboosting aptitude, curcumin can alleviate the COVID-19 associated ill-effects including cytokine storm. Alleviating psychological stress by curcumin will also adjunct its immunoboosting potential. Curcumin can avert the anxiety and the stress-driven manifestation of depression through modulation of the monoaminergic troupe (dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and noradrenaline) by curcumin. Curcumin, through Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), can prevent such stress and improve antioxidant Glutathione (GSH) production. Major depression disorders (MDD) associate with disturbances in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Curcumin can correct the HPA disturbances and avert elevated glucocorticoids, their receptor as well as inducers (cortisone and adrenocorticotropic hormone). Along with evident immunomodulator, turmeric component, especially curcumin exhibit antidepressant activity, and improve cognitive/mood function. The potential of curcumin containing nutraceutical in COVID-19 has been predicted both through PNI modulation and 'meaning response'. Moreover, curcumin can alleviate the overt inflammatory consequences, even those associated with COVID-19, and thus will improve physical well-being. Curcumin ameliorates inflammation and its regulators like STAT3 in a variety of disorders including COVID-19. Curcumin can improve the hematopoietic differentiation of immune cells; and thus can mitigate ill effects even through reinstating immune cells number. Moreover, curcumin improves neurogenesis and hippocampus functioning. Curcumin-mediated immunoboosting, antidepressant effect, and neurogenesis may also improve the mood function and ward off anxiety/stress in a covert manner. Nutraceuticals like curcumin can be a promising option as immunity boosters and antidepressants for PNI response. Traditionally used in medicinal practices, clinical safety of turmeric (and curcumin) is well assessed. Moreover, relative low case fatality rates (CFR) of COVID-19 in South-Asian countries like India are being recorded which can be governed by several factors, including diet and traditional medicine practice. Although the novel nature of the COVID-19 pandemic makes the efficacy of previously known drugs anonymous, ascertaining the true potential of curcumin through preclinical and clinical investigations will be of immense benefit. Immunoboosting as well as improvement of psychological well-being by curcumin; thus can be hypothesized to facilitate improvement in infected patients, health care workers as well as distantly affected individuals. Pyschoneuroimmunomodulation by curcumin, even as an adjuvant, can aid the fight against COVID-19.

Curcumin Regulates ERCC1 Expression and Enhances Oxaliplatin Sensitivity in Resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, September 2020
Previous studies have confirmed that curcumin displays antitumor effects on a variety of cancers, including colorectal tumors. In addition, curcumin has been shown to prevent tumor resistance. Mehdi et al.  found that curcumin combined with 5-fluorouracil can improve the chemotherapeutic effects of 5FU on colorectal cancer resistant strains by reducing mismatch repair ability.  Curcumin can reverse the drug resistance of cancer cells. Curcumin was found to inhibit ERCC1 through its ability to modulate miR-409-3p. Curcumin can overcome L-OHP resistance in colorectal cancer cells through its effects on miR-409-3p mediated ERCC1 expression.

Curcumin (a constituent of turmeric): New treatment option against COVID‐19
Food Science & Nutrition, September 2020
We describe the possible therapeutic effects of curcumin and its molecular mechanism against coronavirus‐19. Curcumin, as an active constituent of Curcuma longa (turmeric), has been studied in several experimental and clinical trial studies. Curcumin has some useful clinical effects such as antiviral, antinociceptive, anti‐inflammatory, antipyretic, and antifatigue effects that could be effective to manage the symptoms of the infected patient with COVID‐19. Curcumin, as a potential agent, could be considered to treat COVID‐19. Curcumin, as an active constituent of rhizomes of C. longa (turmeric), is a hydrophobic polyphenol (Figure 1) (Akbar et al., 2018; Soleimani, Sahebkar, & Hosseinzadeh, 2018). Curcumin is used as a spice in foods and for different purposes such as cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries in world (Hosseini & Hosseinzadeh, 2018). Curcumin has several pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, and antidiabetic effects (Fan et al., 2015; Moghadamtousi et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2017), as well as anti‐inflammatory activity (Cheng, Yang, Hu, Zhu, & Liu, 2018). As the potential role of curcumin to treat many inflammatory disorders, at the first step we will describe all effects of curcumin that may be useful to treat COVID‐19, and then, we explain the possible molecular mechanisms of it. We considered all articles of curcumin—human and animal studies—that could be effective to treat or rescue COVID‐19‐infected patients. PubMed and Web of Science were used as databases. As the importance of the subject, some selected papers were in the press. The keywords used for the search were as follows: coronavirus‐19, COVID‐19, SARS‐CoV‐2, curcumin, Curcuma longa, turmeric, curcumin and antiviral, curcumin and anti‐inflammatory, curcumin and antipyretic, curcumin and lung, curcumin and acute lung injury, curcumin and fatigue, curcumin and antioxidant, curcumin and ARDS, curcumin and bradykinin, curcumin and fibrosis, curcumin and Interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), curcumin and tumor necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α), curcumin and NF‐κB, curcumin and Toll‐like receptors (TLRs), curcumin and antiapoptotic.  Scientific evidence suggests that curcumin could have a potential role to treat COVID‐19. Thus, the use of curcumin in the clinical trial, as a new treatment option, should be considered.

Curcumin supplementation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS): effects, mechanisms, and practical considerations
Physical Activity and Nutrition, September
Curcumin, also called diferuloylmethane, is a well-known spice used in curry in India and other Asian countries. It is a natural polyphenol that has attracted attention for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Studies have found that curcumin significantly reduces pain from burns as well as pathological pain caused by sciatic nerve injury, spinal cord injury, diabetic neuropathy, and alcoholic neuropathy. Researchers in the field of exercise physiology have investigated the effect of curcumin on post-exercise DOMS, with a few studies reporting that curcumin supplementation can effectively attenuate DOMS after high-intensity eccentric exercise.

Curcumin’s Suppressive Effects on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Cancer Cells
Medical Science Monitor, September 2020
Curcumin is a component of Curcuma longa with various biological activities. The present study aimed to investigate curcumin’s inhibitory effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and possible mechanisms of action underlying these effects. Curcumin negatively regulated transcription factors promoting EMT in CRC cells by decreasing cdx2 promoter DNA methylation and consequently suppressing the CDX2/Wnt3a/ß-catenin signaling pathway.

Potential role of Curcumin against viral infections and pathogenesis of COVID-19
Department of Bioanalytical Sciences, September 2020
The review intended to provide link between natural product as treatment and COVID-19 disease. Therefore, this review summarizes the structure, pathogenesis as well as understanding the various role of curcumin as a treatment option for COVID-19 which includes: targeting viral entry to host cells, targeting viral replication, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant. Hence, curcumin can be a potential treatment option for COVID-19 patients and this review also suggest that more clinical research and development is needed in order to prepare a new drug for emerging SARS-CoV-2. Curcumin as an Antiviral Agent-Inhibition of Viral attachment/penetration. The antiviral activities of curcumin were observed from many evidences against vesicular stomatitis virus, parainfluenza virus type 3, vesicular stomatitis virus, flock house virus, herpes simplex virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Curcumin can block the entry and budding of the virus by altering the structure of the surface protein in viruses. Recently, a molecular docking analysis through in silico computational study Jena et al. revealed that curcumin have dual binding affinity directly with the S protein and ACE-2 receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. ACE-2 is the receptor that binds with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein which promote the fusion ofmembrane and viral infection occurs through endocytosis. Therefore, spike glycoprotein is a potential candidate for drug targeting to inhibit the entry of virus.Binding of curcumin to receptor-binding domain (RBD) site of viral S protein and also to the viral attachment sites of ACE-2 receptor, revealed that curcumin can act as potential inhibitory agent for the entry of SARS-CoV2 viral protein. This in silico docking studies showedthat curcumin may effectively prevent the SARS-CoV2 entry into the host cell.  Many in vivo and in vitro studies showed that curcumin can inhibit the production and release of pro-inflammatory response, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α. Curcumin also decreases expression of many other inflammatory mediators, including MCP1,MIPI1, growth regulated oncogene alpha (GROα), GROβ, IP10, stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), IFN-γ, and MMP-9, which regulate the activity of immune cells and inflammatory responses and promote fibrosis in the lung after infection. Anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin involves various signalling pathways, from which nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)plays a vital role in managing numerous inflammatory responses through multiple mechanisms.

 Does Curcumin Have a Role in the Interaction between Gut Microbiota and Schistosoma mansoni in Mice?
Pathogens, September 2020
Several studies have described therapeutic effects of curcumin which may arise from its regulative effects on intestinal microbiota. Curcumin induced high variation in the Enterobacteriaceae family, characterized by a significant reduction in E. coli and asignificant  increase in Pseudomonas sp. in both naïve and S. mansoni-infected mice, compared to untreated mice, in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, our study showed the effects of high curcumin doses on S. mansoni infection immunological and parasitological parameters. These data support curcumin’s ability to promote Pseudomonas sp. known to produce schistosomicidal toxins and offset the sequelae of murine schistosomiasis.

Effect of concomitant treatment of curcumin and melatonin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, September 2020
Curcumin showed a protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Combination of curcumin and melatonin showed an additive nephroprotective effect.  Nephroprotection is attributed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions.

Curcumin Suppresses Aldosterone-Induced CRP Generation
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, September 2020
Curcumin is the most active ingredient of turmeric with anti-inflammation and antioxidation effects. Here, the effect of curcumin on aldosterone-induced C-reactive protein generation in vascular smooth muscle and the molecular mechanisms involved were explored. We found that curcumin inhibited aldosterone-induced C-reactive protein generation in vascular smooth muscle cells by interfering with the reactive oxygen species-ERK1/2 signal pathway. The results provide new evidence for the potential anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular protective effects of curcumin.

Curcumin: a Wonder Drug as a Preventive Measure for COVID19 Management
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, September 2020
Curcumin is one of the natural compounds that had been widely investigated for its antiviral effects. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from roots of rhizome plant Curcuma longa (family Zingiberaceae), exhibits wide range of therapeutic properties including antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective properties. Curcumin, the yellow pigment of turmeric is extensively used in our Indian traditional herbal medicines to cure many diseases associated with infection and inflammation for many decades. It is reported that, curcumin exerts antiviral activities against broad spectrum of viruses including HIV, HSV-2, HPV viruses, Influenza virus, Zikavirus, Hepatitis virus and Adenovirus. In conclusion, we propose that curcumin could be used as a supportive therapy in the treatment of COVID19 disease in any clinical settings to circumvent the lethal effects of SARS-CoV-2.

Can concomitant use of zinc and curcumin with other immunity‐boosting nutraceuticals be the arsenal against COVID‐19?
The Pharmacological Potential of Plant Compounds in COVID-19, September 2020
We can expand our discussion by taking the example of two nutritional supplements—Curcuminoids and Zn—which have been classified under GRAS, by FDA, as nutraceutical and nutrient. Both molecules have a proven history of antiviral activity in both in vitro and in vivo trials, and thus could be leading in developing new prophylactic candidates against COVID‐19. Curcumin is a natural bioactive polyphenolic compound isolated from the dried powder of Curcuma longa rhizomes, commonly known as turmeric (Haldi in Hindi), and widely used worldwide for cooking. For example, it exerts an anti‐inflammatory action in arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, reduces lipid levels in cardiovascular diseases, and addresses oxidative stress in skin disorders (Pagano, Romano, Izzo, & Borrelli, 2018). Curcumin has an established track record as an antiviral agent against several viruses like Influenza Type A, Hepatitis A, Zika, HIV, etc. The mode of action of curcumin includes—inhibition of viral entry into cells, suppression of viral replication, stimulation of interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines, and inhibition of viral protein expression. In silico studies have also revealed that curcumin binds directly with the receptor‐binding domain of the viral spike protein (involved in host cell binding) and the cognate host cell receptor, angiotensin‐converting enzyme‐2 (serves as a medium of viral entry), of SARS‐CoV‐2 virus (Figure 1). Moreover, curcumin has been reported to inhibit the release and suppress numerous cytokines like IL‐1β, IL‐6, IL8, TNFα, MCP‐1, etc. When investigated in various viral infections set‐up, the mode of cytokine suppression by curcumin can be correlated with clinical improvement in conditions associated with cytokine storm (Sordillo & Helson, 2015). Following the suggested interaction with these key components of the viral lifecycle and immune system, it is apparent that curcumin could prevent the COVID‐19 infection. Moreover, in recent years, blood coagulation properties of curcumin (by inhibiting platelet aggregation, cyclooxygenase pathway, and blocking of calcium signaling) have been utilized in designing various materials and devices (Keihanian, Saeidinia, Bagheri, Johnston, & Sahebkar, 2018). As the SARS‐CoV‐2 coronavirus infection can be associated with a disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, hence curcumin can be an effective agent against this pathological condition.

The Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin on Virus-Induced Cytokine Storm and Its Potential Use in the Associated Severe Pneumonia
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, September 2020
Coronavirus infection, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2, causes daunting diseases that can be fatal because of lung failure and systemic cytokine storm. No drugs are available to suppress overly immune response-mediated lung injury effectively. In light of the low toxicity and its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activity, it is plausible to speculate that curcumin could be used as a therapeutic drug for viral pneumonia and ALI/ARDS. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the mounting evidence obtained from preclinical studies using animal models of lethal pneumonia where curcumin exerts protective effects by regulating the expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory factors such as IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and COX-2, promoting the apoptosis of PMN cells, and scavenging the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which exacerbates the inflammatory response. These studies provide a rationale that curcumin can be used as a therapeutic agent against pneumonia and ALI/ARDS in humans resulting from coronaviral infection.

Catechin and Curcumin interact with corona (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV2) viral S protein and ACE2 of human cell membrane
Pharmacodynamics,  September 2020
The recent outbreak of the coronavirus (2019n-CoV) is an unprecedented threat for human health throughout the globe.  Here, through computational approaches we have reported two polyphenols, Catechin and Curcumin which have dual binding affinity i.e both the molecule binds to viral S-protein and as well as ACE2. Molecular simulation study demonstrates that curcumin directly binds with RBD site of S-protein during 40-100ns. In conclusion, this computational study for the first time predicts the possibility of above two polyphenols, for therapeutic/preventive intervention.

Curcumin to inhibit binding of spike glycoprotein to ACE2 receptors: curcuminoids against novel SARS-CoV-2
Royal Society of Chemistry, August 2020
We focused on the natural plant Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric, a perennial herbaceous rhizomatous plant belonging to the ginger family Zingiberaceae, which is widely used in India.Curcuma longa chemical constitutes are widely used for treating various ailments and possess a wide variety of therapeutic properties including antiviral,analgesic,antimicrobial,antiproliferative,and anti-inflammatory activity. Among the various chemical compounds, curcumin has gained importance among researchers because its compounds have been exhibited activity against viruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis virus, influenza A virus (IAV), and Ebola virus.SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a devastating pandemic with global concern; however, present therapies in virology fail to prevent its effects. Currently, there is exigency in identifying novel leads with anti-viral properties to impede viral pathogenesis in the host system. Thus, two important curcuminoids of turmeric, i.e., its curcumin keto and enol forms, were demonstrated to be complementary to bind with the S-glycoprotein and envelope protein of SARS-CoV-2. However, the keto form of curcumin is more favourable for both these drug targets considering its docking score, binding energy and molecular dynamics simulation. Thus, this study indicates that surface proteins are key drug target proteins of SARS-CoV-2, and probably curcumin blocks essential biologically active drug target residues, thereby attenuating the viral infection. Hence, this computational biology approach identifies curcumin as a drug candidate for further investigation in treating SARS-CoV-2.

Antiviral and virucidal effects of curcumin
Journal of General Virology, August 2020
Emerging coronaviruses represent serious threats to human and animal health worldwide, and no approved therapeutics are currently available. Here, we used Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) as the alpha-coronavirus model, and investigated the antiviral properties of curcumin against TGEV. Our results demonstrated that curcumin strongly inhibited TGEV proliferation and viral protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. We also observed that curcumin exhibited direct virucidal abilities in a dose-, temperature- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, time-of-addition assays showed that curcumin mainly acted in the early phase of TGEV replication. Notably, in an adsorption assay, curcumin at 40 µM resulted in a reduction in viral titres of 3.55 log TCID50 ml–1, indicating that curcumin possesses excellent inhibitory effects on the adsorption of TGEV. Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time that curcumin has virucidal activity and virtual inhibition against TGEV, suggesting that curcumin might be a candidate drug for effective control of TGEV infection.

Turmeric could have antiviral properties
Microbiology Society, August 2020
Curcumin, a natural compound found in the spice turmeric, could help eliminate certain viruses, research has found. A study published in the Journal of General Virology showed that curcumin can prevent Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) – an alpha-group coronavirus that infects pigs – from infecting cells. At higher doses, the compound was also found to kill virus particles. The research suggests that curcumin affects TGEV in a number of ways: by directly killing the virus before it is able to infect the cell, by integrating with the viral envelope to ‘inactivate’ the virus, and by altering the metabolism of cells to prevent viral entry. “Curcumin has a significant inhibitory effect on TGEV adsorption step and a certain direct inactivation effect, suggesting that curcumin has great potential in the prevention of TGEV infection,” said Dr Lilan Xie, lead author of the study and researcher at the Wuhan Institute of Bioengineering. Curcumin has been shown to inhibit the replication of some types of virus, including dengue virus, hepatitis B and Zika virus. The compound has also been found to have a number of significant biological effects, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. Curcumin was chosen for this research due to having low side effects according to Dr Xie.

Turmeric may have antiviral properties
labonline, August 2020
To determine the potential antiviral properties of curcumin, scientists from the Wuhan Institute of Bioengineering treated experimental cells with various concentrations of the compound, before attempting to infect them with TGEV. They found that higher concentrations of curcumin reduced the number of virus particles in the cell culture.

Curcumin enhances anti‑cancer efficacy on pancreatic cancer cells
Oncology Reports, August 2020
Curcumin is a natural compound extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), which has been reported to be a promising anti‑cancer drug in various human cancers. Curcumin exhibited marked suppressive ability on metastasis of PC cells by wound healing and matrigel‑transwell assay. Mechanistically, upregulation of TIMP1/TIMP2 with concomitant downregulation of MMP2/MMP9/N‑cadherin proteins may be involved in this process. In conclusion, curcumin showed synergistic anti‑cancer effects with either gemcitabine or docetaxel on PC cells.

Accelerated Muscle Recovery After In Vivo Curcumin Supplementation
Graduate Institute of Metabolism and Obesity Sciences, August 2020
For the contusion-induced muscle injury, curcumin could affect the specific proteins of inflammation, neutrophils, and differentiation of satellite cells, including Ikk-α/ß, MPO, and myogenin. In conclusion, curcumin potentially accelerates muscle recovery; therefore, it may be a potential candidate for further research as an effective treatment to enhance muscle repair.

Curcumin Protects Against Radiotherapy-Induced Oxidative Injury to the Skin
Drug Design, Development and Therapy, August 2020
The administration of curcumin before and after irradiation prevented radiotherapy-induced oxidative damage by significantly elevating the activities of antioxidant enzymes. From the findings of the present study, curcumin showed potential for protection against radiotherapy induced oxidative injury to the skin. However, future studies are required to evaluate its clinical efficacy.

The Spice That Protects Your Brain
TheEpochTimes, August 2020
Previous research on curcumin indicates that it is capable of acting as an antioxidant in three distinct ways by protecting against 1) singlet oxygen, 2) hydroxyl radicals, and 3) superoxide radical damage. Also, curcumin appears to raise endogenous glutathione production in the brain, a major antioxidant defense system. Supplementation with curcumin significantly reduced the toxic effect of fluoride to near normal level by augmenting the antioxidant defense through its scavenging property and provides evidence of having a therapeutic role against oxidative stress mediated neurodegeneration.” This is far from the first study to demonstrate curcumin’s remarkable brain-saving properties. From the perspective of the primary research alone, there are more than 200 peer-reviewed published studies indicating that curcumin is a neuroprotective agent. On GreenMedInfo’s turmeric database there are 115 articles proving turmeric protects the brain. There are also two featured studies on turmeric’s ability to protect and restore the brain: How Turmeric Can Save the Aging Brain From Dementia and Premature Death, and Turmeric Produces ‘Remarkable’ Recovery in Alzheimer’s Patients. Considering the many chemical insults we face on a daily basis in the post-industrial world, turmeric may very well be the world’s most important herb, with more than 800 evidence-based health applications.

Effects of curcumin, D-pinitol alone or in combination in cytotoxicity induced by arsenic
Food and Chemical Toxicology, August 2020
Curcumin  decreases cell viability of PC12 cells unlike D-pinitol. Arsenic induced cell death via both mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis and autophagy. Curcumin and D-pinitol alone or in combination efficiently protects PC12 cells from arsenic-induced cytotoxicity.  The combined cytoprotection of curcumin and D-pinitol against arsenic-toxicity was higher than their individual protection.

Magical benefits of herbs
Northampton Chronicle, August 2020
Curcumin is undergoing many studies to investigate its anti-inflammatory properties. Already shown to be able to slow down inflammation, there are clinical trials being performed comparing this compound with anti-inflammatory drugs, like Ibuprofen. Curcumin has also been linked to helping pre-menstrual tension, acne, arthritis, depression. Clinical studies are also under way to investigate its function with Alzheimer’s Disease and some cancers.

Potential Effects of Curcumin in the Treatment of COVID-19 Infection
Phytotherapy Research, July 2020
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak is an ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with considerable mortality worldwide. The main clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is the presence of respiratory symptoms, but some patients develop severe cardiovascular and renal complications. There is an urgency to understand the mechanism by which this virus causes complications so as to develop treatment options. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, could be a potential treatment option for patients with coronavirus disease. In this study, we review some of the potential effects of curcumin such as inhibiting the entry of virus to the cell, inhibiting encapsulation of the virus and viral protease, as well as modulating various cellular signaling pathways. This review provides a basis for further research and development of clinical applications of curcumin for the treatment of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2.

Antiviral benefits of curcumin
nutritionaloutlook, July 2020
A new review explores the potential effects of curcumin on COVID-19 infection. Based on existing data from in silico and animal studies on curcumin and viral infection, the review serves as a groundwork for future study of curcumin as a possible treatment. The review cites studies that point to curcumin’s ability to potentially inhibit the entry of virus to the cell, inhibit encapsulation of the virus and viral protease, as well as modulate various cellular signaling pathways. The review also cites studies in which curcumin was effective in pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, and edema, as well as the recuperative actions of curcumin on cardiac and kidney damage caused by viral infections.

Curcumin - Properties, Applications and Modification of Structure
eurekaselect, July 2020
In recent years, the interest in biologically active compounds of natural origin has increased significantly. Researchers' research focuses on increasing the activity of curcumin by forming complexes with metals such as vanadium, iron, copper or gallium. Introduction of metal compounds to curcumin increases the scope of application in pharmacology. The main direction of research development is the treatment of tumors, among others stomach cancer or leukemia. Curcuminoids are the main components of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), a plant from India and South-East Asia. Due to its intense yellow-orange color and pleasant aroma, the powdered rootstalk is widely used in the food industry, as natural dye and spice. The chemical compound responsible for the characteristic color of rhizomes of curcuma is 1,6-heptadien-3,5-dione-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) - (1E, 6E) called curcumin. This work aims to characterize curcumin in terms of its structure, therapeutic properties and also as a substrate for the synthesis of valuable derivatives like tetrahydrocurcumin. Knowledge about this relationship based on literature analysis will enable a better understanding of the factors responsible for its biological activity.

Turmeric: The Spice for Life
ttownmedia, July 2020
For centuries it has been known that turmeric exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, but extensive research performed within the past two decades has shown that this activity of turmeric is due to curcumin. The process of inflammation has been shown to play a role in most chronic illnesses, including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and autoimmune. In this study published in the Jan. 2009 issue of the " International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology" researchers provided evidence for the potential role of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of various proinflammatory chronic diseases. Because curcumin can help keep blood sugar levels steady, it could be effective as a way of preventing or treating type 2 diabetes. One study, as reported in an article on turmeric in WEB MD, followed 240 adults with prediabetes and found that taking a curcumin supplement over 9 months lowered their odds of developing diabetes. Additionally, curcumin has shown promise for its ability to ease joint pain, stiffness, abdominal pain, headaches and migraines. There is evidence to suggest the curcumin may help in weight loss. Studies find that curcumin may regulate lipid metabolism, which plays a central role in the development of obesity and its complications. ` Research published in the journal "Pharmaceutical Research" Jan 2017 discusses the evidence of curcumin's effectiveness on pulmonary diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. According to Dr. Goel, Ph.D., director of Cancer Prevention at Baylor University Medical Center and curcumin researcher: "Curcumin demonstrates superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and provides liver- and heart-protective benefits as well. It is a potent antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-allergenic and has antitumor and anti-cancer properties." A Randomized Controlled Trial reported in the Aug. 2009 issue of "The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine" conclude that curcumin was as safe and effective for treating knee osteoarthritis as ibuprofen. A 2016 Meta-Analysis of over 28 studies concluded that scientific evidence supported the efficacy of turmeric extract (about 1000 mg/day of curcumin) in the treatment of arthritis.

Curcumin-enhanced antitumor effects
Food & Function, July 2020
Curcumin, the main active ingredient of turmeric, is widely used as a kind of food additive and also displays a range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, liver and kidney protection, and so forth.  It was found that curcumin protected against liver cancer progression through reducing the level of alpha fetoprotein in liver tissues, increasing the number of immune cells, like NK cells, inhibiting EMT via the regulation of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 and IL-1β/NF-κB pathways, suppressing anaerobic glycolysis through the inhibition of LDH and HIF-1α, and decreasing the lipid synthesis via the downregulation of FASN, and upregulated the serum HDL-C and mRNA levels of apoA1 in the sorafenib-treated mice. Furthermore, curcumin regulation of the disorder of glycolipid metabolism and EMT was also based on the PI3K/AKT pathway. A docking study was performed and proved the strong affinity between curcumin and the proteins of STAT3, FASN, and AKT. All in all, this experiment provided evidence for the addition of curcumin in the diet to enhance the antitumor efficacy of sorafenib through activating immune function, downregulating EMT, and reversing disorders of the metabolism.

Support Your Immune System
marieclaire, July 2020
Turmeric rates as a high immunity-boosting food due to the levels of curcumin that are found in it. Curcumin can enhance the antibody response by activating the T cells, B cells, neutrophils (white blood cells that heal damaged tissues and resolve infections) and Natural Killer cells, all of which help your body to fight off infection. Curcumin is also a fantastic anti-inflammatory, which helps your immune system by reducing the amount of inflammation within your body. The more inflammation you have, the less able your body is able to fight off any potential microbes.

Curcumin exerts protective effect on PC12 cells
europeanreview, July 2020
Our study indicates that curcumin exerts protective effect against lidocaine-induced cytotoxicity on PC12 cells by suppressing the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome, which provides new ideas on screening natural product for neurological damage therapy.

Curcumin protects BV2
Molecular Biology Reports, July 2020
Curcumin was demonstrated to be an active ingredient with anti-inflammatory effects. This research was to investigate the effects of curcumin. We found that curcumin promoted cell viability and suppressed cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, curcumin decreased the level of cleaved caspase-3 and the release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, but increased IL-10 release in LPS-treated BV2 cells. Furthermore, curcumin suppressed p-p65 expression via regulating miR-362-3p/TLR4 axis. We discovered that curcumin exhibited protective effects against LPS-triggered cell injury via modulating miR-362-3p/TLR4 axis through NF-κB pathway.

Improving Lung Function
ndtv, July 2020
Curcumin in turmeric has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects which can be beneficial for supporting lung function.

Curcumin-Induced DNA Demethylation in Human Gastric Cancer Cells
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, July 2020
Curcumin, a natural polyphenol antioxidant extracted from the root of turmeric (Curcuma longa), can induce apoptosis and DNA demethylation in several types of cancer cells. We observed that curcumin inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, and migration of hGCCs in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. A high concentration of curcumin elevated ROS levels and triggered mitochondrial damage, DNA damage, and apoptosis of hGCCs. Further, curcumin-induced DNA demethylation of hGCCs was mediated by the damaged DNA repair-p53-p21/GADD45A-cyclin/CDK-Rb/E2F-DNMT1 axis. We propose that the anticancer effect of curcumin could largely be attributed to its prooxidative effect at high concentrations and ROS elevation in cancer cells. Moreover, we present a novel mechanism by which curcumin induces DNA demethylation of hGCCs, suggesting the need to further investigate the demethylation mechanisms of other DNA hypomethylating drugs.

Type 2 diabetes: A spice proven to help lower blood sugar and help with treatment
express.co.uk
In a study with the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, curcumin and how it affects diabetes was investigated. The study noted: “The active component of turmeric, curcumin, has caught attention as a potential treatment for diabetes and its complications primarily because it is a relatively safe and inexpensive drug that reduces glycemia and hyperlipidaemia in rodent models of diabetes. “The spice turmeric, which is derived from the root of the plant Curcuma longa, has been described as a treatment for diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. “Recent research has provided the scientific basis for “traditional” curcumin and confirmed the important role of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its associated disorders. Curcumin could favourably affect most of the leading aspects of diabetes, including insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and islet apoptosis and necrosis.”

Curcumin Potentiates Laryngeal Squamous Carcinoma Cancer
Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction, July 2020
Curcumin has shown efficacy in promoting radiosensitivity combined with radiotherapy. Curcumin significantly enhanced irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, while weakening clone-forming abilities of LSCC cell line Hep2 and Hep2-max. Compared to Hep2 cells, Hep2-max cells are more sensitive to curcumin post-irradiation. Curcumin enhances LSCC radiosensitivity via NF-ΚB inhibition by suppressing IKKγ expression.

Curcumin For Better Memory?
drweil.com July 2020
Curcumin is a compound found in the spice turmeric. Both give the yellow color to curry powder and American mustard. The possibility that curcumin could prevent – or treat – memory problems, including Alzheimer’s disease, is suggested in part by population studies showing that elderly villagers in India have the world’s lowest rate of Alzheimer’s, perhaps because their traditional diet provides turmeric with almost every meal. Curcumin is a powerful antioxidant and also has anti-inflammatory properties that might protect against Alzheimer’s, which begins as an inflammatory process in the brain. The latest findings on curcumin’s effects come from a small, double-blind, placebo-controlled UCLA study showing that curcumin supplements improved memory and mood in 40 people between the ages of 51 and 84 with mild, age-related memory loss. The participants were randomly assigned to receive either 90 milligrams of an easily absorbed form of curcumin twice daily for 18 months or a placebo. The form of curcumin used in this study is key; many forms are not well absorbed from the GI tract, so that little gets into the bloodstream and even less gets past the blood-brain barrier. All the UCLA study participants received standardized cognitive assessments when the study began and every six months afterwards. In addition, 30 of them had PET scans at the investigation’s beginning and end to determine their levels of amyloid-beta and tau, the abnormal proteins that make up the plaques and tangles that progressively obstruct cerebral function in Alzheimer’s disease. At the end of the study, the team found that memory improved by 28 percent in the participants who took curcumin. No such changes occurred in those who received the placebo. Those who took curcumin also showed mild improvements in mood, and their PET scans revealed significantly less amyloid and tau proteins in brain regions that control memory and emotional functions. In news reports, the study’s first author, Gary Small, M.D., director of geriatric psychiatry at UCLA’s Longevity Center, said it isn’t known exactly how curcumin exerts theSE effects, but they may be due to its ability to reduce brain inflammation, A factor in both Alzheimer’s disease and major depression.

Managing autoimmune disorders
Times Of India, July 2020
Curcumin is the main active ingredient in turmeric. It has powerful anti-inflammatory effects and is a very strong antioxidant. It helps the body fight foreign invaders and also has a role in repairing damage. Circumin helps fight many autoimmune diseases. It not just neutralizes free radicals on its own but also stimulates the body's own antioxidant enzymes. Curcumin leads to various changes at the molecular level that may help prevent and even heal a cancer.

Struggle with Schizophrenia? Curcumin May Make the Difference
Natural Path Newsletter, July 2020
To see if curcumin could widen the treatment to include the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, researchers added either a placebo or 3g of curcumin a day to the antipsychotic drugs of 38 people with chronic schizophrenia in a double-blind study. At the end of the six month study, there was a significantly better response in the curcumin group on the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) and on the negative symptoms subscale. The researchers call these results “promising” because they suggest a safe, effective, natural way of addressing the previously resistant negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

Antibacterial Mechanism of Curcumin: A Review
Chemistry & Biodiversity, July 2020
Curcumin is a plant‐derived polyphenolic active substance with broad‐spectrum antibacterial properties. Curcumin blocks bacterial growth owing to its structural characteristics and the generation of anti‐oxidation products. Curcumin can inhibit bacterial virulence factors, inhibit bacterial biofilm formation and prevent bacterial adhesion to host receptors through the bacterial quorum sensing regulation system. Moreover, it can exert a synergistic antibacterial effect with other antibacterial substances. In this review, we summarize the research progress on the antibacterial mechanism of curcumin based on five targeting structures and two modes of action. Our discussion provides a theoretical basis and technical foundation for the development and application of natural antibacterial agents.

Benefits of using Turmeric
bolnews, July 2020
Turmeric dramatically increases the antioxidant capacity of the body. The main reason antioxidants are so beneficial is that they protect your body from free radicals. Curcumin is a potent antioxidant that can neutralize free radicals due to its chemical structure. Turmeric boosts levels of the brain hormone BDNF, which increases the growth of new neurons and fights various degenerative processes in your brain. Turmeric leads to several changes on the molecular level that may help prevent and perhaps even treat cancer.

Curcumin ameliorates CKD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, July 2020
Curcumin could exert beneficial effects, including weight maintenance and improved muscle function, increased mitochondrial biogenesis, alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction by increasing adenosine triphosphate levels, activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes and basal mitochondrial respiration and suppressing mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, curcumin modulated redox homeostasis by increasing antioxidant activity and suppressed mitochondrial oxidative stress. Moreover, the protective effects of curcumin had been found to be mediated via inhibiting GSK-3β activity in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, GSK-3β KO contributed to improved mitochondrial function, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative damage and augmented mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle of CKD. Overall, this study suggested that curcumin alleviated CKD-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction via inhibiting GSK-3β activity in skeletal muscle.

How to live longer
express.co.uk, July 2020
In a study with the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, turmeric extract and its active compound, curcumin and how it can help with liver damage was investigated. The study noted: “Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, has previously been reported to alleviate liver damage. “We hypothesized that turmeric extract and curcumin protect the liver by reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting lipid peroxidation.” The study found that curcumin can protect against liver damage and that potential liver and gallbladder benefits of curcumin include increasing production of the digestive fluid bile while also protecting liver cells from damage from bile-associated chemicals.

Studies on Curcumin with COVID-19 Proteins
Biochemistry, June 2020
Curcumin, a natural bioactive molecule has been shown to have a therapeutic potential for various diseases, but no role of it in COVID-19 has been explored. In this work, we show the binding potential of curcumin targeted to a host of SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Our results indicate that curcumin has potential antiviral protein binding affinity towards SARS-CoV-2 proteins which is comparable with other repurposed drugs that are considered for clinical trials.

Effects of curcumin on neurological diseases
Pharmacological Reports, June 2020
Curcumin, the major active component of turmeric, belongs to the curcuminoid family that was originally isolated from the plant Curcuma longa. Several studies suggest that curcumin may have a beneficial impact on the brain pathology and aging. These effects are due to curcumin’s antioxidant, free-radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory activity. In light of this, our current review aims to discuss the role of astrocytes as essential players in neurodegenerative diseases and suggest that curcumin is capable of direct inhibition of astrocyte activity with a particular focus on its effects in Alexander disease, Alzheimer's disease, ischemia stroke, spinal cord injury, Multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease.

Effects of curcumin on breast cancer cell proliferation
International Journal of Oncology, June 2020
Only curcumin and B(Cur)2 inhibited cell migration. Furthermore, cell exposure to curcumin resulted in an increase in the relative expression of the two key proapoptotic proteins, cytochrome c and cleaved caspase‑3, as well as the antiapoptotic protein haem oxygenase‑1. In addition, curcumin increased the expression levels of the voltage‑gated potassium channels Kv2.1 and Kv3.2. Similarly, the expression levels of the chloride channel bestrophin‑1 and the calcium channel coding gene calcium voltage‑gated channel auxiliary subunit γ4 were increased following exposure to curcumin.  Fe(Cur)3 and B(Cur)2 may display similar anticancer properties as curcumin.

Curcumin's potential to fight COVID-19
Manorama Online, June 2020
Curcumin is an integral part of two among the three research projects undertaken by MG varsity VC and his team of scientists

Consequences of long-term low-dose curcumin exposure in lung cancer cells
Molecules, June 2020
Curcumin has been investigated extensively for cancer prevention, but it has been proposed that long-term treatments may promote clonal evolution and gain of cellular resistance, potentially rendering cancer cells less sensitive to future therapeutic interventions. Curcumin (0.25–0.5 µM) was able to inhibit the invasion of both native and chemo-resistant NSCLC cells in the organotypic co-culture model.

Local doctor says food, spices in your home could boost your immunity
Boston 25 News, June 2020
 A recent New York Times article said that most Americans don’t have the diet or overall health to fight COVID-19. A Weymouth doctor said a strong immune system is needed to fight the virus. Dr. Pat Hopkins, a rheumatologist and director of the Boston Functional Medicine Group, looks at the root cause of diseases. “I always like to say the best offense is a good defense so you’re building up your immune system,” Hopkins said. “If you get the virus your immune system should roll over and say no problem.” Hopkins said the best way to flatten the curve and protect yourself from coronavirus.  Here’s a list of Hopkins’ top supplements to help boost your immunity:  Curcumin, 500 to 1000 MG twice a day.

Bioactive immunity booster
PinkVilla.com June 2020
The key substance which makes turmeric so useful and powerful is Curcumin. Due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties, it aids to combat inflammation, which is the origin of many chronic diseases in the body and also lessens immunity. It has also proven to be a super ingredient to strengthen joints, have a stronger heart, sharper brain, and a healthy liver. Curcumin is also effective for healthy and glowing skin and its consumption keeps viruses and infections at bay.

Curcumin ameliorates CKD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress through inhibiting GSK-3β activity
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, June 2020
Curcumin has been reported to attenuate muscle atrophy.  Moreover, the protective effects of curcumin had been found to be mediated via inhibiting GSK-3β activity in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, GSK-3β KO contributed to improved mitochondrial function, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative damage, and augmented mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle of CKD. Overall, this study suggested that curcumin alleviated CKD - induced mitochondrial oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction via inhibiting GSK-3β activity in skeletal muscle.

Antiviral Foods To Boost Your Immune System
Refinery29.com June 2020
Curcumin, a compound found in turmeric, has powerful anti-inflammatory properties. Davis says that even low doses of it enhances antibody responses, an indicator that your body is fighting off illnesses. You can cook with turmeric, a spice, but you can find curcumin supplements at any health food store too.

Lower concentrations of curcumin inhibit Her2-Akt pathway components in human breast cancer cells
Nutrition Research, June 2020
Curcumin has emerged as a potential co-treatment for this and other cancers, but prior studies have focused on non-attainable concentrations. These studies demonstrate that a physiological attainable level of curcumin (1.5 μM) can reduce some components of the critical Her2-Akt pathway; that even more complete inhibition can be achieved by combination with other dietary botanicals; and that curcumin and other botanicals can potentiate the action of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 cancer metastatic drug lapatinib, in turn suggesting the potential anti-cancer clinical use of these botanicals.

Curcumin for the Management of Periodontal Diseases: A Review
Current Pharmaceutical Design, June 2020
Periodontal disease is one of the most common causes of tooth loss among adults. Research shows that inflammation is one of the crucial components in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. Various herbal medicines have recently been receiving attention for the management of periodontitis owing to their general safety and efficacy. Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol extracted from Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Several studies have assessed the efficacy of curcumin against periodontal diseases. These studies have shown equivalent or even higher efficacy of curcumin compared to the commonly used medications for the management of periodontitis such as chlorhexidine. Herein, we review the experimental and clinical findings on the anti-periodontitis effects of curcumin and the pharmacological mechanisms underlying these effects.

The Best Anti-Aging Supplements For Longevity
Longevity Live, June 2020
Curcumin is responsible for the vibrant yellow color of turmeric. With its anti-inflammatory effects, curcumin could be exactly what your aged skin needs. In fact, one study associated turmeric intake with a reduced risk of age-related mental decline in humans.  A separate study published in the Phytotherapy Research journal found that the topical application and oral ingestion of curcumin supplements helped to alleviate the appearance of not only aging, but that of skin damage caused by UV rays.

Curcumin alleviates OGD/R‐induced PC12 cell damage via repressing CCL3 to suppress inflammation and apoptosis
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, June 2020
Curcumin presents some therapeutic effects including anti‐cancer and anti‐inflammation. Herein, we centered on the functional role of curcumin in cerebral ischaemia injury and its potential molecular mechanisms. Our study manifested that curcumin might be a meritorious drug for the treatment of cerebral ischaemia by acting on CCL3.

Best supplements for diabetes - the 'amazing' capsules to protect against high blood sugar
Express, June 2020
Curcumin improves insulin resistance in some diabetes patients, according to nutritionist Dr Sarah Brewer. The spice could also protect against some of the severe complications of high blood sugar. Its anti-inflammatory properties mean that patients aren't as likely to develop neuropathy, or damage to their blood vessels. People with prediabetes could also benefit from taking turmeric supplements, added the nutritionist. "Curcumin supplements have also been shown to improve insulin resistance by activating insulin receptors. "In people with poor glucose tolerance [prediabetes], turmeric can delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. "These are amazing results and it’s no wonder that turmeric is an increasingly popular natural treatment for type 2 diabetes."

Curcumin inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis induced by PCV2 virus
Research Square, June 2020
Curcumin has significant antiviral effect. And the PCV2-induced Mitochondrial apoptosis was mainly remitted by Curcumin.

Putting health first
Daily Pioneer, June 2020
Known for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, Curcumin, the compound present in turmeric is a very potent agent and aids in healing of wounds and infections. This bright yellow, bitter spice has also been used for years as an anti-inflammatory in treating both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Research shows that high concentrations of curcumin, which gives turmeric its distinctive color, can help decrease exercise-induced muscle damage. Curcumin has promise as an immune booster (based on findings from animal studies) and an antiviral.

 Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) Induces Apoptosis in Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Biochemical Pharmacology, June 2020
We used curcumin, a pharmacologically safe agent, to target NF-kappaB in a variety of MCL cell lines. On treatment of cells with curcumin, however, downregulated constitutive active NF-kappaB and inhibited the consitutively active IkappaBalpha kinase (IKK), and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and p65. Curcumin also inhibited constitutive activation of Akt, needed for IKK activation. Consequently, the expression of all NF-kappaB-regulated gene products, were downregulated by the polyphenol leading to the suppression of proliferation. Overall, our results indicate that curcumin inhibits the constitutive NF-kappaB and IKK leading to suppression of expression of NF-kappaB-regulated gene products that results in the suppression of proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis in MCL.

Exercise and Curcumin in Combination Improves Cognitive Function and Attenuates ER Stress in Diabetic Rats
Nutrients, June 2020
Curcumin is a natural compound with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Exercise plus curcumin improved escape latency and memory retention compared to OLETF controls. Furthermore, OLETF rats exercised and fed curcumin had lower IL6, TNFα, and IL10 levels (indicators of inflammatory response) and lower levels of ER stress markers (BiP and CHOP) in the intestine than OLETF controls. These observations suggest exercise plus curcumin may offer a means of treating diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction.

Curcumin Administration Mitigates Oxidative Damage and Restores Alteration of Enzymes Associated with Cognitive Function in Rats’ Brain
Neurotoxicity Research, June 2020
Curcumin also improved redox balance and showed protection against cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative damage to rats’ brain via an increase in protein and non-protein thiols and nitric oxide levels as well as a significant reduction in malondialdehyde levels. Curcumin also prevented neuronal degeneration in different brain regions and reduced caspase-3 expression. Hence this study suggests that pre and post-treatment with curcumin improved neurobehavior, modulates some biomarkers associated with cognitive function and exhibit neuroprotection against cyclophosphamide-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

Curcumin Confer Radiosensitizing Effect in Breast Cancer
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, May 2020
Curcumin reduced the proliferation rate of cells. Correspondingly, wound healing assay resulted in control of the cell-cell interaction and cell migration at two different time points. Conclusion: In conclusion, curcumin along with a lower dose (8 Gy) of radiation acted as the best combinatorial drug treatment for breast cancer cell lines. Our findings put up a rationale for further clinical/preclinical analysis of combination treatments with a lower dose and fewer side effects in breast cancer.

COVID-19: Herbs That Strengthen Your Immune System
outlookindia, May 2020
Turmeric contains a bioactive compound known as curcumin, which acts as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Curcumin effect on cancer cells
Phytotherapy Research, May 2020
Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound which shows potent anticancer activities in different tumors, alone or as an adjuvant with other antitumor drugs to prevent or inhibit the survival and cancer progression by various mechanisms. The role of curcumin in overcoming drug resistance was followed by reviewing different applications of curcumin in cancer therapy. Afterward, the clinical impacts of curcumin, role of curcumin in decreasing drug resistance in different cancer cells and its mechanisms were discussed. It has been demonstrated that curcumin regulates signaling pathways in cancer cells, reduces the expression of proteins related to drug resistance, and increases the performance of antitumor drugs at various levels. Curcumin reverses multidrug resistance mechanisms and increases sensitivity of resistance cells to chemotherapy. This review mainly focuses on different mechanisms of drug resistance and curcumin as a nontoxic natural substance to eliminate the effects of drug resistance through modulation and controlling cell resistance pathways and eventually suggests curcumin as a potent chemosensitizer in cancers.

Benefits Of Turmeric You Might Not Have Known
republicworld, May 2020
Turmeric is rich in curcumin; it can reduce inflammation by blocking enzymes that cause tissue inflammation. Curcumin has powerful antioxidant effects. It helps to reduce or even prevent some of the potential damage that free radicals can cause. According to recent research by Healthline, turmeric's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity mostly related to its compound curcumin may play a role in weight loss.

Chemopreventive effect of green tea and curcumin in induced oral squamous cell carcinoma
Alexandria Dental Journal, May 2020
Curcumin, a natural polyphenol, is one of the most investigated biomolecules from Mother Nature. Curcumin has been shown to exert significant growth inhibitory effect on oral precancerous and carcinoma cell lines, and the effect is synergistic with epigallocatechin gallate, the most abundant polyphenol in tea. Conclusions: Green tea and curcumin have a significant chemopreventive effect against oral cancer.

Investigation of phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Curcuma longa
International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences, May 2020
Many plants have been screened for antimicrobial activity and drug properties. The aim of the present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens. In present study methanol and chloroform extracts of Curcuma longa (fresh and dry) were prepared from the rhizome. The antimicrobial properties of both of the extract were studied by testing the antibacterial as well as antifungal activity. The antibacterial test was done by agar well diffusion method against bacterial species such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Protease vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megatarium, Bacillus subtilis and fungal species such as Aspergillus niger. The zone of inhibition of the extract were determined and compared with the standard drug streptomycin to know the efficiency. The methanol extract of rhizome was found to be more effective when compared with other solvent like chloroform. The phytochemical analysis of both of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, saponin and steroids.

Protective effects of curcumin on bleomycin-induced changes in lung glycoproteins
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, May 2020
Curcumin inhibited the increases in complex carbohydrates and glycosidases in the fibrotic lungs. These findings suggest that BLM-induced lung fibrosis is associated with accumulation of glycoproteins, and curcumin has the ability to suppress the enhanced deposition of glycoproteins in the fibrotic lung.

Nutrition: Is turmeric good for you?
newtimes, May 2020
They say turmeric and its most active compound known as curcumin has many scientifically-proven health benefits, such as the potential to prevent heart disease, Alzheimer’s and cancer, as well as a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Nutritionists say the primary active component of turmeric and the one that gives the spice its characteristic yellow colour is curcumin. In fact, they say that one can credit curcumin as the compound responsible for most of turmeric’s potential health benefits. Studies have shown that curcumin found in turmeric is an effective anti-carcinogen, a substance that helps prevent cancer. Besides, Uwiragiye notes that the medicinal property in turmeric is able to boost the immune system, even in people with immune disorders. During this time when we are faced with the novel coronavirus, it’s essential for people to consume foods that help in boosting their immunity, and turmeric should be one of them. This is because it has been proven that the virus affects people with the low immune system more. Research shows that the curcumin found in turmeric may help prevent Alzheimer’s, and, turmeric’s antioxidants prevent damage that can lead to Alzheimer’s. Meanwhile, studies have proven that curcumin in turmeric may help treat and prevent diabetes as well as associated disorders like diabetic nephropathy (also called diabetic kidney disease), which affects people with type 1 and 2 diabetes.

Effects of Curcumin on the Renal Toxicity
Antioxidants, May 2020
Curcumin (CURC), due to its therapeutic effects, has been chosen for our study to reduce the toxic renal effects induced by OTA. This study shows that curcumin can mitigate OTA-induced oxidative damage in the kidneys of rats.

COVID-19: Scientific Review with Natural & Holistic Methods for Immune Boosting
ModernHana, April 2020
CURCUMIN This chemical from the Indian spice, Tumeric, does many good things for the body. Kang et al 2019 study titled Curcumin inhibits Th1 cytokine profile in CD4+ T cells by suppressing interleukin-12 production in macrophages” published in the British Journal of Pharmacology suggest that Curcumin can likely help reduce excess inflammation (cytokine storm) in the lungs. Jagetia GC and Aggarwal BB , 2007 study titled “ "Spicing up" of the immune system by curcumin” published in the Journal Clinical Immunology also suggests that Curcumin has potent immune benefits that can help fight infections.

A cost-effective preventative approach to potentially save lives in the coronavirus pandemic, jointly using Vitamin D, Curcumin, and Vitamin C
NutriXiv, April 2020
In the current absence of specific pharmaceutical agents, we propose assessing the extended tools that we already possess in our biological armoury to combat, prevent and control the spread of this virus. Using a set of precise criteria to locate such possible contenders, we conducted literature searches to find compounds that met these criteria. We have now reduced this to a shortlist of three agents that may be the best candidates. We propose vitamin C, vitamin D and Curcumin fit our criteria well. These compounds are widely available to the general public. They are available online and over-the-counter as supplements. Otherwise healthy individuals are safely able to self-administer these agents as a prophylactic to protect themselves and to enhance their immune response. This would be especially desirable for the elderly and at risk groups. These agents can also be used as adjunct therapy, particularly for those who may have early symptoms. This preventative therapy could be implemented whilst awaiting specific pharmaceutical drugs to emerge as a treatment for COVID-19. Our suggested compounds are a highly cost-effective way to potentially reduce the mortality that is regretfully mounting as a result of COVID-19 infection.

Enhance Your Immunity Amid Coronavirus Crisis
Medical Daily, April 20
"Turmeric has antiseptic, analgesic and immune boosting properties (that serve) as a line of defense against colds, flu and inflammation due to the active polyphenol called curcumin," Amanda Griggs, nutritionist at the Khera-Griggs Cleanse Clinic at the Urban Retreat in London, explained.

 Application of curcumin and its derivatives in tumor multidrug resistance
Phytotherapy Research, April 2020
Curcumin (CUR) has not only antitumor activity but also reversing tumor MDR effect. CUR reverses tumor MDR via regulating related signal pathways or corresponding expressed proteins or gene. When combined with chemotherapeutic agents, CUR can be a chemotherapeutic sensitive agent to enhance chemotherapy efficacy and weaken tumor MDR.

Dietary Supplementation with Curcumin Reduce Circulating Levels of Glycogen
Nutrients, April 2020
Dietary supplementation with curcumin has been previously reported to have beneficial effects in people with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Dietary supplementation with curcumin reduced circulating levels of IAPP and GSK-3β, thus suggesting a novel mechanism through which curcumin could potentially be used for alleviating insulin resistance related markers for reducing the risk of T2D and AD.

Curcumin Reverses the Scopolomine-induced Cognitive Impairment
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, April 2020
Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound, known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and precognitive properties. Present study reported that curcumin showed anti-amnesic effect in animal models of cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. Curcumin reduced the TL compared to toxic control group (scopolamine per se) (P <0.001) in elevated plus maze. In spontaneous alteration behaviour test, curcumin significantly increased percentage alteration and possible alteration as compared to toxic control group (P <0.001). The present study put forward the claim of curcumin as a new and safer therapeutic option for the treatment of cognitive impairment in Schizophrenia. The underlying mechanism of this potential effect may be related to anticholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase inhibition activity of curcumin.

Curcumin and Endometriosis
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, April 2020
Curcumin is a major anti-inflammatory agent. Several findings have highlighted the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties of curcumin. The purpose of this review is to summarize the potential action of curcumin in endometriosis by acting on inflammation, oxidative stress, invasion and adhesion, apoptosis and angiogenesis.

Type 2 diabetes: Curry spice to add to foods to lower blood sugar
Express, April 2020
A scientific paper from the Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and McGill University reviewed studies of how curcumin from the around the world could help with better type 2 diabetes management. In many of the studies it was found that curcumin reduced blood sugar and cholesterol levels for those with diabetes. Curcumin was found to improve insulin function which reduces insulin resistance by helping them enter the cells needed to repair and do its function. On top of helping lower blood sugar levels and improve insulin functions, curcumin was also found to be an excellent weight loss booster. Health experts found that curcumin prevented liver fat accumulation in studies on rats. It found that rats who consumed curcumin had reduced liver fat on a high-fat diet compared to rats not consuming curcumin and aided in weight loss. One of the best type 2 diabetes management one could do is lose weight if overweight and curcumin could help with this. The studies also found that curcumin helped to fight off cancers and even helped those suffering with erectile dysfunction.

Ward off your cancer risk with spices
The Health Site, April 2020
Good old turmeric is your has been your kitchen companion forever. Almost all your dishes have turmeric in them. The good news is, curcumin, a component of turmeric can reduce your cancer risk, finds a spate of studies. A study published in the journal Gastroenterology found that this compound prevented the growth of colon cancer tumours. Curcumin is also known to protect you from other Alzheimer’s, diabetes, arthritis pain, etc.

Coronavirus Pandemic: Here’s How to Boost Your Immunity at Home
News18, March 2020
Turmeric: A common spice in India and Asia. Turmeric contains curcumin which is known to enhance immune function. Adding turmeric to your food will help you boost your immunity.

Tips on Staying Safe During the COVID-19 Outbreak by a Doctor
The Quint, March 2020
The active ingredient curcumin has been shown in several studies to stop the ‘cytokine storm’ of pro-inflammatory chemicals in the body, in the earlier epidemics of SARS and Ebola viruses.

What can I do to boost my immunity? Is there any medication able to treat coronavirus? COVID-19 questions answered by Cleveland Clinic doctor
WKYC, March 2020
Dr. Roizen: There are a lot of things that boost immunity. Vitamin D is one of those reported to boost immunity. Curcumin is reported to boost it.

A recent study by Indonesia's Airlangga University suggested curcumin — a component of turmeric — could reduce inflammation in the lungs and help boost immunity against the virus.
ABC, March 2020

Protect your body against coronavirus
InfoSurhoy, March 2020
Consuming anti-inflammatory rich foods is essential when it comes to the immune system.. The compound in turmeric known as curcumin holds a plethora of benefits.

Precaution and prevention best medicines to avoid Covid-19
Times of India, March 2020
Dr Varinder and Dr Naveen Airi specified that there there is no treatment for Coronavirus. The only way to prevent is to boost immunity via homeopath medicines like Ginseng, Curcumin

Turmeric, or curcumin, known for reducing inflammation in the body, can help fight off coronavirus, according to some medical experts
IndiaWest, March 2020
NEW DELHI – Turmeric, or curcumin, is being advocated by some medical experts for reducing lung inflammation amid the rising COVID-19 cases in India. The virus is especially known to attack the respiratory system. Turmeric is being touted as the only way to keep inflammation in your body low so that you have a better chance of fighting the coronavirus infection.

Turmeric to resist COVID-19
Saxon, March 2020
Turmeric. Its main component curcumin is considered a powerful immune booster, acts as an anti-inflammatory.

Curcumin Inhibits the Tumorigenesis of Breast Cancer
Cancer Management and Research, March 2020
Curcumin is an active phenolic pigment that is isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa).  Curcumin has diverse properties on tumor cells, including anti-proliferation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant.  Previous studies have shown that curcumin can effectively suppress the invasion and proliferation of human cancers, such as wilms’ tumor (WT) esophageal cancers, and pancreatic cancer. Jia et al have found that the proliferation, invasion and migration of WT cells are restrained by the treatment of curcumin. Dharmalingam et al have shown that curcumin treatment inhibits the proliferation and colony formation of esophageal cancer cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Choudhuri et al have proved that curcumin induces the apoptosis of BC cells. In addition, Bang and Kim have confirmed that curcumin significantly inhibits the motility and invasion of BC cells. The anti-tumor role of curcumin has been identified by a large number of researches.  Curcumin (20 and 30 μM) inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion, and promoted the apoptosis of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Curcumin decreased the protein expression of TAZ and YAP in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Overexpression of YAP reversed the anti-tumor effect of curcumin on MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, curcumin (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg/d) inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts in mice, and down-regulated the protein expression of TAZ and YAP in tumor xenografts. Curcumin at a concentration of 300 mg/kg/d slowed the increasing of body weight in mice. Conclusion: Curcumin inhibited the tumorigenesis of BC by blocking TAZ/YAP axis

Curcumin and Colorectal Cancer: An Update and Current Perspective On This Natural Medicine
Seminars in Cancer Biology, March 2020
Curcumin, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, represents one such option that has a long history of its use for a variety of chronic disease including cancer, in Indian ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. Scientific evidence over the past few decades have overwhelmingly shown that curcumin exhibits a multitude of anti-cancer activities orchestrated through key signaling pathways associated with cancer. In this article, we will present a current update and perspective on this natural medicine - incorporating the basic cellular mechanisms it effects and the current state of clinical evidence, challenges and promise for its use as a cancer preventative and potential adjunct together with modern therapies for CRC patients.

Therapeutic Effects of Curcumin against Bladder Cancer
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, March 2020
Curcumin is a well-known plant-derived polyphenol found in turmeric. This compound has numerous pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor properties. Curcumin is capable of suppressing the growth of a variety of cancer cells including those of bladder cancer. Given the involvement of various signaling pathways such as PI3K, Akt, mTOR and VEGF in the progression and malignancy of bladder cancer, and considering the potential of curcumin in targeting signaling pathways, it seems that curcumin can be considered as a promising candidate in bladder cancer therapy. In the present review, we describe the molecular signaling pathways through which curcumin inhibits invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells.

Coronavirus: Antiviral Cationic Carbon Dots Based on Curcumin
ACS Publications, March 2020
Here, we report a one-step method to apply curcumin in order to prepare of uniform and stable cationic carbon dots (CCM-CDs) with antiviral properties. These results offer theoretical support for the development of CCM-CDs as a hopeful antiviral drug for the treatment of coronavirus infections, including PEDV.

In the fight against cancer: Scientists say compound curcumin found in the popular spice has tumour-killing potential
DailyMail, March 2020
Scientists analyzed almost 5,000 studies and found curcumin blocked the growth of eight types of cancers, under laboratory settings. Results showed it was effective at treating breast, lung, blood, stomach, pancreatic, bowel, bone marrow and prostate cancer. The academics from Temple University in Philadelphia say curcumin stops nutrients from being transported to tumours.It also prevents the death of healthy cells by blocking cancer cells from releasing harmful proteins. The academics concluded curcumin - the pigment in turmeric that gives it its colour - could 'represent an effective drug for cancer treatment.

Curcumin Attenuates Colistin-Induced Peripheral Neurotoxicity
ACS Infectious Diseases, March 2020
Orally applied curcumin was detected in the brain, cerebellum, and sciatic nerve. Co-administration of oral curcumin markedly improved colistin-induced impaired sensory and motor dysfunctions in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin supplementation at 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and upregulated catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, ATP levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in sciatic nerve tissue, compared to the colistin alone group. Curcumin supplementation at 200 mg/kg upregulated the levels of AKT, NGF, mTOR, Nrf2, and HO-1 mRNA and concomitantly downregulated Bax, caspases-3, and -9 mRNA; it also decreased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity. In summary, for the first time, our study reveals that the protective effect of oral curcumin on colistin induced peripheral neurotoxicity is associated with the activation of NGF/Akt and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways and inhibition of oxidative stress. This study highlights the potential clinical application of curcumin as an oral neuroprotective agent coadministered during colistin therapy.

Curcumin attenuates copper-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity
Toxicology Reports, March 2020
Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol derived from the rhizome of the Herb Curcuma longa belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. Curcumin possesses antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-depressant-like properties.  Our findings suggest that Curcumin ameliorated Cu2+-induced neurotoxicity in D. melanogaster and as such could be considered an effective therapeutic agent in the prevention and treatment of disorders, where oxidative stress is implicated.

Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antiapoptotic Potential of Curcumin in Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-Induced Lung Injury
Journal of Thoracic Oncology, March 2020
Curcumin (Cur) has potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activity that defences cells from oxidative stress and cell death.  Thus, curcumin may be an alternative therapy for improving the outcomes of Benzo(a)pyrene -induced lung injury.

Curcumin, an Active Constituent of Turmeric Spice: Implication in the Prevention of Lung Injury
Molecules, March 2020
Curcumin is an active ingredient of Curcuma longa, and it has potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activity that defends cells from oxidative stress and cell death. Overall, our findings suggest that curcumin attenuates BaP -induced lung injury, probably through inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in lung epithelial cells, and improving cell proliferation and antioxidants level.

Ease Joint Pains Caused By Arthritis By Using This Spice Extract
IB Times, March 2020
Long praised for its anti-inflammatory properties, turmeric is becoming the focus of various studies on pain alleviation. The key ingredient of this popular Asian spice is curcumin, an active compound found in this flowering plant. A review summary of various controlled tests found that a thousand milligrams per day of curcumin can reduce osteoarthritic inflammation and pain. Its efficacy is comparable to that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs like ibuprofen and diclofenac. In another study conducted in 2016, results show that curcumin may help prevent the breakdown of bones in people with rheumatoid arthritis. You must choose curcumin extract over the whole turmeric, according to the Arthritis Foundation.

Curcumin on Improving Cognitive Function in an Alzheimer’s Disease
Neurochemical Research, March 2020
Berberine and curcumin are extracts from traditional Chinese herbs that have a long history of clinical benefits for Alzheimer’s disease. Here, using a transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mouse model, we found that the combined berberine and curcumin treatment had a much better effect on improving the cognitive function of mice than the single-drug treatment, suggesting synergic effects of the combined berberine and curcumin treatment. In addition, we found that the combined berberine and curcumin treatment had significant synergic effects on reducing soluble amyloid-β-peptide(1–42) production. Furthermore, the combination treatment also had remarkable synergic effects on decreasing inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in both the cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer’s disease mice. We also found that the combination treatment performed much better than the single drugs in reducing the APP and BACE1 levels and increasing AMPKα phosphorylation and cell autophagy, which might be the underlying mechanism of the synergic effects. Taken together, the result of this study reveal the synergic effects and potential underlying mechanisms of the combined berberine and curcumin treatment in improving the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

Bidirectional interactions between curcumin and gut microbiota in transgenic mice with Alzheimer’s disease
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, March 2020
Curcumin administration tended to improve the spatial learning and memory abilities and reduce the amyloid plaque burden in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. On the one hand, curcumin administration altered significantly the relative abundances of bacterial taxa such as Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Rikenellaceae at family level, and Prevotella, Bacteroides,a nd Parabacteroides at genus level, several of which have been reported to be key bacterial species associated with Alzheimer’s disease development. On the other hand, a total of 8 metabolites of curcumin biotransformed by gut microbiota of Alzheimer’s disease mice through reduction, demethoxylation, demethylation and hydroxylation were identified by HPLC-Q-TOF/MS, and many of these metabolites have been reported to exhibit neuroprotective ability. The findings provided useful clues to understand the pharmacology of curcumin and microbiome-targeting therapies for Alzheimer’s disease.

Best Supplements To Take For Better Brain Health
Medical Daily, March 2020
Turmeric is potent anti-inflammatory, as such it has already shown potential in animal studies to reduce or help prevent brain cell damage. Taking tumeric helps supplement DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) deficiency, which can make people more prone to cognitive disorders. Curcumin, the compound present in turmeric, helps in the synthesis of DHA, therefore providing neuroprotection.

Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin on Artery Restenosis
Drug Design, Development and Therapy, March 2020
Curcumin is a natural phenolic substance extracted from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. Turmeric is commonly present in ordinary diets and its traditional use for the treatment of various diseases in China originates from several eons ago. Extensive investigations indicate that Cur has diverse pharmacological effects, such as antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic, whereas it also protects against the development of cerebrovascular diseases. Curcumin provides these beneficial effects due to its ability to regulate certain molecular targets, including adhesion molecules, growth factors, transcription factors, and factors involved in proliferation and apoptosis that are associated with several different cell types. Certain studies have shown that Curcumin can inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs and prevent stent restenosis following angioplasty. Curcumin inhibited the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and neointimal formation and reduced the inflammation and oxidative stress indices. Concomitantly, Curcumin reduced the phosphorylation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway proteins. Conclusion: Curcumin could inhibit carotid restenosis following CEA by inhibiting the activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway.

Boost Your Immunity
Today Online, March 2020
The healing benefits of turmeric have been widely documented. Used in India for centuries as a spice and medicinal herb, turmeric contains curcumin, a potent antioxidant that can help neutralise free radicals, and also natural anti-inflammatory compounds, which help your body fight pathogens and repair damage.

Healthy Foods for Your Liver
Livestrong, March 2020
Turmeric is having its day in the sun thanks to it being a potent source of curcumin, a powerful antioxidant. Curcumin helps to reduce oxidative stress by neutralizing the harmful components of oxidative stress, according to July 2018 research published in Nutrients. Why's this important? Our daily routines can really wreak havoc on the liver: Alcohol and medications — even over-the-counter meds — can cause stress on the liver. And it's not just any run of the mill stress; it's oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress could mean liver damage if it's not addressed. Curcumin also has a hepatoprotective effect on the liver, which means it can prevent liver damage thanks to its anti-inflammatory properties.

Mutual Two-Way Interactions of Curcumin and Gut Microbiota
The International Journal of Molecular Sciences, February 2020
Curcumin is a natural phenolic component derived from the Curcuma longa plant and has been used in India to treat inflammation. Due to its chemical structure, this molecule can be used in several different areas, such as food, textiles and the pharmaceutical industry. Curcumin is widely used as a spice and dye in food products with a characteristic yellow color; therefore, it is consumed daily. Curcumin is a spice that has recently gained great interest and is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine. Curcumin is a promising compound that is easily available and easy to use in the diet, and it is also safe and affordable. Currently available data provide evidence that curcumin has antitumor activity, induces neuroprotection and neurogenesis, and can be a new therapeutic agent in both regenerative medicine and neurodegenerative diseases, such as post-ischemic neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease.

Protective Effects of Curcumin Against Nephrotoxic Agents
Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets, February 2020
Curcumin is the one of the main phenolic ingredients in curcuma species rhizome. Curcuma species have traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular, and renal diseases. Studies have shown the protective effects of curcumin against nephrotoxic agents such as gallic acid, glucose, tartrazine, streptozotocin, lead, cadmium, fluoride, maleate, malathion, nicotine, cisplatin, gentamicin, and methotrexate. The current review indicated that curcumin may be effective against nephrotoxicity by modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

Benefits of Turmeric
University of Utah, February 2020
Researchers have found that phytochemicals from natural foods, such as the curcumin found in turmeric, may be a safe and effective way to help reduce inflammation and prevent and treat disease. While acute inflammatory responses are beneficial for the body in that they help heal injury, irritation, or infection, we know that chronic inflammation can contribute to disease onset. There is promising research to support curcumin’s use for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on obesity, to reduce arthritis pain and swelling, and to aid in complications such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy.

Curcumin Has Anti-Proliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effects on Tongue Cancer
Drug Design, Development and Therapy, February 2020
Curcumin has potential therapeutic effect on treating tongue cancer  by suppressing cell proliferation and migration, as well as promoting apoptosis through modulating oxygen-related signaling pathways.

Add This Spice To Your Diet To Improve Your Chances In Fighting Cancer
IB Times, February 2020
Today, scientists reveal that this unassuming plant contains curcumin, a compound that can kill a tumor and stop the proliferation of cancer cells. Researchers conclude turmeric may soon become an effective anti-cancer drug due to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory powers of curcumin. They reveal that curcumin has shown great potential in killing cancer cells in particular types of cancer. Scientists, however, stopped short in saying they already found the cure for cancer. They admitted more research is needed to establish the cancer-stopping potential of the turmeric compound firmly. For now, it appears that curcumin has achieved considerable success in killing cancer cells and stop the unabated growth of rogue cells. It also has shown greater efficacy in dealing with stomach cancer, breast cancer, skin cancer, and bowel cancer cells.

Effect of curcumin supplementation on disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis
Phytotherapy Research, February 2020
Recent reports indicated that curcumin had beneficial effects in animal models of liver injury and cirrhosis. Current study aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin supplementation in patients with liver cirrhosis. In this pilot study, beneficial effects of curcumin supplementation were observed in decreasing disease activity scores and severity of cirrhosis in patients with cirrhosis.

One Spice Can Help You Lose The Nasty Visceral Fat
IB Times, February 2020
According to an Express report, the fat-burning benefits of turmeric stems from curcumin. This is the chemical that is found in turmeric and has been linked to weight loss. In a study that involved 44 overweight people, the researchers found that when they take curcumin even just twice in a month, they noticed how effective it was in aiding the process of weight loss. It was attributed to a decrease in belly fat. It also helped reduce weight. Aside from the study involving the 44 individuals, a separate study on mice showed that mice that were given curcumin for 12 weeks showed a reduction in body weight. They found out that it blocked the synthesis of fat. Combining the results of both studies, it would show how effective curcumin is in weight loss.

Superfoods & cancer risks
Deccan Herald, February 2020
Curcumin is an antioxidant found in turmeric. It helps the body to fight against HPV and protect against cervical cancer by slowing down or limiting the activity of the virus.

The In-Vitro Effect of Curcumin and Arsenic Trioxide on The Level Of NF-kB and Induction of Apoptosis in B16 Cell Lines
Karbala Journal of Medicine, February 2020
Curcumin is a natural product that had been utilized for a variety of maladies like rheumatic, cardiac, neurological and numerous other disorders. Curcumin had very potent concentration dependent anti-cancer effects against B16 MM cell line.

CBD and Turmeric – Why This Is A Great Combination
prospercbdnews.com, February 2020
Turmeric, the spice also known as Indian saffron, comes from the Ginger family. It has several properties that overlap those of cannabidiol which is what makes it a wonderful addition to CBD products. Turmeric has been used in Ayurvedic practices for centuries. It has a therapeutic nature and several medicinal applications. Being a strong anti-inflammatory agent, turmeric improves brain, heart, and joint health. The curcumin in turmeric is where its strength lies.

Curcumin Attenuates Oxaliplatin-Induced Liver Injury and Oxidative Stress by Activating the Nrf2 Pathway
Drug Design, Development and Therapy, February 2020
Curcumin attenuates oxaliplatin-induced liver injury and oxidative stress by activating the Nrf2 pathway, which suggests that CUR may be potentially used in the prevention and treatment of OXA-induced liver injury.

Adding Curcumin to Mesalamine May Benefit Patients With Ulcerative Colitis
empr.com, February 2020
Adjunctive therapy with curcumin was found to provide a greater clinical benefit than placebo in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) being treated with mesalamine, according to the findings of a recently published systematic review and meta-analysis. The study authors reported that the odds of clinical response were approximately threefold better for patients who received the combination of mesalamine plus curcumin vs placebo.“This response was statistically significant, albeit with heterogeneity, probably due to the different severity scoring indices, curcumin dosages and routes of drug delivery used,” the authors stated. They added, “Given the minimal adverse events, we recommend that curcumin be considered as an adjunct to mesalamine in the treatment of UC."

Effect of curcumin on expression of μ opioid receptors
Civilica.com, February 2020
Recent studies have shown that curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, reduces the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in morphinedependent mice. Treatment with curcumin resulted in a significant and dose-dependent attenuation of withdrawal syndrome along with a decrease in the expression of spinal μ opioid receptors in morphine-dependent rats. The maximum effect was obtained from curcumin at the dosage of 10 mg/kg.  The results of this study indicate that curcumin is capable of attenuating morphine dependence in rats through decreasing the expression of spinal opioid μ receptors.

Curcumin supplementation improves heat-stress-induced cardiac injury
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, February 2020
Curcumin may increase animal survival and lifespan under heat stress.  Our results indicated that curcumin supplementation could alleviate HS-induced physiological disorders and the increasing of cTn-I and Ang II. The expression of AT1 gene in HT group was significantly higher than that of curcumin groups, indicating the cardioprotective effects of curcumin. Moreover, the levels of GRP78 and CHOP proteins in the HT group were significantly higher than those of curcumin groups, indicating that curcumin supplementation reversed the endoplasmic reticulum HS-mediated apoptosis. In summary, curcumin supplementation alleviates physiological stress and cardiac damage caused by HS.

 Modulation of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, Inflammation, and Oxidative Markers by Curcumin Supplementation in a Physically Active Population
Nutrients, February 2020
Curcumin, a natural polyphenol extracted from turmeric, has been shown to have mainly antioxidant and also anti-inflammatory properties. This effect of curcumin could improve Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and exercise performance. The use of curcumin reduces the subjective perception of the intensity of muscle pain; reduces muscle damage through the decrease of creatine kinase (CK); increases muscle performance; has an anti-inflammatory effect by modulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8; and may have a slight antioxidant effect. In summary, the administration of curcumin at a dose between 150–1500 mg/day before and during exercise, and up until 72 hours post-exercise, improved performance by reducing EIMD and modulating the inflammation caused by physical activity. In addition, humans appear to be able to tolerate high doses of curcumin without significant side-effects.

Curcumin and Cancer
Nutrients, January 2020
Curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from Curcuma longa in 1815, has gained attention from scientists worldwide for its biological activities (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral), among which its anticancer potential has been the most described and still remains under investigation. The present review focuses on the cell signaling pathways involved in cancer development and proliferation, and which are targeted by curcumin. Curcumin has been reported to modulate growth factors, enzymes, transcription factors, kinase, inflammatory cytokines, and proapoptotic (by upregulation) and antiapoptotic (by downregulation) proteins. This polyphenol compound, alone or combined with other agents, could represent an effective drug for cancer therapy.

How turmeric could offer hope in the fight against CANCER: Scientists say compound curcumin found in the popular spice has tumour-killing potential
DailyMail, January 2020
A compound found in turmeric could unlock new treatments in the battle against cancer, a scientific review has suggested. Researchers say the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant powers of curcumin mean it could halt the development of tumours. They analysed almost 5,000 studies and found it blocked the growth of eight types of cancers, under laboratory settings. Results showed it was effective at treating breast, lung, blood, stomach, pancreatic, bowel, bone marrow and prostate cancer.

Curcumin, a compound found in turmeric, could ‘halt tumour development’, major study says
College Of Medicine, January 2020
New scientific research has found that a common compound found in the spice turmeric could stop cancerous tumours from growing further. A study, carried out by academics at Temple University in Philadelphia, and published in the Nutrients journal, found the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin halted the development of eight different types of cancer. Analysing nearly 5,000 studies, researchers said the compound – which gives turmeric its bright orange colour – was effective at treating pancreatic, bowel, bone marrow, prostate, breast, lung, blood and stomach cancer. Results showed nutrients that the tumours needed to thrive were halted by curcumin, which also blocked harmful proteins produced by cancer cells. The study’s lead scientists concluded that the compound could ‘represent an effective drug for cancer treatment, alone or combined with other agents’. Dr Antonio Giordano, a pathologist at Temple University, lead a team who looked at almost 13,000 studies carried out on curcumin since 1924, focusing specifically on 4,738 studies that looked at how the compound affected cancer. The study’s authors said: “The search for new effective drugs able to combat cancer diseases still represents a challenge for many scientists. “Natural organisms (e.g., plants, bacteria, fungi) provide many active molecules with a potential application in medicine for the management of many diseases. “As reported in the present review, curcumin exhibits anticancer ability by targeting different cell signaling pathways including growth factors, [the transport of nutrients and killing healthy cells].”

Curcumin, as a potent anticancer agent for the treatment of breast cancer
First International Conference on Management of Agricultural Sciences, January 2020
Curcumin, an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a highly pleiotropic molecule which shows promising effects on various pro-inflammatory diseases, inflammatory conditions, hepatic conditions, metabolic syndromes, degenerative eye conditions, etc. Over the past decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that curcumin has several anticancer effects in various types of cancers, including breast cancer.Materials and Methods: In the present review, we aimed to investigate the role of curcumin on the treatment of breast cancer. For this purpose, we searched scientific databases including Scopus, Pubmed, Clinical key, etc.Results: The growth inhibitory effect of curcumin has been studied on different models of breast cancer. Our findings showed that curcumin inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells by suppressing cell proliferation and metastasis and inducing cell death without no toxicity to normal cells. Importantly, curcumin treatment increases the effectiveness of chemotherapy and decreases the number of cancer stem cells. There are studies showing that the ability of curcumin to reduce chemoresistance tumor cells, to inhibit the reattachment of BCSCs, and to prevent the migratory ability of Breast cancer stem cells.Conclusion: Based on our findings, it is recommended that the use of curcumin can have beneficial effects on the survival rates of patients with breast cancer.

Curcumin compound in turmeric could help beat cancer
The Saxon, January 2020
Academics from Temple University in Philadelphia say curcumin stops nutrients from being transported to tumours. It also prevents the death of healthy cells by blocking cancer cells from releasing harmful proteins. The academics concluded curcumin – the pigment in turmeric that gives it its colour – could ‘represent an effective drug for cancer treatment, alone or combined with other agents’.

7 Fitness-Supporting Supplements That Get The RDN Stamp Of Approval
MindBodyGreen, January 2020
As the active ingredient in turmeric root, curcumin is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory that has been shown to help reduce stress from physical activity. Think of this potent yellow spice as an herbal aid in recovery: "Studies show curcumin may relieve joint discomfort associated with exercise or overuse," says Blakely, "which can help you get back in the gym for your next workout faster."

Curcumin, as a pleiotropic agent, improves doxorubicin-induced nephrotic syndrome in rats.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, January 2020
Curcumin, a phenolic compound extracted from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), has been reported to have broad biological functions including potent antioxidant and renoprotective effects. It has been reported that Curcumin has a certain protective effect on the kidney. The consequences of this study revealed that curcumin activated Nrf2, inhibited NF-κB pathway and up-regulated podocin in DOX-induced podocyte. Further research results showed that curcumin can considerably alleviate proteinuria and improve hypoalbuminemia in NS rats, and lower blood lipid levels to alleviate hyperlipidemia in NS rats, indicating that curcumin has significant therapeutic effects on rat NS. Further observation by electron microscopy and detection showed that curcumin can improve renal function and podocyte injury, which may be related to the repairment of mRNA expression and podocin protein. Interestingly, the results of the blood rheology test showed that curcumin can effectively reduce whole blood viscosity (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV), and reduce hematocrit (Hct). In addition, the oxidative stress state of kidney in NS rats was considerably reversed by curcumin, which may be achieved by activating Nrf2 and increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes HO-1, NQO-1. We also found that NF-κB pathway is activated in the kidney of NS rats, and curcumin can inhibit the activation of NF-κB by down-regulating the expression of NF-κB p65, reducing the level of p-IκBα and up-regulating the expression of IκBα. These findings suggest that curcumin, as a multifunctional agent, exerts a protective effect on DOX-induced nephrotic syndrome in rats, which provides a pharmacological basis for the further development of curcumin and also provides a basis for the advantages of multi-targeted drugs in the processing of NS.

Herbs That Help Alleviate Symptoms Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
ibtimes, January 2020
Turmeric contains a compound called curcumin which helps reduce airway inflammations. Curcumin is a very powerful antioxidant that helps combat oxidative stress underlying COPD by blocking inflammation at a molecular level. A 2009 study has reported that curcumin inhibits COPD-like airway inflammation and the progression of lung cancer. The findings of the study demonstrated that curcumin can be used to inhibit the progression of lung cancer in high-risk COPD patients. Several other pieces of research have pointed to curcumin’s antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This herb’s potential ability to fight or prevent cancer is intriguing.

Nutraceutical Activities of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its Bioactive Constituent Curcumin
Department of Biochemistry, CSIR, December 2019
In the past couple of decades, many health beneficial physiological effects of turmeric or its constituent ─ curcumin have been documented in experimental and/or clinical studies which suggest that consumption of this spice offers benefits beyond sensory attributes. Turmeric and curcumin have been shown to exert preventive and ameliorative influence on diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. The antioxidant property of turmeric/ curcumin explains its diverse pharmacological potential. Curcumin effectively reduces lipid peroxidation through its antioxidant influence. Turmeric is traditionally employed as an anti-inflammatory drug. Experimental research indicates that curcumin suppresses both tumour initiation and promotion. The anticarcinogenic effect of curcumin is mediated through inhibition of the transcription factor NFkB and proinflammatory pathways. Curcumin induces apoptosis, and suppresses tumour proliferation and angiogenesis. The anticancer potential of curcumin is also evidenced in clinical studies.

Curcumin rescues breast cells
International Journal of Oncology, December 2019
Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer among women worldwide and it is characterized by a high morbidity. Curcumin is a naturally occurring compound derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and is known to have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Curcumin also acted upon the miRNA as a regulator of genes implicated in EMT and upon Rho‑A as well, affecting the migration and invasion of the cells. This occurred independently of their estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptors in the non‑malignant MCF‑10F and malignant MDA‑MB‑231 breast cell lines, which are both negative for such receptors.

Turmeric and Inflammatory Diseases: An Overview of Clinical Evidence
Department of Traditional Pharmacy, December 2019
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and its major ingredients, curcuminoids, are the well-known natural products used for the management of several inflammatory conditions including inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, renal diseases, oral lichen planus, gingivitis and periodontitis, radiation-induced oral mucositis and dermatitis, psoriasis, and respiratory problems. Main inflammatory markers in chronic inflammation include C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and different interleukins which are assessed in the clinical trials. Turmeric and curcumin have demonstrated significant effect in some clinical trials.

Effect of Curcumin on the Diversity of Gut Microbiota
Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, December 2019
Curcumin, the main active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), is widely used as a flavoring and coloring agent in food, and also exhibits multiple pharmacological activities. It has been traditionally used in Asian countries as a medical herb for several pathologies due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, and anticancer properties. Further, curcumin may potentially complement the conventional treatment of insulin resistant conditions, including obesity, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. Recently, its potential utility in Auto-Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) had been demonstrated.

Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities of Turmeric and its Active Ingredient Curcumin
Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Biosciences and Biotechnology, December 2019
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) contains curcuminoids, and various sesquiterpenes which contributes towards a wide array of biological activities, e.g. anti-inflammatory, wound healing, anticancer, and antibacterial activities. Curcuminoids and sesquiterpenes are the main constituents of turmeric, for which a plethora of molecular targets, and pharmacological activities have been reported. The most studied activity of the curcuminoids present in turmeric in the recent year is the anticarcinogenic activity. Experiments have shown that curcuminoids modify the gene expression of cancer related markers. Curcumin has the potential to regulate genes related to cell division, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. The anticarcinogenic activity of turmeric has been studied in case of lung, breast, prostate, ovarian, colorectal cancers, leukemia, and multiple myelomas. Turmeric significantly inhibits benzopyrene induced forestomach papillomas. Dietary turmeric, along with catechin, is a chemoprotective agent. Besides anticarcinogenic effect, the antibacterial activity of turmeric against various bacteria, such as Streptococcus aureus, Trichophyton gypseum, Salmonella paratyphi, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has also been explored. The active ingredients of turmeric can be used as lead compounds to design potential drugs for the treatment of different types of bacterial diseases and cancers.

Curcumin, Gut Microbiota, and Neuroprotection
Nutrients, December 2019
Curcumin, a nontoxic, naturally occurring polyphenol, has been recently proposed for the management of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. It is possible that curcumin could exert direct regulative effects primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, where high concentrations of curcumin are present after oral administration. Indeed, a new working hypothesis that could explain the neuroprotective role of curcumin despite its limited availability is that curcumin acts indirectly on the central nervous system by influencing the “microbiota–gut–brain axis”, a complex bidirectional system in which the microbiome and its composition represent a factor which preserves and determines brain “health”. Interestingly, curcumin and its metabolites might provide benefit by restoring dysbiosis of gut microbiome. Conversely, curcumin is subject to bacterial enzymatic modifications, forming pharmacologically more active metabolites than curcumin. These mutual interactions allow to keep proper individual physiologic functions and play a key role in neuroprotection. 

Can curcumin reduce cardiovascular risk factors?
Examine.com, December 2019
 Curcumin is thought to have multiple possible health benefits. This meta-analysis zeros in on its effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the U.S., but some of the risk factors for CVD are modifiable. One of the most well-known risk factors are serum lipid levels, in particular LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.  Researchers and healthcare practitioners alike are therefore interested in the potential properties of turmeric, and more specifically its active ingredient curcumin, for possible anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects. Curcumin has long been touted[2] as having medicinal benefits, and the safety of curcumin, even at high doses[3], has been consistently demonstrated. Curcumin is a polyphenol shown in preclinical and clinical research to have anti-inflammatory[4] properties and its effects have been studied in people with numerous disease states[5][6][7]. In studies examining the effects of supplemental curcumin on participants with cancer, those receiving supplementation showed reduced levels of numerous proinflammatory biomarkers.

Turmeric can help treat oral cancers
u4uvoice.com, December 2019
HPV is a virus that promotes the development of cervical and oral cancer. There is no cure, but the new findings suggest that curcumin may offer a means of future control. Mishra’s research group first noted the effect of curcumin on HPV and cervical cancer cells in 2005. The antioxidant slowed the expression of HPV, suggesting that curcumin could control the extent of HPV infection. “Since HPV-related oral cancer cases are on the rise, we tested the same hypothesis on oral cancer,” Mishra explained. “They turned out to be some very interesting findings.” The new research indicates that curcumin turns down the expression of HPV in infected oral cancer cells by downregulating the levels of cellular transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB.

How to live longer: Five diet tips to prevent disease and boost life expectancy
Express, December 2019
Curcumin, found in turmeric, is believed to give the yellow spice its health properties, and studies have linked it to improved brain function, lower risk of heart disease and even cancer prevention.  Turmeric is renowned for its anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin has also been linked to an increased lifespan in both insects and mice.

Curcumin May Help Prevent or Combat Stomach Cancer, Study Finds
Yoga Esoteric, December 2019
Curcumin – derived from the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa) – has been used to impart color and flavor to food in many areas of the world. But long ago, scientists discovered that the bright, yellow powder can also help prevent and fight stomach cancer. In a study conducted by researchers at the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) and the Federal University of Pará (UFPA) in Brazil, the possible therapeutic effects of the pigment were identified. The study was part of a Thematic Project supported by São Paulo Research Foundation, or FAPESP. The findings have been published in the journal Epigenomics. “We undertook a vast review of the scientific literature on all nutrients and bioactive compounds with the potential to prevent or treat stomach cancer and found that curcumin is one of them,” said Danielle Queiroz Calcagno, first author of the study and a professor at UFPA.

The effects of curcumin supplementation on body mass index, body weight, and waist circumference in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Phytotherapy Research, December 2019
Several clinical trials have examined the effects of curcumin supplementation on anthropometric variables in NAFLD patients with inconclusive results. Curcumin supplementation significantly reduced BMI. These results suggest that curcumin supplementation might have a positive effect on visceral fat and abdominal obesity that have been associated with NAFLD.

Herbs to control hypertension and diabetes
Times of India, December 2019
Turmeric has a compound known as curcumin in it, which has shown to control blood sugar levels as well as prevent the onset of diabetes. In a nine-month-long study, 240 participants who had pre-diabetes were made to have curcumin capsules every day. These people did not develop diabetes by the end of nine months.

Curcumin prevents high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in ApoE−/− mice by improving intestinal barrier function and reducing endotoxin and liver TLR4/NF-κB inflammation
Nutrition & Metabolism, December 2019
Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound present in turmeric and possesses antiinflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. In recent animal studies, curcumin has been shown to have a protective effects on the liver against fat accumulation induced by a high-fat diet. The administration of curcumin significantly prevented HFD-induced body weight gain and reduced liver weight. Curcumin attenuated hepatic steatosis along with improved serum lipid profile. Moreover, curcumin up-regulated the expression of intestinal tight junction protein zonula occluden-1 and occludin, which further improved gut barrier dysfunction and reduced circulating lipopolysaccharide levels. Curcumin also markedly down-regulated the protein expression of hepatic TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), inhibited p65 nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the liver. In addition, the mRNA expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as well as the plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were also lowered by curcumin treatment. These results indicated that curcumin protects against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis by improving intestinal barrier function and reducing endotoxin and liver TLR4/NF-κB inflammation. The ability of curcumin to inhibit hepatic steatosis portrayed its potential as effective dietry intervention for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevention.

Foods that Can Help Students Regulate Blood Sugar and Prevent Diabetes
University Herald, December 2019
Turmeric -has the most important content called curcumin. It can help reduce blood sugar levels and inflammation while protecting against heart and kidney disease. Curcumin appears to benefit kidney health in diabetics, thus it is important to also include this on your diet because diabetes is one causes of kidney diseases.

Want to Have a Slim Body? These Kitchen Ingredients Can Help You
India.com, December 2019
Containing a significant compound called curcumin, turmeric can prevent you from becoming obese. It can do so by increasing your body’s metabolism rate. Also, it helps in fighting against debilitating conditions like cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.

Neuroprotective and Neurological/Cognitive Enhancement Effects of Curcumin after Brain Ischemia Injury with Alzheimer’s Disease
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, December 2019
Curcumin has several therapeutic properties that include anti-excitotoxic, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-hyperhomocysteinemia and anti-inflammatory effects, mitochondrial protection, as well as increasing neuronal lifespan and promoting neurogenesis. In addition, curcumin also exerts anti-amyloidogenic effects and affects the brain’s tau protein.  Accumulating evidence has clearly shown the role of the neuroprotective and neurological/cognitive enhancement effects of curcumin after brain ischemia-reperfusion injury with the phenotype of Alzheimer’s disease. Based on the data presented, it appears that curcumin has its own effective therapeutic potential through anti-amyloid, anti-tau protein hyperphosphorylation, anti-hyperhomocysteinemia, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects which clearly indicates that curcumin can be used as a neuroprotective substance not only in ischemic neurodegeneration but also in a neurodegenerative disease similar to Alzheimer’s disease as a response to brain ischemia associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. The available data show that curcumin induces neuroprotection and neurogenesis and may be a new therapeutic agent for both regenerative medicine and for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as neurodegeneration after brain ischemia with the phenotype of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, curcumin may be a promising supplementary agent against brain ischemia-reperfusion injury in the future. Indeed, there is a rational scientific basis for the use of curcumin for the prophylaxis and treatment of ischemic neurodegeneration.These results suggest that curcumin may be able to serve as a potential preventive and therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative brain disorders.

Foods for maintaining healthy arteries
The Saxon, December 2019
Curcumin is an anti-inflammatory substance. This substance does not allow the arteries to become hard and accumulate harmful plaque. Turmeric is also rich in vitamin B6, which prevents damage of blood vessels and prevents plaque accumulation. And yet, this spice reduces the level of malicious lipids and reduce the oxidation of cholesterol.

Protection of Curcumin against Streptozocin-Induced Pancreatic Cell Destruction in T2D Rats
Planta Medica, December 2019
As a kind of traditional Chinese medicine extract, curcumin has been proven to be effective in inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis in pancreatic islet β cells in the streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus rat model, although the underlying mechanism has not yet been clarified.  Curcumin administration significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and promoted recovery of pancreas function in type 2 diabetes rats. In curcumin-treated rats, the pancreatic tissue destruction and apoptosis index were reduced. The expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, caspase-3, Bax, and malondialdehyde were significantly reduced, and Bcl-2, superoxide dismutase 2, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly increased. Curcumin inhibited the expression of phosphorylated JNK and NF-κB proteins to block the RAGE/JNK/NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, these results indicate that curcumin blocks the phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB protein to inhibit this signaling pathway, thereby further inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis in pancreatic islet β cells. Curcumin has potential value for the treatment of diabetes.

Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin and niacin in rotenone-induced Parkinson’s disease mice model
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, December 2019
Treatment with curcumin, niacin, adenosine A2AR antagonist; ZM241385 and their combination enhanced the animals’ behavior and restored all the selected parameters with variable degrees of improvement. The brain histopathological features of hippocampal and substantia nigra regions confirmed our results. In conclusion, the combination of curcumin, niacin and ZM241385 recorded the most potent treatment effect in Parkinsonism mice followed by ZM241385, as a single treatment. ZM241385 succeeded to antagonize adenosine A2A receptor by diminishing its gene expression and ameliorating all biochemical parameters under investigation. The newly investigated agent; ZM241385 has almost the same pattern of improvement as the classical drug; Sinemet®. This could shed the light to the need of detailed studies on ZM241385 for its possible role as a promising treatment against PD. Additionally, food supplements such as curcumin and niacin were effective in Parkinson’s disease eradication.

The Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity Experimentally in Rats
Archives of Pharmacal Research, December 2019
Curcumin has renal protective properties against kidney damage. The results clarified the strong protective effect of curcumin on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats at the molecular level. Curcumin is known for its high oxygen-radical scavenging and quenching power. It is a scavenger of free oxygen radicals and stimulates the activity of additional antioxidant molecules such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. It is a bifunctional antioxidant because of its ability to react directly with reactive species and to induce an up regulation of various cytoprotective and antioxidant proteins. Curcumin can react with ROS through its phenolic and methoxy groups and it is thought to be one of the mechanisms through which it can protect the renal epithelial from ROS activity. Curcumin can indirectly induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins such as superoxide dismutase. Furthermore, it has been reported that curcumin can increase the synthesis and concentration of GSH. In summary, this study demonstrated that curcumin can protect against nephrotoxic effects of cisplatin in rats. The protective effect of curcumin occurred through the up regulation of antioxidants and suppression of oxidative stress markers. Curcumin is a promising therapy for management of kidney nephrotoxicity.

Spice Stops Cancer, Study Finds
The Institute for Natural Healing, November 2019
 UCLA researchers found that curcumin activates cancer-fighting enzymes in patients with head and neck cancers. A 2013 study at the University of North Texas Health Science Center found that curcumin suppresses pancreatic cancer tumors. A 2006 study published in the journal Neuroscience Letters found that curcumin induces cell death in glioblastoma (brain cancer) cells. A Chinese study showed that curcumin makes stomach cancer less resistant to chemotherapy. A study at MD Anderson Cancer Center showed that curcumin slowed the progression of multiple myeloma (blood cancer). With all this evidence (and this is by no means a complete list) you may be wondering why curcumin isn’t widely prescribed for the prevention and treatment of cancer. People in India get curcumin by eating turmeric at almost every meal. Most Americans are not willing to do this. That’s why, for most of us, curcumin supplements are the best option for cancer prevention. Curcumin is safe for just about everyone. Fat increases bioavailability, taking curcumin with a meal that includes fat improves absorption.

Curcumin: hopeful treatment of hemophilic arthropathy via inhibition of inflammation and angiogenesis
Expert Review of Hematology, November 2019
Curcumin is known for its strong anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic potentials. This agent is able to inhibit the mentioned inflammatory and angiogenic factors such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, VEGF, MMPs, and HIF-1α. Also, as well as anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity, curcumin has a strong antioxidant potential and can decrease oxidative stress.Expert opinion: It seems that curcumin could be considered as a possible agent for the treatment of HA through inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis.

Efficacy of adjuvant curcumin therapy in ulcerative colitis: A meta‐analysis of controlled trials
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, November 2019
Curcumin, as an adjuvant treatment of mesalamine, was proved to be effective and safe in ulcerative colitis. Better efficacy can be achieved with suitable dose, delivery way, formation, and intervention time, which needs further study to verify.

How To Treat Joint Problems: This Anti-Inflammatory Spice May Be The Solution
IBTimes, November 2019
Another benefit that turmeric is starting to be known for is its ability to reduced inflammation, particularly in swollen joints. Research shows that a substance called curcumin, which the turmeric roots are abundant with, provides a positive impact on the body’s inflammatory pathways. Curcumin gives turmeric its potent anti-inflammatory properties. Researchers revealed the many benefits of turmeric supplements like minimizing inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease or IBS. It has also been proven very effective in the treatment of abdominal pain for those who are suffering from IBS. While the study on turmeric has been focused on its ability to reduce inflammation, researchers say it is also a good source of strong antioxidants and minerals. Turmeric root extracts have been observed to protect the cells in the body and counter the damage caused by free radicals. Turmeric has also been found to be rich in phosphorus, potassium, and manganese. These minerals play a vital role in the health of the heart, muscles, and bones. Muswell recommends adding turmeric to a regular diet to help increase the intake of minerals and antioxidants that the body needs.

Curcumin May Improve Adipocyte Health, Adiponectin Metabolism
Endocrinologyadvisor, November 2019
Curcumin supplementation moderately increases circulating adiponectin, which could have beneficial effects on pathways related to adipocyte health and adiponectin metabolism, according to study results published in Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. The therapeutic benefits of curcumin, a bioactive yellow-orange pigment found in turmeric, have been shown in metabolic diseases. The pooled effect sizes showed that curcumin supplementation significantly increased adiponectin concentrations vs placebo.

Best supplements for joints: The exotic spice proven to have anti-inflammatory properties
Express.co.uk, November 2019
The most researched beneficial substance found in the turmeric root is curcumin. Yasmin explained: "Turmeric and curcumin, can impact inflammatory pathways in the body, giving it it’s powerful anti-inflammatory properties. Research has shown benefits of turmeric supplements reducing inflammation with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis and reducing abdominal pain in IBS sufferers. Although much of the research focuses on reducing inflammation in these more diagnosable conditions, we can benefit from anti-inflammatory actions that turmeric has to offer to counterbalance inflammation coming from a more westernised style diet."

Curcumin lessens unpredictable chronic mild stress-induced depression and memory deficits
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, November 2019
Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model is the most established method to study neurobiological mechanisms of depression. This work was intended to explore the efficacy of curcumin to revert the UCMS-induced oxidative burden and associated depression as well as potential of curcumin as an acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor.  Findings showed that curcumin supplementation significantly attenuated the UCMS-induced depression and anxiety like symptoms, decreased the load of UCMS propagated oxidative stress by improving antioxidant enzymes activities. Curcumin also improved the memory function and exhibited inhibitory effect on AchE activity. In conclusion it can be suggested that supplementation of curcumin in daily life can help in combating the stress-induced depression and ever increasing load of oxidative stress. Study also highlights the anti-acetylcholinesterase potential of curcumin which may be responsible for improved memory function following UCMS.

Curcumin Ameliorates Dermatitis
Inflammation Journal, November 2019
Curcumin, extracted from the roots of Curcuma longa, has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent since the time of Ayurveda.  Overall, our findings demonstrate that curcumin treatment blunts the development of AD as well as associated atopic march in experimental mice.

Curcumin protects sodium nitrite-induced hepatotoxicity
Toxicology Reports, November 2019
Pre-treatment with curcumin significantly (P < 0.05) prevented these alterations by adjusting the lipid profile, liver function markers, and C-reactive proteins and abrogating the elevated markers of oxidative stress as supported by the liver histology. This suggests that dietary consumption of curcumin is beneficial against NaNO2 induced oxidative stress of the liver via its antioxidant potential.

Fight Diabetes With Curcumin
Only My Health, November 2019
Curcumin reduced blood sugar and cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fats found primarily in dairy products, red meat and helps eliminate trans fats. Curcumin prevents Liver Fat accumulation, fats accumulated due to alcohol consumption, reducing hepatocellular inflammation. Curcumin is known to control white blood cells, which also lead to inflammation in the body. Curcumin in all its benefits helps in treating inflammation in the body and further reduce the complications, as inflammation is a significant reason for diabetes. Curcumin is also essential in reducing resistance to insulin. This ingredient also helps insulin get into cells for preventing diabetes. In a study of 240 people, the only thing that saved people from diabetes and its symptoms was curcumin. Around 16% of the 116 people on placebo (inactive treatment) had Type 2 diabetes in nine months. In simpler terms, curcumin is an “antioxidant.” It is a known fact that oxygen is an essential component required to live but also leads to corrosion. Just like iron rusts in the open air, the reactive oxygen species also can lead to rusting of blood vessels and other organs. This study also pointed out towards a connection between curcumin and a protection layer from oxidation. Curcumin suppresses the Inflammatory process by inhibiting various cytokines and interleukins responsible for it.

Curcumin for arthritis
Medical Daily, November 2019
A new study shows that curcumin, a naturally occurring substance in the spice turmeric, could help improve the conditions of people with knee osteoarthritis. Researchers analyzed the effects of curcumin in 139 people. The participants reported moderately severe symptoms of osteoarthritis and took treatments with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Researchers divided the patients into groups that took either diclofenac or curcumin every day for a month. Result showed that both treatments provided health benefits. Researchers said 94 percent of the group that received curcumin and 97 percent of those under diclofenac reported up to 50 percent improvement in their arthritis symptoms. Curcumin causes less side effects. Some people who took diclofenac required treatment for stomach problems after the study, while none of the participants taking curcumin experienced similar unwanted effects.

The Effects of two Weeks Exhaustive swimming and Curcumin Supplementation on Liver Damage
Department of Exercise Physiology, November 2019
Curcumin is an active ingredient in turmeric, which is used as herbal medicine for the treatment of certain diseases. The reduction of liver damage markers in this study suggests that exercise and curcumin consumption may, through protective effects, improve the negative effects of alcohol on the liver, and prevent alcohol induced liver disease.

The anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin on acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in rats
Pharmacology and Toxicology, November 2019
Concurrent administration of curcumin at the oral doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg with ACR significantly protected the rats from ACR-induced weigh loss and motor function deficits, and improved the pathological alterations in the ACR-intoxicated brains. Curcumin treatment especially at a high dose enhanced the TERT mRNA expression level and increased the number of TERT-positive nerve cells in cortex tissues of ACR intoxicated rats. The levels of MDA, TNF-α and IL-1β in the cerebral homogenates were reduced, the contents of GSH as well as the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased by curcumin treatment, compared to ACR control group. Conclusions: These data suggested the anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin on ACR-induced neurotoxicity in rats. And maintaining TERT-related anti-apoptotic function might be one mechanism underlying the protective effect of curcumin on ACR-intoxicated brains.

Curcumin and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Prevention and Treatment
Nutrients, October 2019
Among these medicinal plants, curcumin is gaining a growing interest in the scientific community. Curcumin is a bioactive molecule present in the rhizome of the Curcuma longa plant, also known as turmeric. Curcumin has different pharmacological and biological effects that have been described by both in vitro and in vivo studies, and include antioxidant, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, nephro-protective, anti-neoplastic, hepato-protective, immunomodulatory, hypoglycaemic and anti-rheumatic effects. In animal models, curcumin extract delays diabetes development, improves β-cell functions, prevents β-cell death, and decreases insulin resistance. The present review focuses on pre-clinical and clinical trials on curcumin supplementation in T2DM and discusses the peculiar mechanisms by which curcumin might ameliorate diabetes management.

Therapeutic Effects of Curcumin—From Traditional Past to Present and Future Clinical Applications
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, October 2019
The excellent results of the scientific projects that underlie the five original papers give reason to hope that curcumin will be part of novel treatment strategies in the near future—either as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs or therapeutic applications.

Curcumin May Help Prevent Or Combat Stomach Cancer, Study Finds
Waking Times, October 2019
Curcumin — derived from the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa) — has been used to impart color and flavor to food in many areas of the world. But long ago, scientists discovered that the bright, yellow powder can also help prevent and fight stomach cancer. “We undertook a vast review of the scientific literature on all nutrients and bioactive compounds with the potential to prevent or treat stomach cancer and found that curcumin is one of them,” said Danielle Queiroz Calcagno, first author of the study and a professor at UFPA.

Curcumin-Induced Autophagy Augments Its Antitumor Effect against A172 Human Glioblastoma Cells
Biomolecules & Therapeutics, October 2019
Curcumin, from Curcuma longa, is an effective antitumor agent. Although the same proteins control both autophagy and cell death, the molecular connections between them are complicated and autophagy may promote or inhibit cell death. We investigated whether curcumin affects autophagy, which regulates curcumin-mediated tumor cell death in A172 human glioblastoma cells. When A172 cells were incubated with 10 μM curcumin, autophagy increased in a time-dependent manner. Curcumin-induced cell death was reduced by co-incubation with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and LY294002. Curcumin-induced cell death was also inhibited by co-incubation with rapamycin, an autophagy inducer. When cells were incubated under serum-deprived medium, LC3-II amount was increased but the basal level of cell viability was reduced, leading to the inhibition of curcumin-induced cell death. Cell death was decreased by inhibiting curcumin-induced autophagy using small interference RNA (siRNA) of Atg5 or Beclin1. Therefore, curcumin-mediated tumor cell death is promoted by curcumin-induced autophagy, but not by an increase in the basal level of autophagy in rapamycin-treated or serum-deprived conditions. This suggests that the antitumor effects of curcumin are influenced differently by curcumin-induced autophagy and the prerequisite basal level of autophagy in cancer cells.

The Role of Curcumin in the Modulation of Ageing
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, October 2019
Curcumin causes the elongation of the lifespan of model organisms, alleviates ageing symptoms and postpones the progression of age-related diseases in which cellular senescence is directly involved. Curcumin is a promising anti-ageing compound which is easily available and easy to apply in the diet, as well as being safe and not expensive. Curcumin is a widely studied nutraceutical, belonging to polyphenols, acquired from the rhizome of a plant Curcuma longa (turmeric), a member of the ginger family. The highest achieved serum level of curcumin was about 1.77 µM, 1 h after administration, during the oral ingestion of 8 g of curcumin per day, or even 3.6 µM if such a dose was consumed for 3 months. Data collected by curcumin researchers showed a large number of beneficial activities for this compound. They mostly concern its anti-cancer activity, but, for several years, the amount of data showing curcumin’s role in the modulation of ageing has been intensively growing

Curcumin attenuates MSU crystal-induced inflammation by inhibiting the degradation of IκBα and blocking mitochondrial damage
Arthritis Research & Therapy, October 2019
Curcumin administration effectively alleviated MSU-induced inflammation by suppressing the degradation of IκBα, the activation NF-κB signaling pathway, the damage of mitochondria, and the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results provide a new strategy in which curcumin therapy may be helpful in the prevention of acute episodes of gout.

Turmeric Can Support Your Active Lifestyle
Mind Body Green, October 2019
The anti-inflammatory benefits of turmeric and its compounds called curcuminoids (specifically curcumin) make the herb work similarly to the anti-inflammatory painkillers in our medicine cabinets. Studies have shown promising results in turmeric's ability to help manage muscular and joint pain after strenuous exercise.

The Health Benefits of Turmeric a Nutritionist Wants You to Know
Yahoo News, October 2019
Several studies have found that the key protective compound in turmeric, called curcumin, reduces inflammation, and its effects are on par with some anti-inflammatory medications. Curcumin also acts as an antioxidant, to counter damaging compounds called free radicals, and fight what’s known as oxidative stress. In a nutshell, oxidative stress occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of cell-damaging free radicals and the body's ability to counter their harmful effects. Because of curcumin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant benefits, turmeric has health benefits for skin, preventing or helping to repair visible signs of aging. Curcumin has also been shown to increase levels of neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. That’s crucial, because BDNF acts as a type of growth hormone that protects the brain from age-related decline or damage. Low BDNF levels are tied to depression, as well as Alzheimer’s.

Turmeric – the Golden Spice and wonder drug
Deccan Herald, October 2019
Another research finding says: The results obtained from the present review revealed that curcumin can be effective in various types of oxidative associated liver disorders. This potentiality attributes to curcumin effects on hepatotoxicity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis as well as hepatic injury. Experimental evidence indicates that curcumin exhibits its preventive and curative effect against oxidative associated liver diseases.

Pre-administration of curcumin prevents hyperhomocysteinemia in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer
World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, October 2019
Curcumin is a prototype natural product that has been widely recognized as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potentialrole of curcumin supplementation in attenuating the aggressive effect of alcohol in experimental induced gastric ulcer. Whereas, pre-treatment of curcumin prevented the hyperhomocysteinemia and the elevation of TNF-α resultingin a depletion of gastric ulcer. We concluded that, curcumin is considered a promising supplement in attenuating gastric ulcer through its important role in depletion of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Effects of Curcumin and Silymarin on the bacterium Shigella dysenteriae and Campylobacter
Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer, September 2019
In this study, curcumin and silymarin could inhibit the growth of S. dysenteriae and C. jejuni and 100 μg/ml sub-MIC levels exhibited the suppression of housekeeping genes. Combating pathogenic bacteria by compounds alternative to antibiotics in the era of antibiotic resistance is a proper strategy, though more studies using combinations of them are needed.

High blood pressure: Could this popular spice lower your bp reading?
Express, September 2019
One study suggests the super spice may also help to lower a blood pressure spike. According to Dr Sinatra, turmeric’s potential blood pressure reducing benefits come from its active ingredient, as he explained: “Its [turmeric] yellow colour comes from curcumin — a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound that’s been found to reduce blood pressure by lowering the excess platelet aggregation that occurs in sticky, clot-forming blood." Turmeric could help to control a soaring blood pressure High blood pressure: Turmeric could help to control a soaring blood pressure (Image: Getty Images ) Researchers in a study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, concluded that curcumin works much the same way as ginger as it inhibits the transport of calcium, which acts as a chemical messenger that tells muscle cells to contract, thereby dilating the arteries. Therefore, taking turmeric for high blood pressure, due to its active ingredient curcumin, could be an effective remedy.

Anti-infective Properties of the Golden Spice Curcumin
Frontiers in Microbiology, September 2019
The search for novel anti-infectives is one of the most important challenges in natural product research, as diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi are influencing the human society all over the world. Natural compounds are a continuing source of novel anti-infectives. Accordingly, curcumin, has been used for centuries in Asian traditional medicine to treat various disorders. Numerous studies have shown that curcumin possesses a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties, acting, for example, as anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic, while no toxicity is associated with the compound. Recently, curcumin’s antiviral and antibacterial activity was investigated, and it was shown to act against various important human pathogens like the influenza virus, hepatitis C virus, HIV and strains of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas.

Turmeric For Rheumatoid Arthritis
Medicaldaily.com September 2019
According to a review article published in the US National Library of Medicine, turmeric is rich in curcumin that has an antioxidant effect, lowers blood sugar, is anti-inflammatory and affords anticancer benefits. Since rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that mistakenly attacks healthy joint tissue, patients experience inflammation that leads to bone and joint damage. The anti-inflammatory properties of turmeric could alleviate its symptoms. Curcumin In a 2016 systematic review, researchers measured the effectiveness of turmeric and curcumin extracts on arthritis patients. Those who took 1,000 milligrams of curcumin daily for eight to 12 weeks reduced their pain sensations and inflammation which are common symptoms of osteoarthritis. Researchers found that curcumin extracts are effective in treating these symptoms by recommending patients to take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and diclofenac. They, however, noted that there is a need for further research to confirm their findings. Nevertheless, they recommended that arthritis patients may use curcumin as a dietary supplement while undergoing conventional therapy. A subsequent study looked into the effects of curcumin on rats with rheumatoid arthritis. Researchers determined that the component reduced inflammation and redness among the lab rats by blocking an intercellular signaling process called mTOR pathway.

Curcumin as a permeability enhancer enhanced the antihyperlipidemic activity of green tea extract
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicinevolume 19, September 2019
Curcumin, obtained from Curcuma longa, is used as bio-enhancer for anti-microbial agents and anti-cancer drugs. It shows strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Curcumin can recover chemically-induced oxidative stress as well as increase xenobiotic detoxifying enzymes’ activities in both the liver and kidneys and suppress lipid peroxidation. Curcumin has low solubility and low permeability from intestine due to P-glycoprotein pump (P-gp). Curcumin acts by two mechanisms:suppression of drug metabolising enzymes in liver and inducing changes in drug transporter P-gp. Curcumin is initially absorbed from intestine, but is effluxed again inside intestine by P-gp. Curcumin and EGCG both are effluxed by P-gp; hence curcumin can play a pivotal role of inhibiting P-gp, thereby enhancing permeation of EGCG by inhibiting its efflux.

Understanding use of turmeric in herbal medicine
Guardian, September 2019
Curcumin, the major active ingredient in Turmeric has a wide range of medicinal activities and it is composed of phytochemicals, mineral/vitamins and dietary fiber. Minerals in curcumin are magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, manganese, calcium, phosphorus and selenium. The following vitamins are included in Turmeric, vitamins C, E, K, B6 and folate. Turmeric is a very good source of dietary fiber and fatty acids are w-fatty acid and alpha-linolenic acid. Curcumin possesses anticancer properties along with anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer’s and anti-tumour potentials. It also has hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-rheumatic, anti-diabetic, hypoglycemic and analgesic activities. The essential oils in curcumin are ar-turmerone, alpha-turmerone and beta-turmerone and they are biologically active constituents. These essential oils are endowed with anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidative potentials. The curcuminoids and the volatile essential oils are responsible for the health benefits of turmeric.

7 Benefits of Turmeric
News18.com September 2019
1.Acts against Inflammation: Inflammation can become a major problem when it becomes chronic, inappropriately attacks body’s own tissues. Curcumin, a compound found in turmeric, is a naturally and strongly anti-inflammatory. It matches the effectiveness of some anti-inflammatory drugs, without the side effects. 2.Increases Antioxidant Capacity: Antioxidants are beneficial for the body as they protect it from free radicals, which tend to react with important organic substances, such as fatty acids, proteins or DNA. Curcumin has powerful antioxidant effects, which neutralizes free radicals on its own and stimulates body’s own antioxidant enzymes. 3.Lowers the risk of heart disease: Curcumin can help reverse many steps in the heart disease process, as it improves the function of the endothelium, which is the lining of your blood vessels. 4.Helps in Skin Care: Turmeric keeps the skin healthy in many ways, such as keeping pimples at bay by inhibiting the growth of pimple, clearing acne scars and making your skin flawless, healing of a cut and soothing skin irritation, and fighting signs of ageing like wrinkles and pigmentation by curbing the growth of free radicals. 5.Helps in Weight Loss: Turmeric helps in accelerating the metabolism rate and letting the body burn a significant number of calories, leading to weight loss. It is also useful in reducing fat mass and detoxification of the liver, which are essential contributors when it comes to diet-induced weight loss efforts. 6.Improves Brain Function: Turmeric is known to boost cognitive abilities, increase concentration, and boost memory retention. It also protects the neural pathways from long-term oxidative stress and the build-up of plaque. 7.Treats Depression: Curcumin has a similar effect like Prozac on patients suffering from depression, mood swings, anxiety, and stress, making it a powerful alternative to pharmaceutical routes, which often have dangerous or addictive side effects.

Curcumin Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells
Natural Product Communications, August 2019
Curcumin is a major component of turmeric with promising tumor-suppressive activity; however, its underlying molecular mechanisms need to be investigated further. Collectively, our data suggested that curcumin induces autophagy via activating the ERK1/2 pathway and the autophagy is important for the inhibiting effect of curcumin in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Curcumin plays a dual role: in adjuvant therapy and reversal of drug resistance in acute myelogenous leukemia
journalcmpr, August 2019
The results obtained highlight the potential of curcumin in enhancing the efficacy of cyt and overcoming drug resistance in AML. Thus, this study shows that curcumin may effectively be used as an adjuvant therapy in AML.

Benefits of curcumin in brain disorders
Biofactors. 2019 August, 2019
Curcumin is widely consumed in Asia either as turmeric directly or as one of the culinary ingredients in food recipes. The benefits of curcumin in different organ systems have been reported extensively in several neurological diseases and cancer. Curcumin has got its global recognition because of its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antimicrobial activities. Additionally, it is used in diabetes and arthritis as well as in hepatic, renal, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, there is growing attention on usage of curcumin to prevent or delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes available data from several recent studies on curcumin in various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Prions disease, stroke, Down's syndrome, autism, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety, depression, and aging. This review also summarizes the ongoing clinical trials on curcumin for different neurodegenerative diseases and patent details of curcuma/curcumin in India.

Cardiac Rehabilitation-Curcumin, Cardiovascular Disease, Heart Failure
peoplebeatingcancer.com August 2019
Curcumin supplementation can: attenuate adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity reduce my cholesterol reduce my risk of DVT and stroke helps dissolve my post-thrombotic syndrome All is one inexpensive, non-toxic nutritional supplement. If it sounds as though curcumin is a wonder drug, it is. Curcumin also is cytotoxic (kills) to my cancer, multiple myeloma.  “Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the curry spice turmeric. It has been used in a variety of diseases in traditional medicine. Modern scientific research has demonstrated its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, and cardiovascular protective effects. In this review, we focused mainly on the effects of curcumin on the cardiovascular system. The antioxidant effects of curcumin have been shown to attenuate adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity and may prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications. The anti-thrombotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin and the effect of curcumin in decreasing the serum cholesterol level may protect against the pathological changes occurring with atherosclerosis. The p300-HAT inhibitory effects of curcumin have been demonstrated to ameliorate the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in animal models. The inflammatory effects of curcumin may have the possibility of preventing atrial arrhythmias and the possible effect of curcumin for correcting the Ca(2+) homeostasis may play a role in the prevention of some ventricular arrhythmias. The preclinical studies from animal to clinical data in human are discussed.” Efficacy and safety of turmeric and curcumin in lowering blood lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials “Conclusions- Turmeric and curcumin may protect patients at risk of CVD through improving serum lipid levels. Curcumin may be used as a well-tolerated dietary adjunct to conventional drugs.

Curcumin induced oxidative stress attenuation by N-acetylcysteine co-treatment
Molecular Medicine, August 2019
Curcumin has been shown to have a broad range of antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and pro-apoptotic properties (Aggarwal & Sung, 2009). Curcumin has also been reported to have anti-fibrotic capabilities in studies of wound healing, liver fibrosis and lung fibrosis models (Lin et al., 2009; Yao et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2011; Smith et al., 2010; Chen & Zheng, 2008). At the molecular level, curcumin has been reported to play an anti-fibrotic role by modulating transcription factors such as transforming growth factor beta (Chen et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2016), platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and tumor necrosis factor alpha (Shishodia, 2013; Hua et al., 2013; Das & Vinayak, 2014), all of which are implicated in the pathogenesis of IPF. Due to these antifibrotic properties of curcumin, a number of investigators have hypothesized that this compound could serve as a possible therapeutic for IPF (Smith et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2016; Xu et al., 2007). These studies focus on the antifibrotic effects of curcumin and, like many other in-vitro studies, report a reduction in profibrotic responses when pulmonary fibroblasts are treated in isolation.

Foods to Feed Both Body and Mind
Entrepeneur.com  August 2019
Turmeric is the spice that gives curry its yellow color. Curcumin is the main active ingredient in turmeric. This spice is found in foods from India, Indonesia and Thailand, and has been shown to have any great health benefits. Curcumin is known to boost brain function and lower the risk of brain disease because it increases the levels of an important growth hormone in the brain known as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Many of the studies researching the benefits of turmeric use extracts that contain mostly curcumin, in quantities exceeding one gram per day. In order to get the full effects, you may consider taking a supplement that contains curcumin.

Yellow curry spice turmeric could prevent stomach cancer
The London Economic, July 2019
The active ingredient curcumin suppress cancer cells and induces apoptosis, or “cell death”, researchers discovered. The review found that curcumin, derived from the roots of the turmeric plant, could also work against gastric tumors. Professor Danielle Queiroz Calcagno said that researchers undertook a vast scientific review. She said: “We looked at all nutrients and bioactive compounds with the potential to prevent or treat stomach cancer and found that curcumin is one of them. “These compounds can favour the activation or repression of genes involved in the development of stomach cancer by promoting or inhibiting histone acetylation.” Curcumin influences histones by inhibiting acetyltransferases to suppress cancer cells and induce apoptosis, or cell death.

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of curcumin in prevention and treatment of disease
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, July 2019
Curcumin is known to reverse vari- ous ailments of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, respiratory system, endocrine system, renal system, etc. According to recent and well-designed clinical study, consumption of curcumin exerts beneficial effect against metabolic syndrome, skin diseases, cancer, gut inflammation, depression, arthritis, fatty liver disease and premenstrual syndrome. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of curcumin supplementation for its beneficial effect against arthritis and metabolic syndrome has been reviewed. Curcumin has been reported to bind directly to signaling molecules, such as carrier proteins, DNA methyltransferases 1, xanthine oxidase, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- 1 integrase, filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) protofilaments, glyoxalase I, proteasome, histone deacetylase, histone acetyltransferase, cell survival proteins, HIV-1 protease, protein reductases, protein kinases, inflam- matory molecules and metal ions (Gupta et al. 2011). Curcumin treatment modulated b-secretase 1 (BACE-1), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, chemokines, toll-like receptor (TLR), cyclooxygenase (COX), brain-derived neuro- trophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), inhibitor of NF-kB (IkB), glutathione-S- transferase, endothelial haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), extracel- lular receptor kinases (ERKs), low density lipoprotein-recep- tor (LDL-R), activator protein 1 (AP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-c), liver X receptor-b(LXR-b), retinoid X receptor (RXR)-a, c-Jun and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) (Ray and Lahiri 2009; Hamaguchi, Ono, and Yamada 2010; Farooqui 2013; Tian et al. 2013). Curcumin treatment is reported to exert its beneficial effect through various kinases such as focal adhe- sion kinase (FAK), acid activated protein kinase C (AAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor-kinase (EGFRK), protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase B (PKB), ERK, p21-activated kinase (PAK), janus kinase (JAK), inter- leukin (IL)-1, Rak and pp60C-TK. Curcumin also demon- strates significant action via growth factors like fibroblast growth factor (FGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epi- dermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and vas- cular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, TNF-aand monocyte chemo- attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and several transcription fac- tors like nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), Ap-1, Notch-1, CREB-binding protein (CREB-BP), early growth response-1 (Egr-1), Wilms’tumor gene 1 (WT-1), b-catenin, hypoxia- inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), nuclear factor 2-related factor (Nrf-2) and estrogen response element (ERE) are also the molecular targets of curcumin (Kunnumakkara et al. 2017; Derosa et al. 2016; Sahebkar et al. 2016). Curcumin exerts beneficial effects through various receptor such as integrin receptor (IR), Fas receptor (Fas-R), EGFR, HER-2, IL-8R, C- X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), estrogen receptor- alpha (ER-a), endothelial cell protein C receptor, histamine (2)-receptor (H2R), LDL-R, androgen receptor (AR) and DR-5.

Anti-infective Properties of the Golden Spice Curcumin
Frontiers in Microbiology, July 2019
The search for novel anti-infectives is one of the most important challenges in natural product research, as diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi are influencing the human society all over the world. Natural compounds are a continuing source of novel anti-infectives. Accordingly, curcumin, has been used for centuries in Asian traditional medicine to treat various disorders. Numerous studies have shown that curcumin possesses a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties, acting, for example, as anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic, while no toxicity is associated with the compound. Recently, curcumin’s antiviral and antibacterial activity was investigated, and it was shown to act against various important human pathogens like the influenza virus, hepatitis C virus, HIV and strains of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas. Despite the potency, curcumin has not yet been approved as a therapeutic antiviral agent. This review summarizes the current knowledge and future perspectives of the antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal effects of curcumin.

Wikipedia Fails Again: The Case of Misinformation about Curcumin
PRN.fm July 2019
Just in the US official scientific library of medicine with almost 12,000 studies, the evidence overwhelmingly supports curcumin’s medicinal and functional benefits. That does not include the thousands of studies in medical journals in other cournties where turmeric has been used as a nutritional enhancer for millennia. Wikipedia’s absurd statement that “although long used in Ayurvedic medicine… no high-quality clinical evidence exists for use of turmeric or its constituent, curcumin, as a therapy,” requires little comment for the hundreds of pages simply listing research about the herb’s medicinal value. Just a few of the research study titles include: Curcumin administration reduces depressive symptoms in patients with major depression (Phytotherapy Research, 2015) Curcumin or combined curcuminoids are effective in lowering the fasting blood glucose concentrations of individuals with dysglycemia (Pharmacological Research, 2017) Curcumin appears to enhance clearance of amyloid-beta in Alzheimer’s disease patient (Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 2006) Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of 4 weeks or longer suggest that curcumin may afford some protection against oxidative stress (Nutrition Research, 2018) A curcumin extract is appropriate for the care of patients with joint problems and may also contribute to the regeneration of cartilage (Open Rheumatological Journal, 2014) A daily dose of 3.6 g curcumin achieves pharmacologically efficacious levels in the colorectum with negligible distribution of curcumin outside the gut (Cancer Epidemiological Research, 2005) A topical preparation of curcumin successfully decreased the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration (Oman Medical Journal, 2014) Curcumin alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage in liver cells (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2010) We can trust the accumulation of nearly 12,000 studies in the official peer reviewed data library. We can count upon the countless other studies in the world’s other databases. We can trust the numerous doctors throughout history in culture’s worldwide with proven clinical experience. Or we can trust a tiny group of expert wannabes, Skeptics, who are anonymous and have no noticeable education or experience in nutritional biochemistry and preventative medicine. And this group dominating Wikipedia’s health pages are ideologically and frequently politically aligned with the pharmaceutical industry. This is a long sorted history of Big Pharma relying upon faux scientists, public relations firms and astroturf groups for hire to promulgate its ideology.

Chemopreventive efficacy of oral curcumin: a prodrug hypothesis
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, July 2019
Oral consumption of curcumin, a natural polyphenol, is associated with reduced incidence of cancer. Yet, a significant amount of the orally dosed compound is eliminated in the feces, and a major fraction of the absorbed compound is metabolized to inactive glucuronides, resulting in poor bioavailability (<1%). It is not known how oral curcumin exhibits chemopreventive activity. We propose curcumin glucuronide is an inflammation-responsive natural prodrug that is converted back to curcumin on demand at the site of action. Our studies show elevated levels of β-glucuronidase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond of glucuronides to generate the parent compound, in human breast cancer. Oral administration of curcumin in mouse tumor models generated significant tumor levels of the polyphenol. Intravenous administration of the glucuronide resulted in the formation of curcumin in the tumor tissue. Chronic daily oral curcumin dosing led to tumor accumulation of curcumin and inhibition of tumor growth in tumor models with high β-glucuronidase activity. Overall, the study presented here provides preliminary evidence for a novel mechanism of action for orally administered curcumin.

How Turmeric Can Help in Weight Loss
Latestly.com, July 2019
Curcumin is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredient found in turmeric with weight loss benefits. According to a study conducted by researchers at Tufts University in 2009, curcumin slowed weight gain in mice by preventing new fat tissues from forming. When mice were fed with turmeric it prevented them from developing new blood vessels and less fat tissue. The study also revealed that mice who were fed with this anti-oxidant agent had less fat in their livers and lower cholesterol levels than mice who weren’t. As per the latest study conducted by The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Korean scientist identified that curcumin induces browning in white adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissues -- brown and white. White adipose tissue stores energy and increases with weight gain. On the other hand, brown adipose tissue produces heat by burning fat. Curcumin in turmeric stimulates the production of mitochondria which converts sugars, proteins and fat into energy.

Effects of Turmeric on Your Body
Galpost.com, July 2019
Scientists have discovered that curcumin inhibits the production of fat cells and improves the metabolism of carbohydrates, which reduces fat after eating bread, pasta, potatoes and other carbohydrates.

Why All Diabetics Should Know About Turmeric
I Thrive Series, July 2019
A recent literature review published in the International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism titled, “Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect and Insulin Sensitizing Effects of Turmeric and Its Principle Constituent Curcumin,” adds promising new support to the notion that the ancient Indian spice turmeric may provide an ideal drug alternative to treating and perhaps even preventing type 2 diabetes, which has become of the world’s most prevalent diagnoses. The study reviewed research published between 1998 to 2013 that indicates the active polyphenol in turmeric known as curcumin may provide an ideal intervention for type 2 diabetes, capable of mitigating characteristic pathophysiological hallmarks of the disease such as elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and insulin resistance. Nineteen of the studies reviewed were cell (in vitro) and animal (in vivo), all which showed beneficial effects. Five of the studies were human clinical trials using turmeric or curcumin, three of which were performed in those with either diabetes or prediabetes. Amazingly, the animal and cell research literature review concluded that curcumin could improve the type 2 diabetic state through 10 distinctly different mechanisms, such as: Reduction in liver glucose production Reduction in liver glycogen production Stimulation of increased glucose uptake (by increasing GLUT4, GLUT2 and GLUT3 gene expressions) Increasing the activation of AMP kinase Promoting PPAR γ ligand- binding activity Suppressing hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory state Stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic tissues Improvement in pancreatic cell function, Increasing phosphorylation of AKT Increasing insulin receptor β and reduction of insulin resistance The human clinical research conducted on diabetic and pre-diabetic patients revealed that curcumin had the following beneficial effects: Glucose lowering effect Improved beta cell function Improved fatty acid oxidation and utilization

Effects of Notch Signaling Pathway in Cervical Cancer by Curcumin
Journal of Cancer, July 2019
Curcumin, as a high effectand low toxicity anti-cancer drug and photosensitiser, has synergisticand complementaryeffects with photodynamic therapy. We found both DAPT and curcumin-PDT can inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of cervical cancer cell.

Can Turmeric Help Prevent or Treat Type 2 Diabetes?
Everydayhealth.com, July 2019
The likely driver of turmeric’s potential health benefits is curcumin, the primary active chemical in this yellow-orange spice. “Curcumin is what has mostly been studied because of its important signaling pathways. It acts mostly in two areas: It's an antioxidant and an anti-inflammatory,” says Marina Chaparro, RDN, MPH, a certified diabetes educator and a national spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. a study published in April 2015 in the Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry found that human participants who supplemented their Glucophage (metformin) — a diabetes medication that helps lower blood sugar — with turmeric did lower their blood sugar, inflammation, and levels of oxidative stress. In another human study — this one a randomized controlled trial that was published in 2012 in Diabetes Care — a supplement of 250 milligrams of curcumin daily was associated with a delay in participants progressing from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. Researchers studied 240 people for nine months and reported that at the end of the study, 16.4 percent of people in the placebo group developed type 2 diabetes, versus 0 percent in the curcumin-supplemented group. Participants didn’t report any side effects except for mild stomachaches. Furthermore, in the Diabetes Care study, curcumin notably appeared to help improve the function of beta cells, which research shows help produce the hormone insulin. Insulin is responsible for ferrying glucose to cells, but in type 2 diabetes, cells become insensitive to glucose, leading to high blood sugar. As the pancreas cranks out more insulin to try to lower blood sugar levels, blood sugar remains elevated because of insulin resistance — until it wanes in producing insulin because of beta cell dysfunction.

Pharmacognostic Studies on Curcuma Longa
International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Chinese Medicine, July 2019
The turmeric (Curcuma longa) plant, a perennial herb belonging to the ginger family, is cultivated extensively in south and southeast tropical Asia. The rhizome of this plant is also referred to as the “root” and is the most useful part of the plant for culinary and medicinal purposes. The most active component of turmeric is curcumin, which makes up 2 to 5% of the spice. The characteristic yellow color of turmeric is due to the curcuminoids. Curcumin is an orange–yellow crystalline powder practically insoluble in water. Turmeric is used as a dietary spice, coloring agent in foods and textiles, and a treatment for a wide variety of ailments. It is widely used in traditional Indian medicine to cure biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. Turmeric paste in slaked lime is a popular home remedy for the treatment of inflammation and wounds. For centuries, curcumin has been consumed as a dietary spice at doses up to 100 mg/d. Extensive investigation over the last five decades has indicated that curcumin reduces blood cholesterol, prevents LDL oxidation, inhibits platelet aggregation, suppresses thrombosis and myocardial infarction (MI), suppresses symptoms associated with type II diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Alzheimer’s disease, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, enhances wound healing, protects from liver injury, increases bile secretion, protects from cataract formation, and protects from pulmonary toxicity and fibrosis, is an anti-leishmaniasis and an antiatherosclerotic. Additionally, there is extensive literature that suggests that curcumin has potential in the prevention and treatment of a variety of other diseases.

Turmeric and its medicinal properties
Guardian, July 2019
Curcumin is the yellow pigment in Turmeric and the most medicinally active compound therein. Curry, the very common spice that we add to our stews and soups is from curcumin. There are about100 chemical compounds in turmeric. These chemical compounds confer certain uniqueness to this herb and give it the ability to treat several disease conditions. The curcumin in turmeric is made up of polyphenols, which are organic chemicals that possess anti-inflammatory properties. Polyphenols are also present in some other types of foods and beverages also. Examples of these are epigallocatechin gallate (ECGC) found in green tee, resveratrol in red grapes and red wine and capsaicin in chili peppers. Curcumin is part of a group of chemical compounds known as curcuminoids and others in the group are demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcumin is what is responsible for the health benefits of turmeric.

Tips to increase brain power
Newstracklive.com, July 2019
Turmeric: The curcumin in turmeric is antidepressant and helps improves memory. It has been found that people suffering from Alzheimer’s have small proteins called amyloid-beta which causes damage to the brain. It is neurotoxic and forms neurofibrillary tangles in the brain that leads to Alzheimer’s. Curcumin works to protect the brain from this damage.

The Wonders of Turmeric: Why It’s Good For You
Society19, July 2019
One of the reasons why turmeric is good for you because it is anti-inflammatory. Turmeric contains curcumin, a chemical that not only is responsible for the bright yellow colour, but is said to contain anti-inflammatory properties. In some cases, curcumin is so potent that it can be as effective as anti-inflammatory drugs. One study actually discovered that curcumin was more effective in fighting against inflammation than aspirin and ibuprofen. Another reason why this spice is good for you is that it can prevent cancer. As mentioned above, curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties, but that is not the only thing it can do. Curcumin is also beneficial in treating cancer, as it affects cancer growth and development. One study has discovered that curcumin can inhibit tumor initiation and promotion, as well as inhibit metastasis and cell proliferation. Considering that turmeric contains curcumin, it is no surprise that the yellow spice is beneficial to the joints and can prevent them from getting swollen and inflamed. It has been discovered that curcumin is able to help with arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis, to the point that it is considered to be more effective than anti-inflammatory drugs.

Turmeric, ‘The Golden Spice’ is 1 of the Most Beneficial Spices in World
Live Trading News, July 2019
Turmeric, known as ‘The Golden Spice of Life’ is of the most beneficial spices in the culinary world. It is due to the astounding amounts of curcumin it contains, its principal bioactive component. According to a Y 2017 study published in the journal Foods, curcumin contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties since ancient times known to assist in alleviating arthritis, metabolic syndrome and hyperlipidemia. A 2016 study from Drug Design, Development and Therapy showed that curcuminoids and curcumin extracts helped alleviate pain and improved both physical function and quality of life.7 •May help improve behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer’s and dementia — A Y 2012 study found that the daily administration of turmeric to Alzheimer’s disease and dementia patients helped reduce irritability, agitation, anxiety, apathy and other Alzheimer’s disease symptoms. •Provides an immune system boost — According to a Y 2018 study from the Journal of Cellular Physiology, curcumin affects numerous immune cells, including natural killer cells and B lymphocytes, supporting the body against immune system-related diseases.

Life-saving compound can DESTROY stomach cancer
Healthier Talk, July 2019
Curcumin appears to attack the protein that keeps the DNA of each cancer cell in order. So essentially it causes the DNA to unravel – forcing those cells to die. While this animal study isn’t quite on the same level as a controlled clinical trial, the evidence has been building for years. And the signs all point to curcumin being a potent weapon in the war against stomach cancer. Curcumin could starve cancer cells In 2017, a study even showed WHY curcumin is so effective: The acids in your stomach can act like fertilizer for these cancers. The tumors suck it up and use it to GROW. Curcumin can help tame those acids, not necessarily by reducing the levels but changing how they’re secreted so less gets to the tumor. As a result, the cancer cells in the study weren’t able to get that fertilizer… and DIED because of it. More study is needed, of course. But that makes curcumin one of the most promising natural therapies yet in the fight against stomach cancer. That could mean that if you DON’T have cancer, curcumin supplements can prevent it from forming and taking hold. And if you DO have cancer, curcumin could help fight it off.

Natural Remedies Proven to Help Control Pain
Care2, July 2019
Scientists believe most of turmeric’s health benefits come from its high curcumin content. One of curcumin’s proven abilities is helping to combat pain, such as muscle pain and post-surgical pain. In an Indian study, curcumin was shown to be more effective for relieving rheumatoid arthritis pain than standard drug treatment. You can buy prepared turmeric and curcumin supplements. Fresh or dried turmeric is also easy to incorporate into many different dishes and include in your daily diet. The curcumin in turmeric can be difficult to digest, but research has shown that curcumin is much more easily absorbed when it’s eaten with black pepper and fats. So, add a dash of pepper and a dab of olive, coconut or other healthy oil in your meals to get the most pain-fighting action out of your turmeric.

Modulatory effects of curcumin on heat shock proteins in cancer: A promising therapeutic approach
Biofactors, July 2019
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a potent anti‐inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor agent. Curcumin has been shown to regulate different members of HSPs including HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 in cancer. Here, we present extent findings suggesting that curcumin may act as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer through its regulation of HSPs.

Curcumin: a therapeutic strategy in cancers by inhibiting the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, July 2019
Numerous studies have presented that curcumin could have a positive effect in the prevention of cancer and then in tumor therapy. Several hypotheses have highlighted that curcumin could decreases tumor growth and invasion by acting on both chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Curcumin (1,7-bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) is a natural product which occurs polyphenolic phytochemical properties from the rhizome of the Curcuma longa. Curcumin has been discovered in 1815 by Vogel and Pelletier. Its yellow-colored hydrophobic component is traditionally used in Asian countries for its several properties against pathophysiological states including anticancer . Several targets of curcumin have been shown to have chemotherapeutical properties. Curcumin use may have a major role in the control of inflammation, angiogenesis, metastasis and proliferation . Curcumin can downregulate numerous pathways, such as nuclear factor-ϰ B (NF-ϰB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. The use of curcumin, which acts as PPARγ agonists, could be interesting in the reduction of both chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, and in the control of circadian clock by inhibiting the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Due to the considerable impact of cancers on mortality and morbidity rates worldwide, it would appear of the utmost importance to better understand the action of curcumin in cancers and particularly its role in the inhibition of the major signaling system known as the WNT/β-catenin pathway.

Discover The Proven Health Benefits Of Turmeric And Curcumin
Scoopify, July 2019
Curcumin benefits in the prevention of the growth of the precancerous cells in the colon. Not only this, it has been highly beneficial in the treatment of the breast, stomach and skin cancer during the initial phase. Curcumin has the presence of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that help in maintaining the insulin level in the body.

Feed addition of curcumin to laying hens showed anticoccidial effect, and improved egg quality and animal health
Pubmed, July 2019
The addition of curcumin in the diet of laying hens has an anticoccidial effect and improves egg quality.

Curcumin Induces Oxidative Stress in Botrytis cinerea
Pubs.acs.org, July 2019
Curcumin exhibits efficient antimicrobial activity; nevertheless, its effect on the postharvest decay of fruit has not been examined. Curcumin can be used to control gray mold and elevate antioxidant activity in kiwifruit.

Health Benefits of Turmeric & Curcumin
OrganicFats.net June 2019
The amazing health benefits of turmeric and curcumin include the ability to reduce inflammation, heal wounds, improve skin health, protect cognitive abilities, and ease menstrual difficulties. Turmeric also helps eliminate depression, alleviate pain, slow down aging, protect the digestive tract, and prevent cancer. Turmeric rich in curcumin and vitamin B6 also boosts your cardiovascular health. Vitamin B6 can efficiently inhibit the production of homocysteine, which is a negative by-product that damages cell walls. These weakened walls can cause a number of complications in the heart, particularly when exacerbated by high blood pressure or plaque build-up. Curcumin directly balances your cholesterol levels by eliminating excess LDL (bad) cholesterol from the arteries and blood vessels. This can help prevent atherosclerosis and when combined with stronger blood vessels, the herb represents a comprehensive solution for a wide range of heart issues, as per a study cited in the Basic Research in Cardiology. Anti-cancer Properties A study conducted on mice by the researchers at the Cancer Research Institute, Tata Memorial Center, Mumbai, India documents the potential protective effect of turmeric on stomach and skin cancer. The most extensive research on turmeric’s cancer prevention effects has been in colon cancer, whereas other types of cancer research related to curcumin are currently underway. Additionally, an animal study by Ramadasan Kuttan et al. (Cancer Letters Journal) indicated that the turmeric extract and curcumin inhibited the growth of the tumor. Researchers at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center found that curcumin’s potential ability to kill cancer cells can be used in drug development. Additional studies need to be done to get the health benefits of this spice pertaining to cancer. Prevents Alzheimer’s As a powerful antioxidant herb, turmeric can stimulate neural activity and prevent cognitive degradations, which often come in the form of Alzheimer’s and dementia. As per a study by Srikant Mishra from the Department of Neurology, Plummer Street, Sepulveda, CA, curcumin is highly efficient in clearing out the amyloid plaque, which is a major indicator of Alzheimer’s progression. A study also found that turmeric supplements improved mood and cognitive function in non-demented older people suffering from mild age-related memory issues.

Evaluating the effect of curcumin for treatment of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome in solid cancer patients.
Journal of Clinical Oncology, June 2019
Curcumin has been shown anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects, including attenuation of CACS in animal models. Notably, patient with curcumin had less reduction of hand-grip muscle strength on both hands [right hand: -2.09 in curcumin versus -3.68 in placebo; p = 0.46], [left hand: -1.24 versus -5.04; p-value = 0.12], and basal metabolic rate than placebo group.

A network pharmacology approach to investigate the pharmacological effect of curcumin and capsaicin targets in cancer
Journal of Proteins and Proteomics, June 2019
Curcumin and capsaicin play a vital role in anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer mechanism as they are used as therapeutic drugs/adjuvants. The gene ontology analysis made it possible to identify a library of possible cancer targets of curcumin (34 targets) and capsaicin (35 targets). Based on topological analysis, the unique target of curcumin and capsaicin was proposed by identifying essential bottleneck/hub node MAPK1. The docking results of MAPK1 with curcumin (− 7.6 kcal/mol) has shown good inhibitory effect similar to that of standard control ulixertinib (− 8.1 kcal/mol) compared with capsaicin (− 6.0 kcal/mol). Based on the molecular interaction, MAPK1 identified through the network pharmacology approach could be a probable target of curcumin and capsaicin to prevent angiogenesis in cancer.

Curcumin reverses oxaliplatin resistance in human colorectal cancer
OncoTargets and Therapy, June 2019
Studies have shown that curcumin regulated EMT processes in many human cancers. The OXA-resistant cell line HCT116/OXA was successfully established, and combination of OXA with curcumin reduced OXA resistance in vitro. Besides, the combination treatment inhibited the expressions of p-p65 and Bcl-2, but increased the level of active-caspase3. In addition, curcumin inhibited EMT via regulation of TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Moreover, in vivo study confirmed curcumin could reverse OXA resistance in CRC. Conclusion: Our study indicated that curcumin could reserve OXA resistance in CRC through dampening TGF-β/Smads signaling in vitro and in vivo.

Curcumin suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of peritoneal mesothelial cells
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters, June 2019
urcumin reversed growth inhibition and migration capability of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). In HMrSV5 cells, high glucose PDS also decreased expression of epithelial markers, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers, a characteristic of EMT. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot revealed that, compared to the 4.25% Dianeal treated cells, curcumin treatment resulted in increased expression of E-cadherin (epithelial marker), and decreased expression of α-SMA (mesenchymal markers) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, curcumin reduced mRNA expression of two extracellular matrix protein, collagen I and fibronectin. Curcumin also reduced TGF-β1 mRNA and supernatant TGF-β1 protein content in the PDS-treated HMrSV5 cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, it significantly reduced protein expression of p-TAK1, p-JNK and p-p38 in PDS-treated HMrSV5 cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that curcumin showed an obvious protective effect on PDS-induced EMT of HMrSV5 cells and suggest implication of the TAK1, p38 and JNK pathway in mediating the effects of curcumin in EMT of MCs.

Curcumin and Intestinal Inflammatory Diseases: Molecular Mechanisms of Protection
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, June 2019
Curcumin, the biologically active, hydrophobic, phenolic component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), is a natural product commonly utilized in Ayurdevic and traditional medicine, both topically and orally, for its potent effects on multiple body systems. Curcumin, also known as diferuloylmethane, has been a popular supplement largely because of its affordability and safety, with no known toxic side effects in humans up to doses of 12 g/day. In this review, we discussed the potential protective effects of curcumin on intestinal inflammatory diseases. Recent research has focused on the effects of natural anti-inflammatories, such as curcumin, on intestinal inflammatory diseases, largely due to their safety profile and affordability. Curcumin is characterized by beneficial effects on the microbiome, antimicrobial properties, inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB/AP-1 signal transduction, changes in cytokine profiles, and alterations to immune cell maturation and differentiation. The culmination of the vast number of effects of curcumin on the intestinal epithelium and immune system is to strengthen the intestinal barrier through a reduction in bacterial translocation and inflammation. Curcumin may play a significant role in intestinal inflammatory disease treatment in the future, particularly as an adjuvant therapy.

Curcumin and its Potential for Systemic Targeting of Inflamm-Aging and Metabolic Reprogramming in Cancer
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, June 2019
The natural source of curcumin is the rhizome of the medicinal plant, Curcuma longa, a perennial herb in the family Zingiberaceae. The curcuminoid complex, found in the rhizome of turmeric (2.5–6%) contains: curcumin (CUR - diferuloylmethane, ~85%); demethoxycurcumin (DEM, ~15%); bis-demethoxycurcumin (bis-DEM, ~5%) and cyclocurcumin.  Pleiotropic effects of curcumin have been the subject of intensive research. The interest in this molecule for preventive medicine may further increase because of its potential to modulate inflamm-aging.  Curcumin’s binding to various proteins, which was shown to be dependent on cellular oxidative status, is yet another feature for exploration in depth. Finally, the binding of curcumin to various metabolic enzymes is crucial to curcumin’s interference with powerful metabolic machinery, and can also be crucial for metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells. This review offers a synthesis and functional links that may better explain older data, some observational, in light of the most recent findings on curcumin.

Curcumin: A Potent Protectant against Esophageal and Gastric Disorders
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, June 2019
Turmeric obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa has been used in the prevention and treatment of many diseases since the ancient times. Curcumin is the principal polyphenol isolated from turmeric, which exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antitumor, and antimetastatic activities. The existing evidence indicates that curcumin can exert a wide range of beneficial pleiotropic properties in the gastrointestinal tract, such as protection against reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and gastric mucosal damage induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and necrotizing agents. The role of curcumin as an adjuvant in the treatment of a Helicobacter pylori infection in experimental animals and humans has recently been proposed. The evidence that this turmeric derivative inhibits the invasion and proliferation of gastric cancer cells is encouraging and warrants further experimental and clinical studies with newer formulations to support the inclusion of curcumin in cancer therapy regimens. Curcumin, the natural phenolic active ingredient of turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizome, has been used in Asia as an herbal remedy for a variety of diseases. In addition to the use of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory in ancient times, it has also been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as indigestion, flatulence, diarrhea, and even gastric and duodenal ulcers. Recently, great attention has been paid to the medical applications of curcumin in the treatment of human diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, including different cancers. Curcumin treatment has also led to the improvement of metabolic parameters involving aging-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney diseases. Interestingly, some promising effects of curcumin have been observed in the alleviation by this turmeric derivative of the chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, uveitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In some instances, curcumin has been found to aid in the prevention and treatment of various cancers. Recently, the anticarcinogenic activity of curcumin has been documented in the GI tract because this compound has proven to exert a therapeutic effect on different human GI cancers such as esophageal, gastric, and small and large intestinal cancer.

Curcumin in Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases
Nutrients, June 2019
Curcumin is the main component of turmeric, also known as the Curcuma longa, which belongs to the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. Curcumin is commonly used in Indian and Asian cooking as a spice for its flavor and yellow color profile. In addition to its consumption due to flavor, curcumin has been used for its medicinal properties for thousands of years.  The curcuminoids found in turmeric are curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, with curcumin being the main active component. Curcumin was first isolated from turmeric in 1815. Curcumin gives turmeric its yellow color and is known to possess most of the therapeutic effects of turmeric. In 1937, the first article published on the use of curcumin in treating human disease cited its beneficial effects in biliary disease. Since then, continued research has shown that curcumin can alleviate a number of human diseases. Studies performed on animals have shown a direct relationship between increased cellular curcumin concentrations and its ability to modulate inflammatory mediators. Experimental studies on cell lines and humans have confirmed the findings from animal studies, demonstrating that curcumin plays a role in anti-inflammatory response via inhibition of the COX-2 pathway and NF-kB activation. In more recent years, numerous studies have shown that curcumin possesses potential anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer properties. These studies indicate that curcumin acts on numerous targets with various mechanisms of action, altering enzyme, receptor, and transcription factor activity. In addition, curcumin administration has reported nearly no side effects, making it a potential alternative to NSAIDs and other medications with known severe adverse effects. Curcumin has been used in Indian and Asian medicine for its therapeutic abilities for thousands of years. Recent studies provide evidence that increased curcumin levels can modify cellular disease mechanisms toward a more anti-inflammatory profile. This mainly occurs by inhibition of the COX and lipoxygenase pathway. Additionally, curcumin suppresses NF-κB pathway to decrease inflammation. In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, curcumin also exerts anti-oxidative capacity. The involvement of these pathways in normal rheumatic disease progression could possibly explain curcumin’s therapeutic effects targeting these disease processes. Many positive outcome clinical trials in OA present solid evidence of curcumin’s beneficial role in disease progression. In addition, curcumin shows similar efficacy to common NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, which cause serious GI side effects. Conversely, curcumin has shown to have little or no side effects.

Foods That Help Fight Anxiety
News 18, June 2019
Turmeric: The spice contains curcumin, a compound that promotes brain health and prevents anxiety disorders. Curcumin may boost omega-3 fatty acid DHA in the brain by helping the body produce it more effectively. Curcumin also has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that help prevent damage to brain cells.

The effect of ultraviolet radiation and the antioxidant curcumin on the longevity, fertility, and physical structure of Drosophila melanogaster
Emerging Investigators, June 2019
Curcumin significantly prolonged lifespan and enhanced fertility for both UV- and non-UV-exposed flies. Therefore, we conclude that curcumin can prolong lifespan, enhance fertility, and mitigate the deleterious effects of UV radiation on Drosophila. Our research demonstrates that we can harness the positive potential of natural antioxidants and use them as weapons in our war against radiation-induced diseases, including conditions like cancer.

The Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin on Ornithine Decarboxylase against Hepatic Carcinoma
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, June 2019
Curcumin the active component of turmeric is widely used as an anticancer agent for treating many human cancers. Our results showed that curcumin has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells with IC50 of 24.79 μg/ml and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Moreover, it caused an elevation in the intracellular concentration of Ca2+. Moreover, in the curcumin administration the downregulation expression level of ODC and Bcl-2 genes (p ≤ 0.05) was significant found. On the other hand, upregulation in the expression level of P53, Bax, and caspase-3 genes (p ≤ 0.05). This study concluded that curcumin may be considered as a new saving candidate for the future progress of antitumor agents.

Nutrition and Wound Healing: An Overview Focusing on the Beneficial Effects of Curcumin
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, July 2019
Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of curcumin might reduce the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) and restore the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant activity. Since curcumin induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells during the early phase of wound healing, it could also accelerate the healing process by shortening the inflammatory phase. Moreover, curcumin might facilitate collagen synthesis, fibroblasts migration, and differentiation.

These Spices May Help In Regulating Blood Pressure
NDTV, June 2019
The golden spice is celebrated for housing powerful antioxidant - curcumin - that protects against vascular dysfunction. It also protects arteries of the heart, which gets affected the most by high blood pressure.

Consuming turmeric everyday can improve memory and happiness: Study
Dunya News ,May 2019
Found in turmeric, curcumin is hailed as an anti-inflammatory with antioxidant properties, and it has also been suggested as a possible reason that senior citizens in India - where curcumin is somewhat of a staple - have lower rates of Alzheimer s disease and better cognitive performance. Published in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, the research conducted by the University of California Los Angeles set out to examine the effects of the ingredient on people with mild, age-related memory loss. After monitoring curcumin levels in their blood and undergoing cognitive assessments and PET scans, the study found that those who took curcumin saw significant improvement in both memory and mood. In memory tests, the people taking curcumin improved by 28 percent over the 18 months and also showed mild improvement in their overall disposition.

Curcumin ameliorates atherosclerosis
Journal of Cellular Physiology, May 2019
The potential usage of curcumin in diverse human diseases has been widely studied, including arteriosclerosis (AS). We found that curcumin treatment significantly reduced HMEC‐1 cells viability, migration, and the protein levels of MMP‐2, MMP‐9, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the presence or absence of ox‐LDL. Meanwhile, the expression of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 was repressed by curcumin. miR‐126 was upregulated by curcumin. The abovementioned effects of curcumin on HMEC‐1 cells were all attenuated when miR‐126 was silenced. And also, VEGF was a target gene of miR‐126, and curcumin could inhibit the activation of PI3K/AKT JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathways via miR‐126. The effects of curcumin and its regulation on miR‐126 and VEGF were confirmed in the animal model of AS. To sum up, curcumin exerted potent anti‐AS property possibly via upregulating miR‐126 and thereby inhibiting PI3K/AKT and JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathways.

Curcumin and endometrial carcinoma: an old spice as a novel agent
International Journal of Women's Health, May 2019
The yellow Indian spice known as curcumin has been extolled for its healing powers and has recently been adopted for investigation by the scientific community as a potent anti-cancerous agent. Curcumin is a bright yellow-colored Indian spice derived from the herbaceous ginger plant turmeric, also known as Curcuma longa.18 This spice has been used for centuries to treat numerous diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis as well as liver, rheumatoid, and infectious diseases.18,19 Recent advances in molecular biology have allowed a more microscopic inspection into the active properties of this pleiotropic chemical (diferuloylmethane), which has proven to effectively interact with numerous signaling molecules within the body. Curcumin seems to show antibacterial,20 anti-inflammatory,21 antioxidant,22 and antimicrobial activities.23 In addition to all its benefits, curcumin also possesses anti-cancerous effects by targeting several important players in cell signaling pathways such as p53,24 MAPKs, ERK, Ras,25 Wnt-β,26 PI3K, and Akt,27 all of which play major roles in tumor progression. Furthermore, this herb, in combination with other agents, is capable of disrupting the cell cycle through its effect on cellular apoptosis by activating caspases as well as downregulating anti-apoptotic gene products (Bcl-X).28 Curcumin can also interact with several molecules involved in proliferation (EGFR and AP-1),29,30 metastasis and invasion (MMP-9),31 angiogenesis (VEGF),32 and inflammation (NF-κB, COX-2, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-2, IL-8, and IL-12, 5-LOX).33–35 Because of its multivalent potential to target several molecules, this spice can be used on various types of cancers including colorectal, leukemia, lymphoma, breast, pancreatic, ovarian, head and neck, lung, prostate, and melanoma.34 An investigation into the available literature concerning curcumin as a potential therapy for cancers of the female reproductive system turned up with no paper studying the effect of curcumin on endometrial carcinoma. Therefore, this review is written to shed light and summarize any available data on the effect of curcumin as a promising therapeutic agent on this specific gynecological cancer.

Curcumin induces cell death in human ovarian cancer
Gynecologic Oncology, May 2019
Curcumin (Cur), a yellow-colored dietary flavor from the plant (Curcuma longa), has been demonstrated to potentially resist diverse diseases, including ovarian cancer, but drug resistance becomes a major limitation of its success clinically. The key molecule or mechanism associated with curcumin resistance in ovarian cancer still remains unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on autophagy in ovarian cancer cells and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Curcumin reduced cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death by MTT assay in human ovarian cancer cell lines SK-OV-3 and A2780 significantly. Electron microscopy, western blot and immunofluorescence staining proved that curcumin could induce protective autophagy. Curcumin can induce protective autophagy of human ovarian cancer cells by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, indicating the synergistic effects of curcumin and autophagy inhibition as a possible strategy to overcome the limits of current therapies in the eradication of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Curcumin as Antipsychotic Treatment in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Clinical Neuropharmacology, May 2019
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol, which has a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. The studies showed that curcumin improved the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. There was a significant response to curcumin within 6 months in total PANSS (P = 0.02) and in the negative symptoms subscale (P = 0.04). The promising results of curcumin as an add-on to antipsychotics in the treatment of negative symptoms may open a new and safe therapeutic option for the management of schizophrenia.

Curcumin exhibits an antiviral activity
Antiviral Research, May 2019
Curcumin, a polyphenol, is the main bioactive compound in dietary spice turmeric curcuma longa. It possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-neoplastic properties and shows potentials in treating or preventing particular diseases such as oxidative and inflammatory conditions, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, anxiety, hyperlipidemia and cancers. This discovery explains the wide range of effects of curcumin on diverse human diseases and predicts a potential application in treatment of viral infection and virus-associated cancer. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrated that curcumin is able to efficiently block Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication and inhibit the pathogenic processes of angiogenesis and cell invasion. An enzymatic assay confirmed that curcumin is an inhibitor of APE1 redox function. Through inhibiting APE1 redox function, curcumin prevents c-jun/c-fos from binding to the AP-1 promoter. Through blocking AP-1 transcriptional activity, curcumin efficiently inhibits KSHV lytic DNA replication and virion production. Curcumin also inhibits KSHV-mediated pathogenesis including angiogenesis and cell invasion.

Curcumin Can Improve Spinal Cord Injury
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, May 2019
Curcumin exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Curcumin can play an important role in SCI recovery by inhibiting the expression of NF-κB and TGF-β-SOX9. Herein, we review the potential mechanism of curcumin-inhibiting SOX9 signaling pathway in SCI treatment. The inhibition of NF-κB and SOX9 signaling pathway by curcumin has the potentiality of serving as neuronal regenerative mechanism following SCI.

Effect of combined fish oil & Curcumin on murine skeletal muscle
Nutrition Research, May 2019
Nutritional supplements such as fish oil and curcumin enhance anabolic signaling, glutathione levels, and heat shock proteins. We hypothesized that fish oil, rich in omega-3-fatty acids, combined with the polyphenol curcumin would enhance stress protective proteins and anabolic signaling in the rat soleus muscle, concomitant with synergistic protection of morphology. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups (n = 6/group): ambulatory controls (CON), hindlimb unloading (HU), and hindlimb unloading with 5% fish oil, 1% curcumin in diet (FOC). FOC treatments began 10 days prior to HU and tissues were harvested following 7 days of HU. FOC mitigated the unloading induced decrease in CSA. FOC also enhanced abundance of HSP70 and anabolic signaling (Akt phosphorylation, p70S6K phosphorylation), while reducing Nox2, a source of oxidative stress. Therefore, we concluded that the combination of fish oil and curcumin prevents skeletal muscle atrophy due to a boost of heat shock proteins and anabolic signaling in an unloaded state.

Curcumin reduces renal damage
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, May 2019
Treatment with curcumin initiated before or after rhabdomyolysis induction ameliorated all these pathologic and molecular alterations. In cultured renal tubular cells, myoglobin (Mb) induced ferroptosis-sensitive cell death that was also inhibited by curcumin. Mechanistic in vitro studies showed that curcumin reduced Mb-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB axis and activating the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase 1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the involvement of ferroptosis in rhabdomyolysis-associated renal damage and its sensitivity to curcumin treatment. Therefore, curcumin may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with this syndrome.

Curcumin induces apoptosis in JAK2‐mutated cells
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, May 2019
Previous studies showed that curcumin, the active principle of the Curcuma longa, can suppress JAK2/STAT pathways in different type of cancer and injuries. In this study, we investigated the anti‐proliferative and pro‐apoptotic effects of curcumin in JAK2 V617F‐mutated cells. HEL cell line and cells from patients JAK2 V617F mutated have been incubated with increasing concentrations of curcumin for different time. Apoptosis and proliferation were evaluated. Subsequently, JAK2/STAT and AKT/mTOR pathways were investigated at both RNA and protein levels. We found that curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in HEL cells. Furthermore, we showed that curcumin inhibits JAK2/STAT and mTORC1 pathways in JAK2 V617F‐mutated cells. This inhibition suggests that curcumin could represent an alternative strategy to be explored for the treatment of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Curcumin: a potent agent to reverse epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
Cellular Oncology, May 2019
Accumulating evidence indicates that curcumin, as a well-known phytochemical, can inhibit EMT/metastasis through various mechanisms and pathways in human tumors. Curcumin can exert chemo-preventive effects by inhibition and reversal of the EMT process through both TGF-β-dependent (e.g. in hepatoma and retinal pigment epithelial cancer) and -independent (e.g. in oral cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer, melanoma, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, thyroid cancer and lung cancer) pathways. Curcumin can also mitigate chemoresistance through EMT suppression and promotion of the antiproliferative effects of conventional chemotherapeutics. Therefore, curcumin has the potential to be used as a novel adjunctive agent to prevent tumor metastasis, which may at least partly be attributed to its hampering of the EMT process.

The Brain And Memory
Herbal Remedies Home, May 2019
Curcumin has been linked to a lower dementia risk numerous times before. According to a 2009 study done by researchers from Duke University, it causes brain changes and reverses some of the effects of Alzheimer’s disease. Namely, it targets the amyloid plaques, which are considered to be one of the main causes of brain damage. The researcher Murali Doraiswamy said: “There is very solid evidence that curcumin binds to plaques, and basic research on animals engineered to produce human amyloid plaques has shown benefits. You can modify a mouse so that at about 12 months its brain is riddled with plaques. If you feed this rat a curcumin-rich diet, it dissolves these plaques. The same diet prevented younger mice from forming new plaques.” The active ingredient of turmeric, curcumin, is responsible for most of its medicinal and healing powers, since it is full of antioxidants and offers extremely powerful anti-inflammatory properties. According to Dr. Josh Axe, DC, DMN, CNS: “Arguably, the most powerful aspect of curcumin is its ability to control inflammation. The journal Oncogene published the results of a study that evaluated several anti-inflammatory compounds and found that aspirin and ibuprofen, two of the most common NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are least effective, while curcumin is among the most effective anti-inflammatory compounds in the world. This news should have reached every household in the world after the study was conducted because inflammation is at the root of most diseases. Increasingly common diseases today — such as cancer, ulcerative colitis, arthritis, high cholesterol, and chronic pain — are all associated with inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin have also been studied as a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. “ Moreover, this amazing spice improves health in a thousand other ways, cleanses the blood, prevents premature aging, detoxifies the liver, prevents free radical damage, improves skin health, and much more. Also, a series of 2013 studies done at the University of Tsukuba in Japan showed that curcumin improved two measures of cardiovascular health as much as aerobic exercise did. Also, numerous studies have confirmed that turmeric and curcumin will help you soothe arthritis, reduce body fat, prevent cancer, and improve cancer prognosis. Its anti-cancer activity has been studied and confirmed by numerous studies. Dr.Mercola reports: “ Curcumin actually has the most evidence-based literature supporting its use against cancer of any other nutrient, including vitamin D! As noted by Dr. William LaValley, curcumin is unique in that it appears to be universally useful for just about every type of cancer. This is odd, considering the fact that cancer consists of a wide variety of different molecular pathologies. One reason for this universal anti-cancer proclivity is curcumin’s ability to affect multiple molecular targets, via multiple pathways. Once it gets into a cell, it affects more than 100 different molecular pathways. And, as explained by Dr. LaValley, whether the curcumin molecule causes an increase in activity of a particular molecular target, or decrease/inhibition of activity, studies repeatedly show that the end result is a potent anti-cancer activity. Moreover, curcumin is non-toxic and does not adversely affect healthy cells, suggesting it selectively targets cancer cells—all of which are clear benefits in cancer treatment. Research has even shown that it works synergistically with certain chemotherapy drugs, enhancing the elimination of cancer cells.”

Effects of Curcumin on Microglial Cells
Neurotoxicity Research, May 2019
Curcumin is a phytochemical isolated from Curcuma longa. It is widely used in Asia and has many therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-mutagenic, anti-amyloidogenic and anti-inflammatory, especially with respect to neuroinflammation and neurological disorders (NDs). Curcumin is a pleiotropic molecule that inhibits microglia transformation, inflammatory mediators and subsequent NDs. In this mini-review, we discuss the effects of curcumin on microglia and explore the underlying mechanisms.

Curcumin may help in some UC patients
MDedge.com May 2019
Curcumin was evaluated in a multicenter trial showing that, when added to maximal mesalamine, it may be helpful in avoiding an advance in therapy, with 54% achieving clinical remission at week 4 versus 0% of placebo-treated patients. Likewise, curcumin has shown “minimal harm” in mild ulcerative colitis and may help nudge patients toward disease control without having to resort to corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive therapy, Dr. Brant said.

Study highlights anti-tumor activity of curcumin on stomach cancer
Eureka Alert, May 2019
Curcumin is widely used to impart color and flavor to food, but scientists have discovered that this yellow powder derived from the roots of the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa) can also help prevent or combat stomach cancer. Curcumin influences histone modifications primarily by inhibiting HATs and HDACs to suppress cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). Garcinol, whose chemical structure resembles that of curcumin, inhibits HATs and helps prevent stomach cancer by neutralizing free radicals.

Best supplements for arthritis: Natural remedies to alleviate joint pain
Express, May 2019
Turmeric contains a chemical called curcumin, which can reduce pain and swelling by blocking inflammatory cytokines and enzymes. A clinical trial using a turmeric supplement in 2010 showed long-term improvement in pain and function in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, A small study in 2012 using a curcumin product also showed more reduced joint pain and swelling in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, when compared to diclofenac sodium.

Stop Different Types of Pain
Trending Posts, May 2019
Curcumin to stop the pain caused by inflammation. Curcumin is a natural proven remedy well known for its anti-inflammatory properties. One of the most popular spices of Asia is Turmeric and it can be widely used in medicines because its components contain anti-inflammatory properties. Comparisons between conventional medications and curcumin have been researched and it has been proved that curcumin is just as good as ibuprofen for relieving pain. Turmeric or curcumin capsules are being recommended by doctors for patients suffering from aches and sore joints.

Curcumin combined with metformin decreases glycemia and dyslipidemia, and increases paraoxonase activity
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, May 2019
Curcumin, a yellow pigment isolated from Curcuma longa rhizomes, has gained attention due to its beneficial effects in controlling the disturbances observed in diabetes mellitus. Treatment of diabetic rats with curcumin or metformin alone decreased the plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, cholesterol, TBARS, and fluorescent AGEs, as well as increased the activity of PON 1. The combination of metformin with curcumin further decreased dyslipidemia and TBARS levels in diabetic rats, indicating synergy, and maintained the high levels of PON 1. These findings indicated that curcumin combined with metformin may act synergistically on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress, as well as increased PON 1 levels. Therefore, it might be a promising strategy for combating diabetic complications, mainly the cardiovascular events.

The neuroprotective effects of curcumin
Drug Design, Development and Therapy, May 2019
The beneficial, neuroprotective effects of curcumin against ischemia-reperfusion injury have been demonstrated. In the present study, whether curcumin exerts neuroprotective effects associated with the inhibition of autophagy and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was investigated. In this study, curcumin decreased the death and apoptosis of cells, and inhibited autophagy and HIF-1α under OGD/R conditions, consistent with 3-MA treatment or HIF-1α downregulation. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy caused a decrease in HIF-1α, and the attenuation of HIF-1α induced autophagy suppression under OGD/R conditions. The results of this study showed that curcumin exerts neuroprotective effects against ischemia-reperfusion, which is associated with the regulation of the reciprocal function between autophagy and HIF-1α.

Curcumin supplementation mitigates NASH development
Physiological Reports, May 2019
Curcumin, a naturally occurring plant polyphenolic compound, may have beneficial effects in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development. Curcumin treatment (12WD vs. 12WD+C) reduced (P < 0.05) hepatocellular inflammation, steatosis, NAFLD Activity Scores, and serum markers of liver injury (AST, ALP). Moreover, curcumin treatment also increased hepatic pACC/ACC, ApoB100, and SOD1 protein, and decreased hepatic FGF‐21 levels; whereas, curcumin prevention increased hepatic glutathione levels. Both curcumin prevention and treatment reduced molecular markers of hepatic fibrosis (Col1a1 mRNA) and inflammation (TNF‐α, SPP1 mRNA). Curcumin supplementation beneficially altered the NASH phenotype in female Wistar rats, particularly the reversal of hepatocellular inflammation.

The study identifies the possible therapeutic effects of curcumin on gastric cancer
Onties.com May 2019
"We made a huge overview of the scientific literature on all nutrients and bioactive compounds with the potential to prevent or treat stomach cancer and found that curcumin is one of them," said Daniel Ciroz Calgano, a professor at UFPA.

What Are Nootropics? Your Guide To The Best Brain-Boosting Nutrients
Mind Body Green, May 2019
You may have 99 problems, but curcumin has probably already solved 98 of them—and you can add improved cognitive performance to that list. This compound in turmeric has been shown to improve working memory with consistent long-term supplementation. Curcumin can also increase BDNF, reduce oxidative stress, and inhibit inflammatory cytokines.

Daily dose of turmeric could boost memory, mood: study
Pan Armenian, May 2019
Curcumin, the compound that gives the spice its rich dark yellow colour, is widely established to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The research, published in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, examined the effects of curcumin on memory performance in people without dementia, as well as its impact on people already suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. “Exactly how curcumin exerts its effects is not certain, but it may be due to its ability to reduce brain inflammation, which has been linked to both Alzheimer’s disease and major depression,”. Memory tests showed that those taking curcumin improved by 28 percent over the 18 months and experienced mild improvements in mood. "These results suggest that taking this relatively safe form of curcumin could provide meaningful cognitive benefits over the years,” said Dr Small.

Study reveals turmeric is more effective at killing cancer cells than chemo or radiation
El Reportero, May 2019
One aspect of curcumin’s intelligent approach is its ability to downregulate interleukin-6. The over-expression of this cytokine has been linked to inflammation progressing to cancer, and curcumin stops it from being released and stimulating cancer stem cells. It also directly and indirectly downregulates interleukin-1, which plays a vital role in the growth of cancer cells, and interleukin-8, which stimulates the regrowth of tumor-forming cancer stem cells. Another way curcumin can fight cancer is by decreasing the binding of CXCR1 and CXCR2 and modulating pathways like the Wnt Signaling Pathway, the Notch Pathway, the FAK/AKT/FOXo3A Pathway, and the Hedgehog Pathways. If those terms are unfamiliar to you, you’re not alone – cancer is a complicated disease, but the bottom line is that curcumin targets deadly cancer stem cells in eight different and very powerful ways. Curcumin is a very efficient cancer fighter, targeting the most dangerous cells of all, cancer stem cells, without touching normal cells. Contrast this with chemotherapy, which damages the DNA of quickly-replicating cells while they’re vulnerable during the mitosis stage of cell division. It does this without determining if the cells are cancerous or completely healthy.

Healthy Options: Root Plants And Herbal Leaves For Stress And Anxiety Management
TG Daily, May 2019
Turmeric root, on the other hand, also has very promising benefits for the effective management of stress and anxiety disorders. Both animal studies and human studies conclude that the oral intake of curcumin can significantly prevent anxiety-like behavior and improve mobility.

Study: Curcumin, Resveratrol Possible Anti-Cancer Compounds
Whole Foods Magazine, May 2019
Curcumin can play a role in preventing stomach cancer, according to a new study from researchers at the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) and the Federal University of Pará (UFPA).

High blood pressure - best spices to prevent deadly hypertension symptoms
Express, May 2019
Turmeric’s active ingredient, curcumin, could play a role in lowering blood pressure, according to cardiologist Dr Stephen Sinatra.Curcumin is a powerful antioxidant the helps to break-up big clumps of platelets in the blood, he said. If you’d prefer to take curcumin as a supplement, aim for around 500mg in a single day. ou may not have heard of curcumin before, but you have probably heard of turmeric, the spice that is best known as an ingredient in Indian curry and yellow mustard. Turmeric has been my number one natural blood pressure reducer and cardiovascular spice for years, and its yellow colour comes from curcumin — a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound that’s been found to reduce blood pressure by lowering the excess platelet aggregation that occurs in sticky, clot-forming blood.

Is the Curcumin in Turmeric More Effective Than Prozac for Depression?
Tmd.org May 2019
Curcumin is the main compound in the spice, turmeric. This spice is known for its bright yellow or orange color, flavorful taste, and is a great addition to curries. It is also well known in traditional medicine for its healing properties and has been used for centuries to heal many conditions. Curcumin possesses both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Beyond fighting common inflammatory-related conditions, such as arthritis and cancer, curcumin has been researched for its potential role in treating depression. One study found that curcumin therapy successfully reduces depressive symptoms when compared to the leading antidepressant medication, Prozac. What set curcumin apart was the fact that little to no side effects were reported. Antidepressants can cause any number of side effects including nausea, vomiting, blood pressure changes, dizziness, anxiety, and weight gain. With curcumin being more natural, these side effects can be avoided, and the depression itself can be successfully treated. Studies continue to research the effectiveness of curcumin on depression. With all this said, antidepressant medication is still preferred for good reasons, and these should be discussed with your physician. Do not stop taking prescribed medication before consulting with your doctor. The Natural Approach to Fighting Depression Curcumin is a strong antioxidant which means it scavenges and rids the body of harmful free radicals. The reduction of oxidative damage also reduces inflammation, and this can alleviate depressive symptoms. Studies have found a link between inflammation and depression but are not entirely which is the cause and which the result. The relationship does, however, tell us that by reducing inflammation, you can also reduce the symptoms of depression. Depression has also been scientifically linked to reduced production of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), a growth hormone that impacts the function of your brain. Curcumin increases the presence of BDNF in the brain, which can lead to a reduction is depressive symptoms or a reduced risk of developing the disease. Curcumin has also been linked to increased production of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. Anxiety is another common mental disease that exists alongside depression in many cases. Curcumin has been found to increase the production of DHA, an essential omega-3 fatty acid. Deficiency in this omega-3 has been linked to increased anxiety, which can trigger or cause depression. By reducing anxious thoughts or behaviors, curcumin can also help reduce depression.

Why you should be adding turmeric daily to your life
Mustafa Mehar, May 2019
There have been over 50 clinical trials done on the health benefits of turmeric and curcumin and it seems there are only more coming our way. Below is a summary of some of the studies and their claims. The major health benefits of Turmeric 1. It plays a major role in cancer prevention, including myeloma, pancreatic, colon, breast, brain, blood, kidney, liver, pancreas and skin cancer. This is due to the fact that it can help prevent the initial processes that lead to mutations within our DNA. 2. It has major anti-inflammatory effects, according to a study which researched the efficacy of curcumin in the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. It has been found to treat other inflammatory conditions effectively as well. 3. Turmeric plays a preventative role in the development of multiple diseases, such as lung disease and brain disease, and has been found to improve brain function. 4. It is beneficial for your cardiovascular health, supplementing daily with turmeric has been found to have as many benefits in improving our cell function in the arteries as one hour of aerobic exercise. 5. It is believed that turmeric may play a role in preventing Alzheimers disease. This condition is related to a build up of Amyloid-Plaques in the brain, and curcumin has been found to aid in removing these build ups. 6. Curcumin acts as a natural anti-depressant, where studies show it increases the brain’s serotonin and dopamine levels, as well as increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels (BDNF). Low levels of BDNF has been associated with depression. 7. It offers anti-aging benefits. Oxidation and inflammation within the body are linked to aging and curcumin, a powerful anti-oxidant, potentially preventing these processes from occurring within the body. 8. Turmeric may also benefit your skin. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties can aid with skin health, such as eczema or psoriasis.

Protective effects of curcumin in embryonic fibroblast cells
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, May 2019
The study indicated that curcumin might be a potential ameliorative antioxidant to protect the fibroblast cell toxicity induced by sodium arsenite.

Revealing the Effects of Curcumin on SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells: A Combined Study from Cellular Viability, Morphology, and Biomechanics
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, May 2019
The present study provides insights into the effects of curcumin on neuronal cells from both biological and biophysical aspects, which can help more comprehensively understand the interactions between curcumin and SH-SY5Y cells.

Safety and efficacy of curcumin versus diclofenac in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized open-label parallel-arm study
Trials, May 2019
At days 14 and 28, patients receiving curcumin showed similar improvement in severity of pain and KOOS scale when compared with diclofenac, and the difference was not statistically significant. At day 7, the patients who received curcumin experienced a significantly greater reduction in the number of episodes of flatulence compared with diclofenac (P <0.01). At day 28, a weight-lowering effect (P <0.01) and anti-ulcer effect (P <0.01) of curcumin were observed. None of the patients required H2 blockers in the curcumin group, and 19 patients required H2 blockers in the diclofenac group (0% versus 28%, respectively; P <0.01). Adverse effects were significantly less in the curcumin group (13% versus 38% in the diclofenac group; P <0.01). Patient’s and physician’s global assessment of therapy was similar in the two treatment groups. Curcumin has similar efficacy to diclofenac but demonstrated better tolerance among patients with knee OA. Curcumin can be an alternative treatment option in the patients with knee OA who are intolerant to the side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

How Curcumin Can Help with Memory and Conditions Like Dementia and Alzheimer’s
Life News, May 2019
The most beneficial compound found in turmeric is curcumin, and it can help support memory functions and contribute to a feeling of calmness and bring relief from mental stress or strain. It has also been shown to lessen fatigue as well as promote better heart health. Curcumin is also known to contribute to the increase of BDNF (a brain hormone), which then enhances the function of the brain’s neurons, encouraging growth and promoting strength. Also, one of the features of diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s is the buildup of amyloid-beta proteins or plaque. In some studies, curcumin was found to have the potential to obstruct the development of this plaque.

The major health benefits of Turmeric
Power Living, May 2019
Curcumin has major anti-inflammatory effects, according to a study which researched the efficacy of curcumin in the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. It has been found to treat other inflammatory conditions effectively as well. It is beneficial for your cardiovascular health, supplementing daily with turmeric has been found to have as many benefits in improving our cell function in the arteries as one hour of aerobic exercise. It is believed that turmeric may play a role in preventing Alzheimers disease. This condition is related to a build up of Amyloid-Plaques in the brain, and curcumin has been found to aid in removing these build ups. Curcumin acts as a natural anti-depressant, where studies show it increases the brain’s serotonin and dopamine levels, as well as increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels (BDNF). Low levels of BDNF has been associated with depression. It offers anti-aging benefits. Oxidation and inflammation within the body are linked to aging and curcumin, a powerful anti-oxidant, potentially preventing these processes from occurring within the body.

Remedies To Help Reduce Inflammation
Romper, May 2019
It's almost impossible to look at inflammatory remedies without mentioning this particular spice. "Turmeric has been used in India for thousands of years as a medicinal herb," says LA-based naturopath Dr. Saman Faramarzi. As it turns out, turmeric contains curcumin, which has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, according to Foods. If you want to give this spice a try, then making turmeric milk (AKA golden milk) at home is a simple introduction, according to Elite Daily.

The Golden Spice: 5 Incredible Haldi Benefits That Would Take You By Surprise
NDTV, May 2019
Curcumin with its amazing anti-inflammatory abilities helps suppress chronic inflammation. Scientific research has shown a positive co-relation between curcumin and weight loss by preventing the growth of fat cells and it also protects against the negative impact of obesity on our health. Curcumin has been documented to improve insulin sensitivity, reducing elevated BP, and controlling triglyceride and cholesterol levels while improving HDL cholesterol. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin is the main reason of the health benefits of turmeric. It has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and increase the activity of our body's antioxidants. Curcumin has been found to have the strongest antioxidant effects when compared with other compounds.

Prevent Autoimmune Diseases
Medical Daily, May 2019
People are obsessed with turmeric supplements to fight pain and inflammation. Scientific evidence shows that curcumin, a pigment from turmeric root, regulates your immune system’s health and suppresses autoimmune diseases.

Anti-inflammatory foods that reduce pain
Baltimore Post Examiner, May 2019
Turmeric has a compound known as curcumin which has been found to be as effective as anti-inflammatory medications. Curcumin has powerful anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidants. It’s a better alternative because it has no side effects like the medication itself.

Best supplements for diabetes
Express, May 2019
Turmeric’s active ingredient, curcumin, could help to reduce insulin resistance, and subsequently protect against diabetes, said registered nurse David Spero. It improves insulin function, which allows more insulin to get into cells, he claimed. Adding turmeric to your diet could also lower your cholesterol and even prevent some types of cancer, added the nurse. “One diabetes medicine may lower blood sugar and cholesterol, protect your eyes and kidneys, relieve pain, prevent cancer, and improve your sex life. It also tastes good,” Spero wrote on Diabetes Self-Management. “This medicine is turmeric, made from the root Curcuma longa, a member of the ginger family. “Curcumin may also help treat aspects of diabetes, both type 1 and type 2.

Best supplements for arthritis
Expess, May 2019
Turmeric contains a chemical called curcumin, which can reduce pain and swelling by blocking inflammatory cytokines and enzymes. A clinical trial using a turmeric supplement in 2010 showed long-term improvement in pain and function in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, A small study in 2012 using a curcumin product also showed more reduced joint pain and swelling in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, when compared to diclofenac sodium.

Foods that Help Anxiety
Care2, May 2019
Turmeric has been shown in numerous studies to soothe both depression and anxiety. Not only do turmeric’s powerful phytochemicals do a stellar job of counteracting inflammation, but turmeric can help balance the chronically activated stress response that is associated with anxiety. Supplements of curcumin extract will be the most therapeutic source, but it definitely doesn’t hurt to enjoy a golden latte once in a while, either.

The One Supplement That Will Take Your Recovery To The Next Level
Mind Body Green, May 2019
Turmeric has proven its weight in (literal) gold with regards to fighting inflammation. That’s because its active compound, curcumin, is anti-inflammatory and has many preventative health benefits. And given that the root cause of many diseases is inflammation, turmeric has risen in popularity in both its whole, ground, and supplement form.

Reasons to Add Turmeric to Your Diet
IBC News, May 2019
Turmeric can help you reduce inflammation. The presence of curcumin in turmeric makes it a good remedy to fight inflammation. It is extremely good for arthritis patients. It can help arthritis patients treat inflammation naturally. There are several risk factors which can contribute to cancer. Various studies indicate that curcumin can reduce the growth of cancerous cells. According to the studies, turmeric consumption can help you reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and many others. Curcumin can also stimulate brain function and improve memory. According to studies, turmeric can help you boost brain power. It can also reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and depression. It will also stimulate logical thinking.

More muscles in old age thanks to curcumin supplementation
Ergo-Log.com, April 2019
More muscles in old age thanks to curcumin supplementation. As you get older, your body loses more and more muscle mass. Initially the decay of your muscles is so slow that you hardly notice it, but every year the decay process runs a little faster than the year before. Supplementation with curcumin, the most important bioactive substance in turmeric, can block this process. This is evident from an animal study that will shortly appear in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

Natural food for the prevention of cancer
The Indian Talks, April 2019
Curcumin is a component of turmeric. Studies in mice have shown that curcumin prevents the occurrence of tumors caused by various carcinogenic factors. Angiogenesis is the process of forming capillaries. In the case of a cancer that may have occurred due to earlier DNA damage, it is a process that makes it possible to feed the cancer so that it can develop. In this way, micro-gas is transformed into a cancer capable of growing and attacking tissues. The purpose of curcumin is to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels that feed the cancer, depriving it of the possibility of taking nutrients and developing cancer.

Turmeric outperforms chemotherapies in treating cancer
Reports Health Care, April 2019
Curcumin is one of the active compounds in turmeric. It is responsible for most of the health-promoting effects offered by the spice. Curcumin, reportedly, benefits conditions like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurological issues, cancer, and other chronic, inflammatory diseases. One research team analyzed a total of 19 test tube and five animal studies. They evaluated the ability of turmeric extracts to fight or prevent glioblastoma. The researchers found that curcumin inhibits the growth of cancer cells and induce cell death in certain subpopulations of glioblastoma tumors. Thus, it can serve as a potent therapeutic agent for treating cancer. The other study was published in the journal Nutrition and Cancer. It discovered the possibility to get a bioactive dose of curcumin into human glioblastoma cancer cells via oral delivery methods. Four days before surgical removal of brain tumors, the human volunteers for the study were given 70 milligrams of a curcuminoid combination three times in a day. During the surgery tumor and blood samples were collected for analyzing the curcuminoid concentrations. The tumors were found to have detectable levels of curcuminoids. This made the researchers conclude that oral treatments alter the energy metabolism of tumors. Many other studies also reveal the potent anti-cancer properties of curcumin. However, curcumin extracts are still not being used in cancer therapy. Researchers suggest the pharmaceutical industries to make use of this wonder spice for treating cancer. It can serve as a convenient, natural and safe treatment for the condition.

How To Use Turmeric To Fight Diabetes
Post News, April 2019
Hundreds of studies have been conducted on curcumin (the most important component of turmeric) and its effects on diabetes. The results about using turmeric for diabetes have been extremely encouraging. In this post, we talk about everything you possibly need to know about turmeric and turmeric for diabetes can be helpful. The curcumin in turmeric has been credited with most of its anti-diabetic effects. It was found to lower blood glucose levels and even fight inflammation – which is one severe effect of diabetes. One 2013 study conducted by the Beijing University of Chinese Medicine showed how curcumin could lower the glucose levels and help improve other diabetes-related conditions . Even turmeric extracts (often found in pharmacies) were found to make diabetes more manageable. And they also prevented other diabetes-related complications like nerve damage and cataracts.

Protective effects of amifostine, curcumin, and melatonin against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, April 2019
Amifostine, curcumin, and melatonin reduced the increases in serum urea and serum creatinine levels following cisplatin administration and reduced the levels of TNS, HPS, NF-κB/p65, 8-OHdG, and caspase-3 expressions (p < 0.05). ROS-scavenging antioxidants may be a promising means of preventing acute kidney disease in patients using cisplatin in the treatment of malignant tumors.

Nutrition: Get the protective power of phytonutrients
Duluth News Tribune, April 2019
Curcuminoids are phytonutrients found in turmeric root, which is a spice traditionally used in Indian cuisine. Curcumin offers anti-inflammatory benefits and may help prevent or treat colorectal cancer.

Health Benefits of Turmeric
Akhabar News, April 2019
Turmeric contains curcumin, a substance with powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Most studies used turmeric extracts that are standardized to include large amounts of curcumin. Chronic inflammation contributes to many common Western diseases. Curcumin can suppress many molecules known to play major roles in inflammation. Curcumin has powerful antioxidant effects. It neutralizes free radicals on its own but also stimulates your body’s own antioxidant enzymes. Curcumin boosts levels of the brain hormone BDNF, which increases the growth of new neurons and fights various degenerative processes in your brain. Curcumin leads to several changes on the molecular level that may help prevent and perhaps even treat cancer. Due to its many positive health effects, such as the potential to prevent heart disease, Alzheimer’s and cancer, curcumin may aid longevity.

Herbs & spices with the most powerful health benefits
New Times, April 2019
First and foremost, turmeric is an incredible inflammation fighter. It can even make a significant difference in individuals who suffer from rheumatic pain. This is because of constituent curcumin – its active constituent and yellow bioactive compound, lending turmeric its colour. Curcumin has a wide variety of biological interactions when consumed. Its anti-inflammatory benefits make it a good choice for healing leaky gut, improving digestion, and addressing autoimmune issues with inflammatory side effects. Due to curcumin’s anti-inflammatory properties, it has the ability to slow down inflammation-related ageing processes and diseases. Curcumin is also effective at increasing antioxidant capacity in the body. It’s one of the most concentrated antioxidant foods you can consume! This means an overall reduction of oxidative stress. Finally, curcumin can increase immunity with its antibacterial and anti-viral properties, protect against cancer and the development of tumours, and improve heart health.

Here's How Turmeric Could Help Keep Inflammation At Bay
NDTV, April 2019
"Curcumin has a medicinal effect comparable to drugs, such as hydrocortisone and phenylbutazone, and can be used to provide relief from rheumatoid arthritis, treat inflammatory bowel disease, protect against diabetes, and even avoid heart disease and stroke by preventing the build-up of plaque in the arteries," notes the book 'Healing Foods'.

Super foods every woman should include in her diet
The Hans India, April 2019
Turmeric may be the most effective nutritional supplement in existence. Many high-quality studies show that it has major benefits for your body and brain. Curcumin, a plant nutrient that gives turmeric its deep golden hue, has long been used in Eastern medicine to treat infections and help speed wound healing.

Turmeric: This must-have spice found in your kitchen is full of benefits
Times of India, April 2019
Turmeric comes from the root of Curcuma longa, a plant of the ginger family and contains compounds with medicinal properties. These compounds are called curcuminoids, the most important of which is curcumin. Numerous studies suggest that this spice is beneficial for both body and brain.

Foods to keep your brain, memory sharp
Daily Sabah, April 2019
Turmeric: With its active ingredient curcumin, turmeric is a strong yet natural antioxidant. This plant, which has been used for its medical benefits throughout history, helps your brain receive more oxygen, learn and process information easier.

Effects of turmeric and curcumin on oral mucositis: A systematic review
Phytotherapy Research, April 2019
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of turmeric and curcumin in the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients undergoing chemo and/or radiotherapy. Patients treated with turmeric/curcumin experienced reduced grade of mucositis, pain, erythema intensity, and ulcerative area. Current evidence suggests that topical application of turmeric or curcumin is effective in controlling signs and symptoms of oral mucositis. Thus, further investigation is required to confirm the promising effect of turmeric and curcumin in oral inflammatory lesions.

Effects of Prolonged Dietary Curcumin Exposure on Skeletal Muscle
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, April 2019
Curcumin is a phenolic compound shown to upregulate antioxidant defenses and directly quench RONS in vivo. Consumption of curcumin coupled with reduced food intake imparted beneficial effects on aged skeletal muscle. The benefit of curcumin on aging skeletal muscle should be explored further.

Curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin induce cell death in Ara‐C‐resistant acute myeloid leukemia
Phytotherapy Research, April 2019
The effective use of curcumin as an anticancer agent has been demonstrated in clinical trials. Tetrahydrocurcumin, a major curcumin metabolite, exhibits pharmacological activities similar to those of curcumin. Curcumin induces cell death mainly through the apoptosis pathway, and tetrahydrocurcumin induces cell death mainly via an autophagy pathway in HL60 cells. The results demonstrated that curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin induced cell death by apoptosis and autophagy, respectively, in Ara‐C‐resistant HL60 cells. Thus, curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin have potential applications in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia with Ara‐C resistance.

Curcumin inhibits the proliferation and invasion of MG-63 cells
OncoTargets and Therapy, April 2019
The aims of this study were to determine the effect of curcumin on osteosarcoma (OS) cells due to inactivation of the p-JAK2/p-STAT3 pathway and evaluate the prognostic value of this pathway in OS. Curcumin-mediated inhibition of the proliferation and migration of MG-63 cells was associated with inactivation of JAK/STAT signaling.

Dietary curcumin enhances intestinal antioxidant capacity
Poultry Science, April 2019
The study investigated the effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on tissue distribution of curcumin and its metabolites, intestinal antioxidant capacity, and expression of detoxification-related genes in ducks. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 200 to 800 mg/kg curcumin enhanced the accumulation of curcumin and its metabolites in jejunum as well as increasing the antioxidant capacity and detoxification potential, which play major roles in the protection of duck intestines against damage.

Histopathological and biochemical studies on the effect of curcumin and taurine against bisphenol A toxicity
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, April 2019
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in environmental xenoestrogen. In the present study, olive oil, curcumin, taurine, BPA, curcumin plus BPA, and taurine plus BPA were exposed to rats for 4 weeks via gavage. Content of malondialdehyde and activities of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, GST, SOD, CAT) and also histopathological and cytopathological changes of heart were studied. No significant changes in all studied parameters were seen between control, olive oil, curcumin, and taurine-treated groups. However, there were significant differences in levels of malondialdehyde and activities of antioxidant enzymes in BPA-exposed rats and some histo/cytopathological changes determined. In curcumin plus BPA-exposed and taurine plus BPA-exposed groups, we measured the preventive effects on some parameters but not exactly. As a result, curcumin and taurine significantly minimized BPA-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

Protective Effects of Curcumin Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Nervous System
Molecular Neurobiology, March 2019
Curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric, can affect all these pathways and exert neuroprotective activity culminating in the amelioration of I/R injury in the nervous system. In this review, we discuss the protective effects of curcumin against I/R injury in the nervous system and highlight the studies that have linked biological functions of curcumin and I/R injury improvement.

Top 5 Benefits of Turmeric for your Health
The Frisky, March 2019
Curcumin, a recognized anti-inflammatory, is the main component of turmeric. Curcumin is said to be as effective as drugstore anti-inflammatories like ibuprofen and aspirin. Curcumin present in turmeric boosts the body’s metabolism, reduces stress as an adaptogen, and enhances weight loss. All these factors combined increase the levels of good cholesterol in the body, and decrease the effects of bad cholesterol. It also helps in keeping blood sugar levels in check by stabilizing the glucose levels in the body. Curcumin boosts the production of a protein called BDNF, which is vital to the health of the brain. High BDNF levels generally result in better memory and mood.

Curcumin ameliorated myocardial infarction by inhibition of cardiotoxicity in the rat model
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, March 2019
Curcumin is touted as a polyphenol phytocompound with appropriate cardioprotective properties. Curcumin was found to reduce oxidative status by reducing SOD and MDA contents ( P < 0.05). Gross and microscopic examinations revealed that the decrease of infarct area, inflammation response and collagen deposition in rats given ISO plus curcumin ( P < 0.05). We noted the superior effect of curcumin to reduce the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes after 9 days. Data point the cardioprotective effect of curcumin to diminish the complication of infarction by the reduction of cell necrosis and apoptosis in a rat model of experimental infarction.

How to Stop Suffering from Chemo Brain
Care2, March 2019
The yellow-colored compound found in the curry ingredient turmeric, known as curcumin, offers more than delicious taste. It is a well-established brain-healer and memory booster. In a study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology researchers found that in just one hour after taking curcumin supplements, study participants showed significant performance improvement on memory and attention tasks compared to the placebo group. Ideally choose a standardized extract of curcumin. I usually recommend 400 mg of curcumin three times daily for people suffering from brain disorders.

Curcumin reduces development of seizurelike events
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, March 2019
The percentage of recorded CA1 neurons displaying SLEs was lower in curcumin‐treated slice cultures compared to vehicle‐treated slices (25.8% vs 72.5%), whereas rapamycin did not reduce SLE occurrence significantly (52%). Western blot for phosphorylated‐S6 (pS6) and phosphorylated S6K confirmed that rapamycin inhibited the mTOR pathway, whereas curcumin only lowered pS6 expression at one phosphorylation site. Real‐time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated a trend toward lower expression of inflammatory markers IL‐1β and IL‐6 and transforming growth factor β after 3 weeks of treatment with rapamycin and curcumin compared to vehicle. Our results show that curcumin suppresses SLEs in the combined hippocampal‐entorhinal cortex slice culture model and suggest that its antiepileptogenic effects should be further investigated in experimental models of TLE.

Which herbs help reduce inflammation?
Granite Gazette, March 2019
Turmeric typically comes in the form of a yellow powder from the root of the turmeric plant. It contains a chemical called curcumin, which may have anti-inflammatory properties. Several have shown that turmeric can help reduce inflammation and discomfort in people with . It works by limiting the production of molecules called cytokines, which cause inflammation. Researchers continue to how curcumin affects inflammation in a range of other conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease. Curcumin has the evidence base for its anti-inflammatory effects compared with other herbal remedies.

Effects of curcumin on hypoxia-inducible factor
Pharmacological Research Journal, March 2019
A growing body of evidence indicates that curcumin, a natural bioactive compound of turmeric root, significantly targets both HIF-1 subunits, but is more potent against HIF-1α. In this review, we have summarized the knowledge about the pharmacological effects of curcumin on HIF-1 and the related molecular mechanisms that may be effective candidates for the development of multi-targeted therapy for several human diseases.

Foods to unclog arteries
Femina, March 2019
While the anti-cancer benefits of turmeric have been well-documented, the key ingredient curcumin is also beneficial to heart health. This is primarily because of its anti-inflammatory benefits, which directly impacts arterial health, reducing the damage to arterial walls. Vitamin B6 can control damage caused to blood vessels.

Turmeric: A Secret Weapon to Lose Weight & Keep It Off
Dr. Cesar Lara, March 2019
Curcumin appears to modulate several cellular pathways that contribute to this ongoing, damaging process. Indeed, curcumin's anti-obesity effects may be in part due to its inflammation-reducing properties. One additional relevant mechanism of action not discussed in this study is curcumin's capacity to cause programmed cell death in white fat cells. This may contribute to decreasing the overall ability of the body to store unhealthy fat. Curcumin's Health Benefits Given the research above and the plethora of studies on distinct health conditions, it would be unethical not to use curcumin. Its safety profile is documented, and it has been time-tested for thousands of years in a wide range of cultures. In fact, curcumin has shown to be at least as effective for depression(8) as the antidepressant Prozac and is capable of preventing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes. It is also known to strengthen and improve your digestion(9) and support healthy liver function. Which Type of Curcumin (Turmeric Extract) is Best? When cooking, choose a pure turmeric powder rather than a curry powder. The curry powder may contain very little curcumin when compared to turmeric. You can also take curcumin in supplement form, which is a more convenient method to achieve the dosage needed for the health benefits discussed above.

Protective effects of curcumin on radioiodine‐induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, March 2019
Curcumin and RI + amifostine groups showed evidence of tissue remodeling, with a greater number of salivary epithelial cells (AQP‐5‐positive), SG ductal cells (CK18‐positive), endothelial cells (CD31‐positive), and myoepithelial cells (α‐SMA‐positive). RI + curcumin and RI + amifostine groups alleviated RI‐induced cell death, demonstrating anti‐apoptotic effect, compared to the RI group. Both SOD activity and the protein expression levels of SOD2 were higher in the RI + curcumin and RI + amifostine groups than in the RI group. Our results demonstrate that curcumin ameliorates RI‐induced SG dysfunction in mice.

Top 5 Health Benefits Of Turmeric And Its Compounds You Need To Know
NB Post Gazette, March 2019
Turmeric has anti-inflammatory properties because of the compound Curcumin. Moreover, it helps in cutting out all the bacterial infection that has covered the wound. Curcumin can effectively cure and improve endothelium. Moreover, oxidation and inflammation is a major partner of heart diseases. As mentioned earlier, this spice has compounds which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties.

'Golden Elixir" made from turmeric
Press Republican, March 2019
Turmeric and especially its most active compound curcumin have many scientifically-proven health benefits, such as the potential to prevent heart disease, Alzheimer’s and cancer, according to a July 13, 2018 article on www.healthline.com It’s a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant and may also help improve symptoms of depression and arthritis.

Anti-Inflammatory Herbs
Care2, March 2019
If you’re thinking that turmeric seems to be good for just about everything, you’d be right. That’s because the curry ingredient contains a potent anti-inflammatory known as curcumin. In a study published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry researchers found that curcumin improved the healing of tendonitis, which involves inflammation of the tendons that help maintain our body’s structural integrity.

Advantages of Curcumin
Most Inside, March 2019
Curcumin is a naturally occurring antioxidant abundantly found in the popular spice turmeric that has been used since ages in cooking and Ayurvedic medicines for its incredible health benefits. Turmeric holds a pious place in Ayurvedic medicine and is applied on cuts and burns due to its anti-septic properties. Turmeric milk is extensively consumed in India as turmeric is studied to cure gastrointestinal discomfort, respiratory issues and helps in treating various bodily disorders. The Indian food culture places peculiar importance for spices and it is mainly used for making curry dishes as it renders distinct colour, flavour and nutrition to the food. Being such a valued spice on the health front, people across the world now understand the health benefits of Curcumin. Various medical researchers worldwide have investigated on how consuming turmeric or curcumin supplements can alleviate various health issues.

Know your mesonutrients
Times of India, March 2019
The world has recognised the medicinal use of curcumin and now curcumin milk, also known as turmeric latte, and it is part of café menus internationally. Curcumin is the active ingredient in turmeric, and when you look at all the research, it’s curcumin that delivers the anti-inflammatory and anti-ageing benefits that the super-spice is famed for. So, up your curcumin quotient.

Ayurvedic Herbs May Help Slow Down Ageing
NDTV, March 2019
Turmeric, or haldi, is one kitchen ingredient that is widely used in a number of dishes across the world. Curcumin, an essential compound found in turmeric, is shown to possess powerful anti-ageing effect. According to the book, 'Healing Foods' by DK Publishing House, "Curcumin reduces the build-up of the protein amyloid-b in the brain. Amyloid-b causes oxidative (free radical) damage and inflammation in the brain and is one of the main causes of Alzheimer's disease. Antioxidants in turmeric help to fight this free-radical damage."

Best supplements for arthritis: The Ayurveda plant supplement proven to support joints
Express, March 2019
Curcumin’s effect on reducing inflammation means it can also help protect your joints from wear and tear. “This includes easing symptoms of arthritis like joint movement and stiffness, according to a 2016 study in Journal of Medicinal Food.”

Best supplements for diabetes type 2 to avoid high blood sugar symptoms
Express, March 2019
Turmeric could help to lower your risk of high blood sugar, according to The Diabetes Council. Its active ingredient, curcumin, could help patients to improve their insulin sensitivity, it said. Diabetes patients that take turmeric supplements could significantly lower their blood sugar levels and insulin resistance, it added. “Curcumin is the yellowish/orangish powder which gives turmeric its beautiful colour in curry powder,” said The Diabetes Council. “It is widely used in many regions of the world for its pain-relieving features, improving digestion and liver functions. “A study discovered that curcumin decreases blood [sugar] levels and improved the sensitivity of insulin by reducing serum free fatty acids and increasing fatty acid oxidation.“Supplements containing curcumin significantly decreased fasting blood levels and insulin resistance in type 2 patients. “Use of curcumin also led to a significant decrease in serum, triglyceride fats, and an increase in lipoprotein lipase.”

Crusade against cancer: New treatment and nutrients you can rely on
The Heath Site, March 2019
Turmeric: It is rich in curcumin, a compound that is responsible for its yellow pigment. Being a powerful antioxidant, curcumin can potentially prevent chronic inflammation, responsible for some cancers. Just like ursolic acid, it also inhibits cancer cell growth. Curcumin is helpful in cancers pertaining to breast, ovary, uterus, kidney, bladder, brain, blood, colon and rectum, liver, pancreas, lung, etc. Add curcumin to your meals by sprinkling turmeric in your favourite dishes.

In vitro effect of curcumin on Schistosoma species viability
Experimental Parasitology, March 2019
Curcumin (CUR), the major phenolic compound present in rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), has been traditionally used against various diseases including parasitic infections. CUR was found to affect the antigenicity of surface membrane molecules of S. haematobium, but not S. mansoni. Of importance, CUR significantly (P < 0.05 to < 0.0001) affected S. mansoni eggs hatchability and viability, a ground for its use in chemotherapy of schistosomiasis mansoni and japonicum because of its increased bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract. The data together emphasize that CUR is a promising potential schistosomicidal drug.

20 Health benefits of Turmeric
InfoLoving.com February 2019
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is the root of a plant that belongs to the same family as ginger. It is even less known in western cuisine, except as part of the spice mixture curry. The specific orange-yellow color is what gives curry powder its yellow color. There are 3 different yellow pigments (curcuminoids) in the turmeric root and these are also the substances that give turmeric its beneficial effects. These curcuminoids all work anti-oxidatively, anti-inflammatory, and are toxic to tumor cells. The most bioactive and tested substance of the three is curcumin that also has antiviral and antifungal properties. About 3% (in weight) of the turmeric root is curcumin. Health benefits of Turmeric is unlimited according to its uses. Most studies on the curative effect of turmeric are done with the extracted curcumin and high doses of 500 mg to 4 grams per day. To get that kind of quantities you have to use supplements with curcumin. This is especially true for people who are really sick or suffer from a specific condition.

Curcumin Antidiabetic and Anticancer Potential
Anticancer Research, February 2019
Curcumin and cinnamaldehyde have been previously reported to have antidiabetic and anticancer potentials. Curcumin and cinnamaldehyde decreased the activity of PTP1B, and had inhibitory effects on the viability of MCF-7 cancer cells. Curcumin had a significantly higher inhibitory effect than cinnamaldehyde. Conclusion: Curcumin can be considered a potential agent for the treatment of type-2 diabetes or cancer.

Does turmeric/curcumin supplementation improve nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
Phytotherapy Research, February 2019
We performed a meta‐analysis to evaluate the efficacy of turmeric/curcumin supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to November 20, 2018. Results from pooled analysis revealed that turmeric/curcumin supplementation reduced ALT (MD: −7.31 UL/L, 95% CI [−13.16, −1.47], p = 0.014) and AST (MD: −4.68 UL/L, 95% CI [−8.75 −0.60], p = 0.026). When RCTs stratified on the basis of their treatment duration, the significant reduction in serum concentrations of ALT and AST was observed only in studies lasting less than 12 weeks. This review suggests that turmeric/curcumin might have a favorable effect on serum concentrations of ALT and AST in patients with NAFLD.

Amazing Health Benefits of Curcumin/Turmeric Supplements
JottedLines.com, February 2019
Turmeric is biologically closely related to Ginger and is a very common ingredient in South Asian cuisines. Also called the Golden Spice, this lustrous golden-yellow spice is also treated as a herb whose properties are associated with purity and auspiciousness. One of the important compounds in Turmeric is Curcumin, which is credited for giving the spice its distinct color. Recent research has also revealed a gamut of health benefits that Curcumin offers. We all know that aging and debility are caused in part due to oxidative damage incurred by our cells. Free radicals that are ingested via the food we eat react with proteins, fatty acids & can even damage our DNA. Curcumin capsules essentially negate the action of free radicals on top of augmenting the body’s own antioxidant enzymes. This way, Curcumin/Turmeric deals a double blow to free radicals. Curcumin supplements are found to instigate the production of neurons in adults. Conventional wisdom had it that our brain does not create any more neurons once we are past childhood. But recent theories pertaining to neuroplasticity and neuroadaptibility have shown how our brains have amazing abilities to regenerate and restructure in constructive ways to enhance the survival potential of brain-injured patients. But this process does not happen in a vacuum. Under a regimen of certain nootropics like Curcumin/Turmeric, BDNF levels were observed to increase significantly. BDNF is in essence a growth hormone that acts in the central nervous system. Since BDNF is found to be subdued in people suffering from various psychiatric and neurological disorders, an increase in BDNF is expected to improve these conditions.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the role of curcumin in prostate cancer patients
Prostate, February 2019
The anti-cancer activities of curcumin are well-documented from preclinical studies using prostate cancer models. Our objective was to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of oral curcumin in patients with prostate cancer. The proportion of patients with PSA progression during the active curcumin treatment period (6 months) was significantly lower in the curcumin group than the placebo group (10.3% vs 30.2%, P = 0.0259). PSA elevation was suppressed with curcumin intake during the curcumin administration period. Curcumin at this dose was well tolerated and safe. Turmeric is an excellent aid for digestion because it already contains many of the minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, fiber, and anti-inflammatory compounds you need to "help acid production, muscle movement, and nutrient absorption to keep things moving like they should." The curcumin in turmeric: • helps the muscle walls of the intestines relax • balances gut flora in the colon • increases production of stomach mucous • eliminates cholesterol • prevents gas and bloating during digestion • relieves IBS symptoms. Taking curcumin can actually boost BDNF levels back up over time and even reverse the damage. Higher serotonin and dopamine may also be side effects of taking curcumin. A study actually found that people that took curcumin in addition to Prozac fared better than those just on Prozac or just taking curcumin for depression.

Curcumin: Can it slow cancer growth?
Mayo Clinic, February 2019
Curcumin, a substance found in the spice turmeric, has long been used in Asian medicine to treat a variety of maladies. Now some research suggests that curcumin may help prevent or treat cancer. Curcumin is thought to have antioxidant properties, which means it may decrease swelling and inflammation. It's being explored as a cancer treatment in part because inflammation appears to play a role in cancer. Laboratory and animal research suggests that curcumin may prevent cancer, slow the spread of cancer, make chemotherapy more effective and protect healthy cells from damage by radiation therapy. Curcumin is being studied for use in many types of cancer.

Curcumin a known anti inflammatory and antioxidant agent
International Journal of Molecular Biology: Open Access, February 2019
Curcumin is an active yellow color curcuminoid compound which is a naturally occurring plant pigment that is mostly found in turmeric and is native to Southeast Asia and India.1 It has an earthy odor and somewhat bitter taste and is mostly used in culinary.2 It is reported that pure turmeric residues contains about 3 percent of curcumin by weight.3 However curcumin is also available in the form of turmeric extract supplements which contains higher concentration of curcumin.4 It exhibits strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.5 In addition to that it is an excellent healing agent.6Health benefits of curcuminSome health benefits of curcumin are as follows:Relieves inflammationCurcumin is well known for its anti-inflammatory property that reduces chronic inflammation occurring in a number of medical conditions such as arthritis, bowel disease, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes etc.7 It has the ability to effectively block the function of those enzymes that contributes in inflammatory pathway.8Supports skin healthAntioxidant property of curcuminhelps in neutralizing free radicals that causes cell damage.9 In addition to that it accelerates healing of the wounds and collagen deposition in the skin.10 Curcumin is found to effective in treating psoriasis, dermatitis and scabies.11Lowers high blood sugarDiabetes associated symptoms such as impaired wound healing, increased thirst, vision loss, nerve damage, weight loss etc could be overcome by the use of curcumin which increases insulin secretion to reduce high glucose level in the blood.12,13Treatment of cancersCurcumin has an anti-cancerous effect on the growth of cancerous and tumour cells.14 It inhibits the function of cancer inducing growth factors and enzymes and blocks the signaling pathway hat is involved in the development of cancer in organs like breast, colon, pancreas and lungs.15,16Treatment of mental illnessesCurcumin aids in the treatment of depression and anxiety by reducing its associated symptoms.17 It increase the levels of omega-3 fatty acid that promotes the development of brain.18Prevents blood clottingCurcumin reduces platelet aggregation in the blood by inhibiting the formation of thromboxanes that causes clot formation in conditions like pulmonary embolism, stroke and deep vein thrombosis.19Reduces joint painRelieve rheumatoid arthritis related symptoms like stiffness, pain, swelling etc.20Regulates high cholesterol levelCurcumin boost cardiac health by lowering high cholesterol levels in blood.21Improves detoxificationCurcumin stimulates detoxification in order to protect the liver from diseases, allowing removal of toxins and cancer causing substances from the body.22Enhance brain functionCurcumin maintains cognitive function and prevent the risks of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.23 It elevates the amount of brain derived neuro tropic factors which is involved in enhancing brain function, improving memory and reduces oxidative damage.24,2

Nootropic Supplements to Boost Memory & Brain Function
SD Entertainer, February 2019
Found in turmeric, curcumin has been shown to increase mental focus while reducing brain fog. The curcuminoids found in curcumin are effective at fighting oxidative stress caused by free radicals, boosting neural connections in the process.

Curcumin and Cancer
Cancer Therapy Advisor, February 2019
Curcumin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence — through various mechanisms, across multiple different types of cancer cell lines. Curcumin has been shown to decrease the expression of multiple different enzymes, transcription factors, inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and other cell-signaling components that are important for cancer growth and progression. Curcumin downregulates the expression of the transcription factor NF-κB, which is commonly highly expressed by cancer cells and is known to promote the development of cancer, metastasis, and tumor growth.2 In addition, curcumin arrests the cell cycle at the G1/S or G2/M phases by inhibition of different cyclins. Curcumin also induces apoptosis through caspase-dependent pathways, and decreases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins. Curcumin has been evaluated in animal models of different cancer types.3 These studies have generally shown that curcumin has antiproliferative effects. For example, a mouse model of colorectal cancer (CRC) that was treated by intraperitoneal injection of curcumin or vehicle control demonstrated that curcumin prolonged life and inhibited tumor growth.4 These data also suggest that curcumin upregulated the miRNA miR-130a, which decreased the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and led to prolonged survival. Studies in animal models of breast cancer demonstrated that curcumin also downregulates NF-κB, reduces metastasis, and inhibits angiogenic signaling resulting in decreased microvessel formation.5 Animal studies of pancreatic cancer have also demonstrated that curcumin inhibits tumor growth, suppresses proliferation, and reduces angiogenesis.

A powerful antioxidant: Curcumin protects your heart from damage caused by diabetes and smoking
Plant Medicine, February 2019
To protect your heart from damage caused by diabetes and smoking, take curcumin supplements. A study published in the African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines found that curcumin protects the heart from the combined oxidative stress induced by diabetes and nicotine. In the study, researchers from King Saud University in Saudi Arabia assessed the ability of curcumin to ameliorate the combined oxidative stress induced by diabetes and smoking which can cause diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes and cigarette smoking, which both cause oxidative stress, are primary factors that cause cardiovascular diseases. Curcumin is known to have protective effects against hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. When curcumin was administered, it inhibited the diabetic and nicotine-induced oxidative stress, which was seen by the normalization of the plasma cardiac marker troponin I and CK-MB. Based on these findings, the researchers concluded that curcumin has a protective effect on heart tissues against the combined oxidative stress induced by diabetes and nicotine. Curcumin can also keep the heart healthy and protect it from diseases by improving the function of the endothelium or blood vessel lining. According to Healthline, this improvement in the blood vessel lining can significantly reduce the risk of endothelial dysfunction, which is a primary risk factor of heart disease. It prevents the endothelium from regulating blood pressure and blood clotting properly. Many other studies have confirmed this beneficial effect of curcumin. One study even suggested that curcumin is as effective as exercise in this respect. Another study suggested daily supplementation of curcumin can improve heart health by improving cholesterol levels and reducing inflammation. This, in turn, may prevent the onset of atherosclerosis, which is a disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries.

Spice may protect against breast cancer
MiceTimes, February 2019
Studies have shown that curcumin (the main chemical component of turmeric) has a number of valuable properties. In particular, curcumin can play a supportive role in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease – it starts the process of protein production, which is struggling with brain damage by free radicals. In addition, it was revealed that curcumin can help in the treatment of skin cancer. The study, conducted by researchers from the cancer Center to them. Andersen at Texas a & m University (USA), curcumin was administered in the affected melanoma cell line, stimulated the destruction of malignant cells in tumors. There is also reason to believe that curcumin prevents the development of breast cancer. Expressive about this show in particular, experiments on mice conducted in the same the University of Texas. Now scientists are actively exploring other potential therapeutic properties of curcumin, in particular, for the treatment of multiple myeloma and pancreatic cancer, and the prevention of oral cancer.

Which herbs help reduce inflammation?
Medical News Today, February 2019
Turmeric typically comes in the form of a yellow powder from the root of the turmeric plant. It contains a chemical called curcumin, which may have anti-inflammatory properties. Several studies have shown that turmeric can help reduce inflammation and discomfort in people with arthritis. It works by limiting the production of molecules called cytokines, which cause inflammation. Researchers continue to investigate how curcumin affects inflammation in a range of other conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease. Curcumin has the most substantial evidence base for its anti-inflammatory effects compared with other herbal remedies.

Turmeric helps prevent diabetes
Orissa Post, February 2019
Curcumin which is a component of turmeric helps prevent fatty deposits in blood vessels and development of fat tissues. So, adding turmeric in diet helps one maintain a healthy weight. Turmeric also promotes healthy bones by decreasing loss of bone minerals in the body.

Curcumin shows heart health benefits by ‘multiple mechanisms’
Nutra Ingredients, February 2019
In addition to the total and LDL cholesterol reductions, the researchers noted that HDL cholesterol was unaffected by curcumin addition to the diet. “These results support our hypothesis and indicate that curcumin may prevent the progression of atherosclerosis by reducing lipid accumulation. It appears that curcumin may prevent the progression of atherosclerosis by reducing lipid accumulation on the aortic endothelium.

Can curcumin improve exercise performance in those with heart failure?
Medical News Bulletin, February 2019
Curcumin administration restored muscle force and prevented rapid fatigue. Finally, the authors demonstrated that the positive effects of curcumin on CHF mice were attributed to improved Nrf2 signaling and not due to improved cardiac function. In conclusion, the data reaffirmed the authors’ hypothesis that impaired Nrf2 signaling in skeletal muscle of CHF mice contributes to exercise intolerance. More specifically, impaired Nrf2 signaling prevents the skeletal muscle from defending itself against CHF-associated oxidative stress, which likely affects skeletal muscle performance and reduces exercise capacity. These findings were further strengthened by the notion that curcumin, a Nrf2 signaling promoter, improved exercise capacity in mice with chronic failure without noticeable improvements in heart function and blood flow. Collectively, the authors found that targeting the Nrf2 signaling pathway may improve exercise capacity and overall quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure.

Can ginger, turmeric and lemon juice reduce blood sugar?
Legit.ng February 2019
The component of the popular curry spice, turmeric, also can help to lower the high index to normal blood sugar level. Curcumin, polyphenol and antioxidants play a vital role in this process. They reduce the amount of glucose in blood by slowing down its formation the liver.

Diabetes mellitus: Blood sugar-lowering ginger + other root vegetables for type 2 diabetes
The Health Site, February 2019
Turmeric root: Curcumin, found in turmeric exerts helps moderate insulin levels and enhance the efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs. Antioxidant-rich turmeric fights free radicals and reduces insulin resistance in the body. A study conducted by Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center revealed that curcumin present in turmeric prevents protein glycosylation (where the protein molecule is altered) and lipid peroxidation (oxidative degradation of lipids), thereby increasing the person’s sensitivity to lower blood sugar levels.

Three lesser known facts of turmeric
Baltimore Post Examiner, February 2019
Turmeric is an anti-inflammatory- The active ingredient in turmeric is something call curcumin, which is known for fighting inflammation and being full of antioxidants. The curcumin in turmeric fights inflammation at the molecular level, blocking a molecule called NF-kB, which is linked to many different inflammatory diseases like arthritis and IBD. 2. It helps with depression - Taking curcumin can actually boost BDNF levels back up over time and even reverse the damage. Higher serotonin and dopamine may also be side effects of taking curcumin. 3. Turmeric helps with digestion - Turmeric is an excellent aid for digestion because it already contains many of the minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, fiber, and anti-inflammatory compounds you need to "help acid production. The curcumin in turmeric has many benefits which includes the muscle walls of the intestines relax, balances gut flora in the colon increases production of stomach mucous, eliminates cholesterol, prevents gas and bloating during digestion and relieves IBS symptoms.

Foods that can boost your brain power
Savannah Now, February 2019
This spice, commonly found in Indian food, turns out to have an almost endless list of health benefits. It has been tied to improving gastrointestinal issues, and reducing the chances of getting heart disease, cancer and Alzheimer’s. Turmeric has also been found to reduce inflammation, primarily due to a compound in it called curcumin. Diseases like depression and Alzheimer’s have been linked to lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a type of growth hormone that helps with the formation of new neural connections in the brain. Turns out curcumin has been found to increase brain levels of BDNF. So by adding turmeric to soups and other dishes, you’ll be delaying or even reversing the effects of declining brain function.

Inhibition mechanism of cathepsin B by curcumin molecule: a DFT study
Theoretical Chemistry, February 2019
One of the natural compounds named curcumin has a well-documented history of medicine in India, which is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. However, the inhibition mechanism of the curcumin molecule is not yet clear. In this present study, the inhibition of cathepsin B by the curcumin has been studied by quantum chemical methods using DFT method at M062X/6-31 + g(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31g(d) level of theory to obtain a complete picture of possible reaction paths. Based on the obtained results, the Cys29 can undergo nucleophilic attack at any one of the four reactive sites of the curcumin. The low activation energy 1.43 kcal/mol along with low negative reaction energy − 6.82 kcal/mol suggests that attack of Cys29 at C63 atom is the most feasible reaction path. These results suggest that curcumin can be used to develop less toxic cathepsin B inhibitors for the treatment of cancer disease.

Science confirms turmeric as effective as 14 drugs
Health Nut News, February 2019
If ever there were an herb that puts existential fear into the bottom line of pharmaceutical companies, its turmeric.

Are mesonutrients the new macronutrients?
Femina, February 2019
Mesonutrients are the active compounds that are present in each food, which are responsible for good health. Typically found in foods that are classified as superfoods, it is not just important to eat these foods – it is important to eat them the right way, so as to obtain the maximum benefits of the mesonutrients. One of the key mesonutrients is a staple in the Indian kitchen – turmeric. It has over 200 active compounds, and the key compound to watch out for is curcumin, which has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory benefits.

The Unsung Benefits of Turmeric... and Why You Should Use It
Women.com, February 2019
The active ingredient in turmeric is something call curcumin, which is known for fighting inflammation and being full of antioxidants. The curcumin in turmeric fights inflammation at the molecular level, blocking a molecule called NF-kB, which is linked to many different inflammatory diseases like arthritis and IBD. Studies have found turmeric to be just as effective as medication but without the side effects that many anti-inflammatory medications have. In fact, one study found of rheumatoid arthritis found 500 mg a day of curcumin was more beneficial than diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory drug.

Impact of curcumin on energy metabolism in HIV infection: A case study.
Phytother Res, February 2019
Curcumin is a natural bioactive compound, which interacts with molecular targets and holds important metabolic properties. Oral curcumin supplementation can positively modulate the energy metabolism of people living with HIV/AIDS using the ART.

Efficacy of curcumin for management of oral submucous fibrosis: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials
Science Direct, February 2019
Six clinical trials comprising 298 patients were included. All studies found curcumin to be effective in the management of OSF. Three studies found significantly higher improvement in burning sensation in the curcumin group compared to controls, whereas three studies found comparable results. With regards to clinical signs, two studies showed better improvement in mouth opening in the curcumin group; three studies reported no differences in effectiveness; and only one study found curcumin to be inferior to conventional therapy. The available evidence remains inconclusive but suggests that curcumin is a promising effective treatment option for the management of patients with OSF. Further well-designed clinical trials with large sample sizes and adequate follow-up periods are highly warranted.

Curcumin improves the effect of a reduced insulin dose on glycemic control and oxidative stress in streptozotocin‐diabetic rats
Phytotherapy Research, February 2019
Isolated treatments using curcumin or insulin in a reduced dose (1 U/day) decreased glycemia, dyslipidemia, and biomarkers of liver and kidney damage and increased the activity of hepatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase), however, only to a lesser extent than 4‐U/day insulin, without improvements in catalase activity or plasma lipid peroxidation. Decreases in glycemia, dyslipidemia, and tissue damage markers were more evident in the curcumin + 1‐U/day insulin treatment than those seen in isolated treatments. The activity of hepatic antioxidants, including catalase, was further increased, and biomarkers of oxidative damage were decreased. Curcumin with a reduced insulin dose appears to be a promising strategy for combating the complications associated with diabetes and oxidative stress.

Curcumin Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell-Induced Hepatocarcinoma Angiogenesis
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, February 2019
Curcumin could significantly suppress the HSC-induced effects in HCC and could abrogate ROS and HIF-1α expression in HCC. HIF-1α or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) knockdown could abolish the aforementioned curcumin affection. Moreover, CTGF is a downstream gene of HIF-1α. In addition, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and glutathione (GSH) are involved in curcumin protection of HCC. These data indicate that curcumin may induce ROS scavenging by upregulating Nrf2 and GSH, thus inhibiting HIF-1α stabilization to suppress CTGF expression to exhibit its protection on HCC. Curcumin has a promising therapeutic effect on HCC. CTGF is responsible for curcumin-induced protection in HCC.

Curcumin ameliorates glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate deposition and renal injuries in mice
Sciene Direct, February 2019
Curcumin, the predominant active component of turmeric, has been shown to have pleiotropic biological and pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects. Curcumin could significantly alleviate CaOx crystal deposition in the mouse kidney and the concurrent renal tissue injury. The underlying mechanism involved the combination of antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, inhibiting autophagy, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic activity and the ability to decrease expression of OPN and CD44 through the Nrf2 signaling pathway. The pleiotropic antilithic properties, combined with the minimal side effects, make curcumin a good potential choice to prevent and treat new or recurrent nephrolithiasis.

Curcumin supplementation reduces insulin resistance and blood lipids in individuals with high risk of type 2 diabetes
Lipids in Health and Disease, February 2019
nsulin sensitivity was significantly improved in the CC supplemented group (32.7 ± 10.3%) compared to PL (P = 0.009). FO and CC-Curcumin tended to improve insulin sensitivity by 14.6 ± 8.5% and 8.8 ± 7.7% respectively, but the difference did not reach significance. Triglyceride levels were further increased in the PL (26.9 ± 7.4%), however, CC and CC-Curcumin supplementation reduced the triglycerides, Curcumin resulted in the greatest reduction in triglycerides (− 16.4 ± 4.5%, P < 0.001). Conclusion Reduction in insulin resistance and triglycerides by curcumin and LCn-3PUFA appears to be attractive strategies for lowering the risk of developing T2D

Curcumin attenuates adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinase expression in hypercholesterolemic rabbits
Science Direct, February 2019
Curcumin, the yellow substance found in turmeric, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anticancer, and lipid-lowering properties. Curcumin reduced the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum by 30.7%, 41.3%, 30.4%, and 66.9% (all P < .05), respectively, but did not affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, curcumin attenuated HCD-induced CD36 expression, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and soluble adhesive molecule levels. Curcumin reduced the mRNA and protein expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and it inhibited HCD-induced up-regulation of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Our results demonstrate that curcumin exerts an antiatherosclerotic effect, which is mediated by multiple mechanisms that include lowering serum lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thus modulating the proinflammatory cytokine levels and altering adhesion molecules and MMP gene expression.

4 Health Benefits Of Turmeric
Medical Daily, January 2019
"Turmeric has natural anti-inflammatory compounds called curcuminoids, and these curcuminoids have been associated with a positive effect on various diseases," said Anya Guy, a Mayo Clinic dietitian. Inflammation, as you may know, it the cause of several long-term health conditions. As a result, many studies have examined the potential of turmeric to ward off heart disease or reduce the risk of certain cancers. It is said that curcumin can help in reducing inflammation in pancreatic, fat and muscle cells. While most research on the link has involved rats, there was a clinical study in 2015 which saw 44 human participants experiencing a healthy weight loss over the course of two months. In a review published in 2016, participants from many trials reported that their osteoarthritis-related pain had reduced after taking curcumin. "Its efficacy in reducing pain, physical function, and quality of life among osteoarthritic patients has been demonstrated in many clinical trials," the authors wrote.

Effects of oral curcumin ingested before or after eccentric exercise on markers of muscle damage and inflammation.
Scand J Med Sci Sports, January 2019
We examined the effect of curcumin (CUR) ingestion before or after exercise on changes in muscle damage and inflammatory responses after exercise. Increases in IL-8 were significantly reduced 12 h after exercise when curcumin was ingested before exercise. In Exp. 2, compared to the PLA subjects, MVC torque and ROM were higher 3-7 days and 2-7 days after exercise (P<0.05), respectively, whereas muscle soreness and CK activity were lower 3-6 days and 5-7 days after exercise (P<0.05), respectively, in curcumin subjects. Curcumin ingestion before exercise could attenuate acute inflammation, and after exercise could attenuate muscle damage and facilitate faster recovery.

6 Things That Happen To Your Body When You Eat Turmeric Every Day
Healthy Food House, January 2019
Turmeric is a potent anti-inflammatory, due to the presence of numerous anti-inflammatory compounds, such as curcumin, one of its most abundant compounds. After reviewing more than 700 studies, Dr. James Duke, a well-respected ethnobotanist, found that turmeric effectively outperformed many pharmaceutical drugs prescribed for various chronic, debilitative conditions, without causing any significant side effects. Curcumin eliminates plaque buildup in the arteries, and thus lowers the risk of atherosclerosis, which can cause a heart attack or stroke. It also lowers bad cholesterol known as LDL and prevents the formation of blood clots. Researchers have shown that curcumin triggers the production of bile in the gallbladder, and turmeric acts as a potential safeguard against remission in the case of ulcerative colitis. Turmeric has excellent anti-inflammatory properties, and rheumatoid arthritis patients who supplemented curcumin into their diets found that it led to a “reduction in tenderness” and a reduction in “disease activity”. Curcumin improves our ability to learn and process in different environments and prevents the development of neurodegenerative conditions, such as – dementia disorders and Alzheimer’s. Scientists have even proven that turmeric may aid in neuroplasticity, which is the development of new brain connections. According to Dr.Mercola: Curcumin is capable of crossing your blood-brain barrier, which is one factor that has led researchers to investigate its potential as a neuroprotective agent for neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin suggest it may also promote brain health in general. In the case of Alzheimer’s, recent animal research14 has discovered another bioactive ingredient in turmeric, besides curcumin, that adds to its neuroprotective effects. According to researchers at the American Cancer Society, curcumin“ interferes with several important molecular pathways involved in cancer development, growth, and spread.” Moreover, the US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health published a study which showed that curcumin has potent cancer-fighting properties: “The activity of curcumin reported against leukemia and lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, genitourinary cancers, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, melanoma, neurological cancers, and sarcoma reflects its ability to affect multiple targets. Thus, an “old-age” disease such as cancer requires an “age-old” treatment.” “As noted by Dr. William LaValley—one of the leading natural medicine cancer physicians whom I’ve previously interviewed on this topic—curcumin is unique in that it appears to be universally useful for just about every type of cancer. This is odd, considering the fact that cancer consists of a wide variety of different molecular pathologies. One reason for this universal anti-cancer proclivity is curcumin’s ability to affect multiple molecular targets, via multiple pathways. Once it gets into a cell, it affects more than 100 different molecular pathways. And, as explained by Dr. LaValley, whether the curcumin molecule causes an increase in activity of a particular molecular target, or decrease/inhibition of activity, studies repeatedly show that the end result is a potent anti-cancer activity.”

How to live longer
Express, January 2019
Turmeric is packed with curcumin, which helps relieve long-term inflammation. Several studies have shown signs of inflammation are reduced in people who have taken capsules containing curcumin. Long-term inflammation can lead to health problems like inflammatory bowel disease, some cancers, dementia and arthritis. Turmeric may also help brain health, as curcumin may prevent amyloid-beta plaques forming in the brain - one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease - and may also help break them down. In addition, some lab-based studies have suggested curcumin may be able to kill cancer cells, particularly in the breast, bowel, stomach and skin, and prevent them from growing.

11 Health Benefits of Turmeric and Curcumin
HealthSky, January 2019
Research shows that curcumin binds to toxic metals and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. Curcumin is also a strong antioxidant that captures and neutralizes free radicals (that are pathogenic particles). This brings all kinds of health benefits. Research shows that the curcumin in turmeric has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect. In some cases, it works better than an anti-inflammatory drug. The antioxidant effect of curcumin is very strong: animal research even shows that the antioxidant curcumin has a detoxifying effect in mercury poisoning. There are strong indications that the substance curcumin in yellow root has an inhibitory effect on the development of cancer cells. For example, research in rats has shown that curcumin can partially neutralize damage to cells in the liver, kidneys and brain, and thus prevent cancer in these organs. Research in humans shows that a curcumin supplement fights the pain better than the drug diclofenac. This is very beneficial, because the pain-relieving medication can cause serious side effects, while the natural substance curcumin does not damage the body. Alzheimer’s is caused by the fact that certain proteins (such as tau protein) clump in the brain, causing brain cells to die off. Studies in rats show that curcumin can prevent tau protein from coagulating. This keeps the brain healthy. Curcumin plays a major role in preventing and curing stomach ulcers, and supports a poorly functioning liver. Animal research shows that curcumin can reduce the risk of liver damage. Rats that were also given curcumin in their diet were less likely to suffer from liver disease than rats who did not. Research in rats shows that curcumin stimulates spatial memory. The rats given curcumin were significantly better at solving spatial puzzles than the rats that did not. In a study with 121 people undergoing cardiac surgery, participants were given 4 grams of curcumin or placebo, a few days before they were operated. The participants who received curcumin were 65% less likely to have a heart attack in the hospital. A recent article from 2017 looked at all the research done on turmeric and depression. This meta-analysis shows that the substance curcumin is indeed a safe and effective natural means to reduce depressive feelings. Curcumin can reduce the symptoms of depression, both on its own and in combination with other herbs. A very interesting outcome is that curcumin can strengthen the effect of antidepressants: the drugs for depression work better if curcumin is taken as a supplement. Turmeric capsules also contain much more of the active ingredient curcumin than the spice turmeric itself. In curcuma is about 3% curcumin, while that in turmeric capsules is 95%.

Curcumin attenuates collagen-induced inflammatory response through the "gut-brain axis"
J Neuroinflammation, January 2019
Previous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of curcumin exhibited an anti-arthritic effect despite its poor bioavailability. The present study aimed to explore whether the gut-brain axis is involved in the therapeutic effect of curcumin. Oral administration of curcumin restored the imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tones in CIA rats and increased ChAT activity and expression of ChAT and VAChT in the gut, brain, and synovium. Additionally, VGX eliminated the effects of curcumin on arthritis and ACh biosynthesis and transport. Electrophysiological data showed that curcumin markedly increased neuronal excitability of the vagus nerve. Furthermore, selective α7 nAChR antagonists abolished the effects of curcumin on CIA. Our results demonstrate that curcumin attenuates CIA through the "gut-brain axis" by modulating the function of the cholinergic system. These findings provide a novel approach for mechanistic studies of anti-arthritic compounds with low oral absorption and bioavailability.

This Is How Much Turmeric You Need to Reduce Inflammation
Readers Digest, January 2019
Curcumin—the main active component which gives turmeric its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties—only makes up 3 percent of dry turmeric, according to Ali Webster PhD, RD, Associate Director of Nutrition Communications, International Food Information Council Foundation. “Turmeric extracts or isolated curcumin found in dietary supplements are much higher in curcumin, so they’re more likely to have an impact on inflammation than the dried spice,” she says. So a dash of turmeric in the occasional recipe may not have lasting anti-inflammatory effects—unless a person consumes turmeric or curcumin supplements on a regular basis, too. Here are 10 proven ways to fight inflammation. Most research says that taking in at least one gram of curcumin per day is necessary for measurable anti-inflammatory effects, Webster says

Turmeric benefits: Use this yellow-colored powder for easing arthritis pain
The Heath Site, January 2019
Many studies have vouched that a key compound in turmeric known as ‘curcumin’ fight against inflammation and it is helpful in treating joint disorders like arthritis. It has the ability to improve joint health and reduce arthritis pain as well.

Curcumin attenuates hyperglycemia-driven EGF-induced invasive and migratory abilities of pancreatic cancer
Oncology Report, January 2019
Effects of high glucose were counter-balanced by curcumin. EGF-induced proliferative, invasive and migratory abilities of BxPC-3 cells were abrogated by curcumin, LY 294002 and PD 98059. In addition, EGF-modulated activation of EGFR, ERK and Akt, as well as the expression of uPA and E-cadherin were inhibited by curcumin. Taken together, the present study indicates that curcumin suppresses hyperglycemia-driven EGF-induced invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells by inhibiting the EGF/EGFR signaling pathway and its downstream signaling molecules including ERK and Akt. Curcumin is a potential anticancer agent for pancreatic cancer.

A Computational Study of the Driving Forces and Dynamics of Curcumin Binding to Amyloid-β Protofibrils
Journal of Physical Chemistry, January 2019
We have recently shown that curcumin exerts a neuroprotective effect against Aβ40 induced toxicity on cultured neuronal cells through two possible concerted pathways – ameliorating Aβ oligomer-induced toxicity and inducing the formation of nontoxic Aβ oligomers, both of which involve curcumin binding to Aβ oligomers. Our results show that curcumin binds to specific hydrophobic sites on the protofibril surface and that binding is generally associated with the concomitant complexation of curcumin into dimers, trimers, or tetramers. Curcumin also binds to the protofibril growth axis ends, but without complexation. Analysis of the energetics of the binding process revealed that curcumin complexation contributes in an additive fashion to curcumin - Aβ protofibril interactions. Favorable curcumin-protofibril binding is driven by a combination of hydrophobic interactions between curcumin and protofibril, curcumin self-aggregation, and solvation effects.

Benefits of Turmeric Curcumin for Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor
Care 2, January 2019
Curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric thought to be responsible in part for the spice’s anti-inflammatory effects. Eighteen patients were given curcumin alone, and every one improved, showing “efficacy…comparable to corticosteroid therapy,” but without any side effects. A larger, follow-up study was similarly encouraging. A total of 106 patients who had had a uveitis relapse in the year before starting curcumin were followed for a year. As you can see at 1:10 in my video in my video, only 19 had relapses in the year after starting curcumin. Altogether, the 106 patients had had multiple relapses—a total of 275 times—in the year before starting curcumin, but, in the year on curcumin, they had only 36 relapses. If turmeric curcumin works for mild eye inflammation and serious eye inflammation, what about really serious eye inflammation, like idiopathic inflammatory orbital pseudotumours. Let’s break that down: “Idiopathic” means doctors have no idea what causes it—from the Greek idios, as in idiot. “Orbital” refers to the bony cavity that houses our eyeball, and “pseudotumor,” as in not really a tumor. A lot has changed since the study was published in 2000. “[I]nflammatory orbital pseudotumour is now generally attributed to low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” so it does appear to be a form of cancer. Well, what can curcumin do about it? The researchers decided to look at curcumin because the available treatments are so toxic—steroids, radiation, and chemotherapy. In fact, all of the patients in the study were initially put on steroids but had to stop them because they either did not work or they had to be withdrawn because of complications. The researchers didn’t want to use radiation because they didn’t want to blind anyone. But they had to do something. All of the patients had so much swelling that they couldn’t move their eye as they normally would. If only there were some cheap, simple, and safe solution. Four out of the five patients who completed the study with curcumin therapy had a full response, defined as complete recovery with no residual signs or symptoms. In fact, complete regression of the eye dislocation and swelling occurred in all five out of five patients, but one patient continued to suffer some residual effects.

Curcumin ameliorates monosodium urate-induced gouty arthritis through Nod-like receptor 3 inflammasome mediation via inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B signaling.
Journal of Cellular Biochemisty, January 2019
Curcumin is an active ingredient possessing anti-inflammatory efficacy. Curcumin regulated the production of cytokines by suppressing the expression of inflammasome key components, including NLRP3, caspase-1. Further studies showed that the suppressive efficacy of curcumin on inflammasome was mediated by inhibiting MSU-induced NF-κB signaling activation. Intraperitoneal administration of curcumin could ameliorate symptoms of MSU-induced gouty arthritis, including the joint circumference, infiltration of neutrophils in knee joints, and production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and elastase. Western blot analysis revealed that the levels of NLRP3, procaspase-1, caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, and IL-1β were downregulated by curcumin in vivo. These results indicated that curcumin could effectively ameliorate MSU crystal-induced gouty arthritis through NLRP3 inflammasome mediation via inhibiting NF-κB signaling both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a promising active ingredient for the prevention and treatment of gouty arthritis.

Impact of dietary supplements, diet on metabolic health explored in review
Nutritional Outlook, January 2019
Previous research indicates that curcumin (Curcuma longa), resveratrol, and quercetin, one of major flavonoids found in many plants, may exert a beneficial effect on the above metabolic parameters. Curcumin, specifically, has a polyphenolic structure with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, according to a number of the studies analyzed. Inflammation and oxidative stress are key contributors to metabolic syndrome and NAFLD.

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Turmeric-Curcumin.com is our company and website, dedicated for over twenty years to researching, manufacturing, and distributing the highest quality curcumin 95% extract, the best customer service, the lowest prices in the industry, and none of the marketing hype. Unlike stores with 500 products, or even 5 products, since 2000 we have been focused on both wholesaling and retailing the single most powerful and important compound in botanical medicine; curcumin, concentrated and standardized to 95% purified extract. This extraordinary spice extract has generated such interest that universities and medical centers around the world are continually conducting research studies and discovering new benefits, with multiple ongoing human clinical trials. Due to it's potent antioxidant power, curcumin has been recognized as one of the most promising food-derived compounds in fighting a variety of degenerative diseases. The scientific evidence is  overwhelming, demonstrating the many health benefits via in vitro, in vivo and human clinical studies of curcumin 95%, the very same product we supply. There are no added chemicals, treatments, patented "formulas / complexes" or supposed "enhancing" material to fill the capsule and lower the curcumin percentage.  You will receive a 100% additive free product: no starch, no sugars or sweeteners, no artificial colors or flavors, no sodium, no soy, no yeast, no wheat, no corn, no rice or other grains, no gluten, no dairy, no preservatives, no GMO, no dyes, no gums, and no black pepper extract, piperine, or "bioperine" which is actually a trademark of the Sabinsa corporation. For any questions or comments, please email support@turmeric-curcumin.com (or call / text and leave a message with your email) and we will respond as quickly as possible.

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