The most powerful compound in botanical medicine,
the worlds most important herbal extract.


  What is Turmeric and Curcumin?
Turmeric is a member of the Curcuma botanical group, which is part of the ginger family of herbs, the Zingiberaceae. The root and rhizome stem of the Curcuma longa plant is crushed and powdered into ground Turmeric spice. Ground Turmeric is used worldwide as a seasoning and is the source of extracted Curcumin.
curcumin turmeric

curcumin turmeric
Curcumin is a natural component of the rhizome of Turmeric and one of the most studied phytochemicals in science. Turmeric contains approximately 3% Curcumin, which is extracted until it is 95% pure to be researched or supplemented.


  What are the researched properties of Curcumin? 

"As of January 2015, there are nearly 5,000 studies and articles on curcumin or turmeric listed in the National Institutes of Health PubMed database, which is considered one of the top directories for medical research." - Fox News, 2015

"Curcumin alone has been subject to more than 1,000 studies in 2014." - Natural Products Insider, December 2014

"Curcumin is the most widely-studied plant-derived medicinal chemical in modern science. Based on a statistical analysis of over three million published scientific studies, Curcumin is the most frequently mentioned phytonutrient." -, 2013

"More than 6000 articles published within the past two decades have discussed the molecular basis for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer activities assigned to this nutraceutical. Over one hundred clinical trials conducted on this molecules, have shed light on the role of curcumin in various chronic conditions, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, neurological, and psychological diseases, as well as diabetes and cancer." - Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, December 2014

"Curcumin has been associated with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and antibacterial activities as indicated by over 6,000 citations. In addition, over one hundred clinical studies have been carried out with curcumin...Extensive research over the past 30 years has shown that it plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of various pro-inflammatory chronic diseases including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and malignant diseases." - Cancer Research and Treatment, 2014

"The list of Curcumin's effects goes on and on, and they're all in your addition to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, Curcumin has several effects that may work in tandem to protect the brain from plaques in other ways. "If Curcumin had a single molecular target, it probably would not be as good a drug," M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. "But because it has multiple targets, it's very attractive." - Science News Magazine

  Where can I purchase Curcumin?
Order direct from, the largest supplier of Curcumin supplements at wholesale prices to the general public, research institutions, physicians, and university medical centers for over fourteen years. Quality control tests, laboratory analysis certification, and rigorous cGMP manufacturing standards all ensure freshness, potency, and purity of content material. Orders are shipped FedEx or USPS Priority for fast and secure delivery. Contact for bulk ordering, private labeling or any other questions. Multiple bottle orders will receive quantity discounts listed below, 12-bottle case purchases will also receive free US shipping.

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  500 mG OF Curcumin 95% extract per capsule.

Health-conscious consumers should be careful in selecting a Curcumin extract product, specifically knowing the difference between Curcumin and Turmeric. Consumers may be misled by deceptive labels, believing there is much more true Curcumin extract in a product than there really is. Some examples of these misleading claims make it difficult to tell how much active Curcumin extract is actually included, because they are substituting Turmeric spice powder, which averages only 3% Curcumin by weight. - 55(2):126-31. Some examples of these deceptions are:

"Doctors Turmeric Curcumin" on the front of the label, but checking the ingredient finds that each capsule is 100% Turmeric (curcuma longa), a common and inexpensive spice found in supermarkets and grocery stores.

"500 mg Enhanced Formula" but only contains 200 mg Curcumin extract, and the remainder is 300 mg Turmeric spice.

"1000 mg Super Complex Curcumin (25%)" which is actually only 250 mg of Curcumin extract and the remaining 750 mg is Turmeric spice.

"1000 mg per serving" but one serving size is 4 capsules, 250 mg each.

These deceptions are not uncommon in the supplement industry, even by the largest vitamin shops. The solution is to compare. Our label clearly indicates the contents (Curcumin extracted from Turmeric root), the purity concentration (95%) and the amount (500mg) for each capsule, not per serving. Our product contains 500 milligrams per capsule of 95% standardized Curcumin extract. Our extract is standardized to contain a minimum of 95% Curcuminoids: Curcumin (C), Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) - the complete range in their natural composition ratio of 76:19:5. Thus, in our product the full spectrum of Curcumin antioxidant Curcuminoids are extracted from Turmeric (Curcuma longa root) and represented in their natural arrangement for maximum potency. This is the same material used in clinical trials and medical studies, free of added chemicals, 'enhancements', or treatments. Unlike many antioxidants, Curcumin is capable of both preventing free radical formation, as well as neutralizing existing free radicals, and is considered an effective bioprotectant due to this dual activity. We supply the purest Curcumin available, standardized to minimum 95% extract.There is no claimed "enhancing" material to fill the capsule up and lower the Curcumin percentage. Our product contains no sugars or other sweeteners, no artificial colors or flavors, no starch, no sodium, no soy, no yeast, no wheat, no gluten, no dairy, no preservatives, no black pepper extract or "bioperine" (actually a trademark of Piper nigrum by the Sabinsa corporation), no GMO, no dyes, no gums.


  200 capsules per bottle.

For the environment as well as your finances, we don't require purchasing two or three bottles to obtain 200 capsules. Each bottle contains the full 200 capsules, with every 12-bottle case totaling over two and a half pounds of pure Curcumin extract. The suggested serving size is one (1) to four (4) capsules with each meal, preferably with beneficial oils and fats, potentially offsetting the inflammatory response process that occurs during ingestion and digestion.

  Are there any side effects or interactions related to Curcumin or Turmeric?

Turmeric has been used in large quantities as a condiment for thousands of years with no adverse reactions. The US FDA classifies Turmeric as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe). Pregnant women, individuals with gallstones or using blood thinners should consult a health care provider before using herbs or dietary supplements in amounts greater than usually found in foods.

"Curcumin is not toxic to humans up to 8,000 mg/day."- Phase I Clinical Trial of Curcumin, 21(4B):2895-900. 

"Patients received 8 g curcumin by mouth daily...No toxicities were observed." -  Phase II ClinicalTrial of Curcumin, Clin Cancer Res. 14(14):4491-9.

"Curcumin, even in large quantities, does not produce any known side effects in humans." - Blood.101(3):1053-62.


  Has the absorption of ORAL Curcumin 95% DELIVERY been studied?

In most studies Curcumin 95% has been delivered orally whether the subject is human or animals. This orally delivered Curcumin 95% extract showed several biological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer beneficial effects in several types of cancer in patients.

"Orally administered curcumin inhibited inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase in mice indicating its anti-inflammatory activity and further suppressing dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon carcinogenesis." - Biofactors. 2013

"Clinical trials have shown that orally delivered curcumin inhibited inflammatory molecules." - AAPS Journal. 2013

  Has the bioavailability of Curcumin 95% EXTRACT been studied?
"In a human clinical trial, 3.6 g of Curcumin via oral route was found to produce a plasma curcumin level of 11.1 nmol/L after an hour of dosing." - Clin Cancer Res. 2004

"The average peak serum concentrations after taking 4,000 mg, 6,000 mg and 8,000 mg of curcumin were 0.51 microM, 0.63 microM and 1.77 microM, respectively." - Phase I Clinical Trial of Curcumin, . 2001

"Traces of curcumin were detected in the plasma. Its concentration in the small intestinal mucosa, between 39 and 240 nmol/g of tissue, reflects differences in dietary concentration...The comparison of dose, resulting curcumin levels in the intestinal tract, and chemopreventive potency suggests tentatively that a daily dose of 1.6 g of curcumin is required for efficacy in humans." - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002


  What are the studied pharmacological actions of Curcumin?

Cancer (46), Ovarian cancer (42), pituitary (41), Tumor (40), Cirrhosis (39), radiation (38), blood (38), Inflammatory (37), colon cancer (37), prostate (37), Cytotoxicity (36), Melanoma (36), Hypothyroid (36), prostate cancer (36), Colitis (36), Anti-Inflammatory (35), Chemopreventive (34), breast cancer (34), Seizures (34), HPV (34), Antiviral (34), Granuloma (34), Pulmonary fibrosis (33), Leukemia (33), Osteosarcoma (33), Apoptotic (33), diabetes (34), Allergy (33), endometriosis (33), skin (33), Antioxidants (33), Squamous cell carcinoma (33), Liver damage (32), Colorectal cancer (32), chemotherapy (32), lymphoma (32), neurons (32), Neuroprotective (32), Anti-Apoptotic (32), Antimicrobial (32), Oxidant (32), Neurogenesis (32), Gastric cancer (32), Schistosomiasis (31), Neuroblastoma (31), Sepsis (31), Death (31), Emphysema (31), alzheimer's (31), Proteasome Inhibitors (31), Hepatoma (31), cartilage (31), Cytotoxic (31), Antifungal (33), spinal cord (31), Pancreatitis (30), Anti-Tumor (30), Antiproliferative (30), Tumorigenic (30), arthritis (30), dementia (30), Periodontal disease (30), Cardiovascular (30), Contraceptive (30), Insulin Resistance (30), Radiosensitizer (30), Multiple myeloma (30), Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors (30). Helicobacter pylori infection (30), Myeloma (30), Cervical tumor (30), Diabetic nephropathy (29), Herpes simplex (29), Dopaminergic (29), Telomerase Inhibition (29), Cell cycle arrest (29), Serotonergic (29), pain (29), Immunomodulatory (29), Genotoxic (29), flu (29), Bladder tumor (29), Proliferative (29), Carcinogenic (29), Caspase-3 Activation (29), hepatic injury (29), Chemotherapeutic (29), Meningitis (29), Anxiety (28), Atherosclerosis (28). Uveitis (28). Parkinson's disease (28), Gastroprotective (28), Testes (28), Inflammatory Bowel Disease (28), hypothalamus (28), Chronic Renal Failure (28), cervical cancer (28), Human papillomavirus (28), COPD (28), Carcinogen (28), NF-kappaB Inhibitor (28), Hepatocellular carcinoma (27), Cataractogenic (27), cystic fibrosis (27), Sarcoma (27), Immune system (27), Chemosensitizer (27), Anti-Angiogenic (27)Small intestine (27), Antineoplastic (27), Osteoarthritis (27), Chondroprotective (26), Mesenteric Ischemia (26), Oxidants (26), Imbalance (26), Phototoxicity (26), Fever (26), chronic fatigue (26), Encephalitis (26), hepatitis (26), Hepatitis C (26), Hypoglycemic (26), Hematologic (26), Diabetic retinopathy (26), Hodgkin's lymphoma (25), Ulcerative colitis (25), anemia (25), Vitiligo (25), Uncoupling (25), Bile duct cancer (25), Parkinsonism (25), Hematopoietic (24), Atrioventricular (24), Cholinergic (24), Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (24), HIV (24), Anti-Proliferative (24), Prostatitis (24), Glycine (31), Anti-Bacterial (23), Anti-Ulcer (23), liver disease (23), Hyperthyroidism (23), Tongue (23), Hepatoprotective (23), Ewing's sarcoma (23), Stroke (23), Malaria (23), Hepatitis B (22), depression (21), Amnesia (21), Dopamine (20), pharynx (19), Leptin resistance (17)

  How may Curcumin work against cancer?
Studies on Curcumin and Cancer. Independent research studies on suggest that Curcumin has the potential for treatment of cancers including colon, breast, prostate, lung, skin and bowel. Curcumin is one of the most powerful and promising chemopreventive and anticancer agents, and epidemiological evidence demonstrates that people who incorporate high doses of this spice in their diets have a lower incidence of cancer. Curcumin's epigenetic modulation has been studied by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) and academic investigators around the world. Because of low toxicity and great efficacy in multiple in vitro and in vivo cancer models, Curcumin was selected for further development, put through extensive toxicology testing and has successively made it through the first stages (Phase I) of clinical testing abroad and is currently in clinical trials at several sites in the U.S. Numerous mechanisms have been described for the anticancer activity of Curcumin. Researchers at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX state that Curcumin has “enormous” potential to prevent and treat cancer. Curcumin was able to suppress tumor formation, growth, and even metastasis according to their review. Currently, there are clinical trials being conducted on the effects of Curcumin on patients with bowel cancer. Inhibition of proliferation of tumor cells, induction of apoptosis (a mode of cell death), inhibition of transformation of cells from normal to tumor, inhibition of invasion and metastasis and suppression of inflammation have been linked with the activity of Curcumin. Down-regulation of COX2, 5-LOX, adhesion molecules, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factor receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transcription factors by Curcumin have been linked to its antitumor activity. Curcumin also has been studied with regards to the core inflammatory gene signal, NF-kappaB,resulting in a beneficial domino effect throughout the body. One benefit of this domino effect is a direct reduction in the risk of cancer from overweight-induced inflammation.
  How may Curcumin work against arthritis?
Arthritis is also a proinflammatory disease. All current drugs approved for arthritis have anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor) therapy has been approved for this disease. Curcumin has been shown to both suppress the TNF production, block the action of TNF, and have activity against arthritis. When inflammation is reduced, the added benefit is pain relief. A double-blind, crossover study showed that Curcumin may be  effective in relieving pain and improvements in morning stiffness, walking time, and joint swelling.
  How may Curcumin work against Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis?
Crohn’s disease is also a pro-inflammatory disease. All current drugs approved for this disease have anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-TNF therapy has been approved for this disease. Curcumin has been shown to both suppress the TNF production and the TNF action. Curcumin taken orally has been shown to have activity against inflammatory bowel disease. Study results suggest that Curcumin could have a protective role in ulcerative colitis via regulation of oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and modulation of the release of some inflammatory endocoids, namely TNF-alpha and NO. The development of DSS-induced colitis was significantly attenuated by curcumin. Inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling by curcumin could explain the reduced COX-2 and iNOS immunosignals and the nitrite production in colonic mucosa, reducing the development of chronic experimental colitis. In addition, Curcumin seems promising with regards to remission in patients with quiescent Ulcerative Colitis.
  How may Curcumin work against against diabetes?
Curcumin acts directly on liver cells to help prevent them from becoming fatty, and studies have concluded that Curcumin may have an anti-diabetic effect by decreasing serum fatty acid through the promotion of fatty acid oxidation and utilization. Curcumin also works directly on pancreatic beta cells to help them produce insulin normally. By helping the liver and the pancreas, Curcumin is taking stress off the two most important organs whose function declines before the onset of type 2 diabetes. Curcumin also influences key hormones, supports major body organs, and regulates inflammatory signaling all in ways that help correct or prevent metabolic problems. Curcumin helps lower inappropriately high levels of leptin (reducing leptin resistance) while boosting the all-important levels of the adiponectin (which lowers insulin resistance). Curcumin also helps activate the fat-burning gene signal PPAR gamma, which also helps to make more new, metabolically-fit fat cells. Curcumin directly reduces major inflammatory events from occurring inside white adipose tissue (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1). By lowering such inflammation, the source of overweight-induced disease is targeted.
  How may Curcumin work against obesity AND metabolic syndrome?
In the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome, Curcumin has been reported to modulate numerous targets that have been linked to obesity and insulin resistance. 1) Curcumin has been shown to downregulate the expression of TNF in various tissues. 2) Curcumin can suppress NF-κB activation induced by a wide variety of inflammatory agents through inhibition of degradation of IκBα. 3) Curcumin can inhibit the activation of IKK linked to the activation of NF-κB, and this leads to the suppression of expression of inflammatory biomarkers such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor. 4) Curcumin has been shown to downregulate the expression of various NF-κB-regulated proinflammatory adipocytokines including chemokines (such as MCP-1, MCP-4, and eotaxin) (199) and interleukins (IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8). Curcumin also suppressed the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 through the inhibition of the transcription factor early growth response (Egr)-1 gene product that has been closely linked with insulin resistance and obesity. 5) Curcumin has been reported to mimic most antidiabetic drugs in that it activates PPAR-γ in hepatic stellate cells. 6) Curcumin has been shown to downregulate activation of c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase. 7) Curcumin has been shown to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which is closely linked to obesity. Later studies have indicated that Curcumin inhibits Wnt pathway signaling through downregulation of the transcription coactivator p300. Another potential mechanism by which Curcumin could inhibit β-catenin signaling is through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, which directly causes the phosphorylation of β-catenin. Curcumin was found to inhibit GSK-3β with as little as 66 nM IC50 (32). 8) Curcumin has been shown to induce the expression of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1 through the activation of Nrf2 in pancreatic cells and thus mediate the survival of these cells. 9) Curcumin downregulates the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 but induces the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. 10) Curcumin interrupts leptin signaling by reducing phosphorylation levels of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) and its downstream targets. 11) Curcumin suppresses gene expression of Ob-R in HSCs. 12) Curcumin has been reported to increase the expression of adiponectin, which negatively controls obesity.
  How may Curcumin work against psoriasis?
Psoriasis is another pro-inflammatory disease. Considerable evidence, both in animals and humans, indicates that Curcumin may be effective against psoriasis.
  How may Curcumin work against Alzheimer's disease?
Researchers found that Curcumin not only reduces oxidative damage and inflammation, but also reduces amyloid accumulation and synaptic marker loss and promotes amyloid phagocytosis and clearance. Curcumin worked to prevent synaptic marker and cognitive deficits caused by amyloid peptide infusion and abeta oligomer toxicity in vitro, and may help the immune system clear the brain of amyloid beta, which forms the plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. Clinical trials are in progress at UCLA with Curcumin for Alzheimer's. In the Alzheimer’s Disease Anti-Inflammatory Prevention Trial, researched showed that reducing inflammation has positive effects on patients with Alzheimer’s. Curcumin significantly lowered several inflammation markers, in addition to reducing plaque on the brain (a sign of Alzheimer’s) by 43 to 50 percent. "Worldwide, there are over 1000 published animal and human studies, both in vivo and in vitro in which the effects of curcumin on various diseases have been examined. Studies include epidemiological, basic and clinical research on AD." - Acad Neurol. 2008 Jan-Mar; 11(1): 13–19. The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer's disease: An overview
  How may Curcumin work as an Anti-inflammatory?
Turmeric is safe and non-toxic and has been studied for anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting various molecules that contribute to inflammation such as lipooxygenase, COX-2, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, interferon-inducible protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12).  One study compared the effectiveness of Curcumin – the active ingredient in turmeric – and a popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) called phenylbutazone. At the end of the six days, those taking the Curcumin and the NSAID enjoyed a significantly better anti-inflammatory response than placebo. The spice worked as well as the drug, but without the negative side effects. "Because of the crucial role of inflammation in most chronic diseases, the potential of Curcumin has been examined in neoplastic, neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic diseases. The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of Curcumin have been examined in animals and in humans." - Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Feb;30(2):85-94. Pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic diseases: an age-old spice with modern targets.
  What are the chemical properties of Curcumin?
Chemical Name Diferuloylmethane
Definition A β-diketone that is methane in which two of the hydrogens are substituted by feruloyl groups
Systemic Name (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione)
Molecular Formula C21H20O
Molar mass 368.38 g/mol
Appearance Bright yellow-orange powder
Melting Point 183 °C, 361 °F
PubChem 969516
Biofunction Enzyme cofactor
Chemical Taxonomy Organic Chemicals / Hydrocarbons / Aromatic Compounds /  Phenols / Catechols / Curcuminoids
Chemical Structure 3D
Chemical Structure


Organic Source Taxonomy Kingdom
Plantae (Plants) 
Tracheobionta (Vascular plants)
Spermatophyta  (Seed plants) 
Magnoliophyta  (Flowering plants)
Liliopsida  (Monocotyledons) 
Zingiberaceae  (Ginger family) 
Curcuma (Curcuma)
Curcuma longa  (Turmeric)

  Why Turmeric root extract Curcumin may provide health benefits?

Certain plants manufacture chemicals that repel predators, parasites and diseases. Like most of these pharmacologically-active metabolites, Curcumin is involved in self-defense. Over time, plants with higher levels of organic compounds that deter attackers become more successful, because of their advanced protection. In nature's never-ending interaction between predator and prey, insects evolve the ability to digest plant toxins, while plants evolve stronger chemicals to deter their enemies. Monitoring this evolution between plants and insects represents an important field of ecological research. Scientists have discovered that many phytochemicals manufactured in plants and roots not only prevent insect attack or fight plant infections, but also provide human health benefits. Many cultures create their own botanical pharmacies as the lore of medicinal plants and remedies is handed down through generations of healers. With the advent of sophisticated laboratory testing, biologists are finding that the many indigenous plants and roots from around the world provide medicinal value, and their metabolites are candidates for research. Curcumin’s structure is similar to other natural polyphenolics (chemicals containing multiple "phenol" groups) produced by plants in response to infectious attack. These natural polyphenols often have potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as immune support health benefits. Curcumin from Turmeric, resveratrol from grapes, pterostilbene from blueberries, and catechins from green tea all contain polyphenolic antioxidants and have been studied for medicinal or preventive value. Curcumin has been studied for anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities, mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered TNF blockers (humira, remicade and enbrel), vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (avastin), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (erbitux, erlotinib, and geftinib), and HER2 blocker (herceptin). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multi-targeted therapy is better than mono-targeted therapy for most diseases, Curcumin is a phytonutrient that can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life". More than 5000 papers published within the past two decades have revealed that Curcumin has extraordinary potential in promoting health through modulation of numerous molecular targets.


  What is the history of Curcumin and Turmeric?

Turmeric is an ancient spice and a traditional remedy. It has been used in food and as medicine for at least 4,000 years, first in India (Ayuverdic) and other parts of Asia, and later in Africa and the Caribbean. Researchers in India recently identified mineral remnants of turmeric and ginger on the cooking pots of ancient Indus River remains, one of the first urban civilizations.These ancient civilizations have vast trial and error experience with many different herbal remedies and food preparations and they selected Curcumin as a food additive and major tool for medicinal use based on efficacy. Numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to Turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastro-intestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds  and disorders. Marco Polo, writing of his travels in China, described Turmeric in the 13th century: "There is also a vegetable which has all the properties of the true saffron, as well as the color, and yet it is not really saffron. Turmeric is held in great estimation, and being an ingredient in all their dishes, it bears, on that account, a high price."  The high degree of reverence for Turmeric is established by the fact that it is used in many cultures, each having its own name for the spice: Burmese: fa nwin. Chinese: wong geung fun, yüchiu. Danish: gurkemeje. Dutch: geelwortel. Finnish: keltajuuri. French: curcuma, saffron des Indes. German: gelbwurz, kurkuma. Icelandic: turmerik. Italian: curcuma tumeric Indian: haldee, haridra, haldi, huldee, huldie. Indonesian: kunjit, kunyit. Japanese: ukon circumin Malay: kunjit. Norwegian: gurkemeie, Polish: klacze kurkumy. Portuguese: açafrão-da-Índia. Russian: zholty imbir. Spanish: azafrán de la India, azafran arabe. Sinhalese: kaha. Swedish: gurkmeja. Tamil: munjal. Thai: ka min. Vietnamese: bot nghe
  Why hasn't the pharmaceutical industry patented Curcumin?
Pharmaceutical corporations tried registering patents for Curcumin and Turmeric because of the much heralded scientific evidence and the long history of its healing properties. However, that same evidence and history of Curcumin being used medicinally for centuries was the reason the United States Patent and Trademark Office rejected and revoked the rights for Turmeric patent 5401504 on the grounds that the claims were not new: "USPTO unequivocally rejected all six claims made on August 13, 2001 ruling that Turmeric's medicinal properties were not patentable."  University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center states "in the case of Curcumin, a natural compound, no company can reap the benefits if Turmeric shows itself to be an effective anti-cancer drug." This loss to Big Pharma is a gain for educated consumers.
  Recent news and published studies on Curcumin and Turmeric

March  2015

Curcumin proved effective at combating cancer
WA SCIENTISTS have helped re-affirm that curcumin, a chemical compound found in turmeric, is a safe and promising treatment for most cancers and ...
Topical Application of Turmeric Curcumin for Cancer March 2015
In my video, Turmeric Curcumin and Colon Cancer, I talked about a study where researchers showed that, by taking curcumin, the yellow pigment in
The Spice that Stops Muscle Pain in its Tracks
Exciting new research in the Journal of the International Society for Sports Medicine found that curcumin, one of the active ingredients in the spice ...
Turmeric Curcumin and Colon Cancer March 2015
The low incidence of bowel cancer in India is often attributed to natural antioxidants such as curcumin, the yellow pigment in the spice turmeric, used ...
The Spice that May Help Fight Breast Cancer March 2015
Both turmeric and curcumin supplements are readily available in most health food stores or from your natural health professional.
4 Natural Supplements That Are as Powerful as Drugs
EcoWatch March 2015
Garlic and curcumin are two natural supplements that boost your immune health. ... Curcumin fights inflammation at the molecular level by blocking an ...
Turmeric May Reduce Brain Damage, Ease Memories in Alzheimer's, PTSD
The substance, called curcumin, may be helpful in treating Alzheimer's disease and various psychological conditions that stem from fearful memories.
These Are The Only 3 Supplements I'll Take March 2015
Curcumin: About three years ago, I began to notice all the studies reporting the broad, well-documented potential of curcumin, the active ingredient
Winter Depression
Newsmax Health March 2015
A study at Baylor University found that curcumin, the main compound in the spice turmeric, worked as well as the popular antidepressant Prozac.
Aussie researchers trial turmeric for Alzheimer's
6minutes March 2015
Sydney researchers are using brain amyloid imaging to test the effects of curcumin – the active ingredient of the spice turmeric

6 foods that help fight cancer
Cosmopolitan February 2015
This popular curry spice contains an active compound called curcumin (it's what gives turmeric its bright yellow-orange colour) which has been shown to display powerful anti-cancer activity. In fact, curcumin has the most evidence-based literature supporting its use against cancer of any nutrient. Professor Bharat Aggarwal, from the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Texas goes as far as saying, "No cancer has been found, to my knowledge, which is not affected by curcumin." Pretty powerful stuff then!

Turmenic Can Erase Bad Memories And Fight Mental Disorders
Wall Street OTC February 2015
The research stated that an ingredient found in turmenic, called curcumin is involved in the process of both helping the printing of the new fears a person is dealing with and also at erasing existent negative memories. This new discovery, might come in the help of researchers for developing treatments for people suffering from mental disorders.

Turmeric: The New Superfood February 2015
Curcumin (not related to cumin) is an antioxidant and the active ingredient in turmeric. Although it is continuously being studied, curcumin has been shown to inhibit several types of cancer cells. According to the American Cancer Society, turmeric is mostly used as an anti-inflammatory herbal remedy, with fewer side effects than common pain relievers.

Top Herbs, Latest Research February 2015
Curcumin has sparked a variety of scientific exploration into new areas, as research has recently indicated the compound can boost levels of the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain, where it can positively affect cognitive health. Also, drug discovery scientists have focused on novel analogs of curcumin in an effort to find compounds that have similar health benefits and overcome some of the absorption and stability challenges with the herb.

Turmeric Beneficial for Brain Health February 2015
A recent study showed that curcumin encourages the immune system to send macrophages to the brain. A clinical trial was performed that involved people with severe cognitive decline to test the effects of curcumin. The results showed that participants taking curcumin had significantly higher levels of dissolved abnormal proteins in their blood compared to those in the placebo group. This study showed that curcumin has the ability to effectively pass into the brain, bind to beta-amyloid plaques and assist the body in their breakdown. Curcumin is one of the only substances known to have such a profound protective effect on the brain.

Curcumin: This compound in turmeric can boost your heart health February 2015
Adding spice – in the form of curcumin supplements – to the daily diets of people with risk factors for heart disease may lower inflammation, a new study suggests.

Effect of curcuminoids on oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials February 2015
This meta-analysis showed a significant effect of curcuminoids in elevating serum SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentrations, and reduction of serum lipid peroxides.

Effect of curcumin supplementation on physiological fatigue and physical performance in mice
Nutrients. February 2015
Curcumin is a well-known phytocompound and food component found in the spice turmeric and has multifunctional bioactivities....Curcumin supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, improving exercise performance and preventing fatigue.

Turmeric Beneficial for Brain Health, February 2015
A recent study showed that curcumin encourages the immune system to send macrophages to the brain. A clinical trial was performed that involved people with severe cognitive decline to test the effects of curcumin. The results showed that participants taking curcumin had significantly higher levels of dissolved abnormal proteins in their blood compared to those in the placebo group. This study showed that curcumin has the ability to effectively pass into the brain, bind to beta-amyloid plaques and assist the body in their breakdown. Curcumin is one of the only substances known to have such a profound protective effect on the brain

Curry spice linked to improved memory
The Guardian, February 2015
Curcumin, a bright-yellow compound found in the root of the Indian spice turmeric, prevented new fear memories being stored in the brain, and also removed pre-existing fear memories, researchers found.

Curcumin prevented new fear memories being stored in the brain and removed pre-existing fear memories
Mail Online, February 2015
Curcumin is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect on the body, and this may be how it works on fearful memories, said Professor Schafe.‘Inflammatory processes have been implicated in a wide range of diseases ranging from allergies to cardiovascular disease to Alzheimer’s,’ he said.‘Inflammation has also been implicated in psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder.‘Some of these same inflammatory pathways have also been implicated in memory formation, so it all fits.

Curcumin's ability to fight Alzheimer's studied
Science Daily, January 2015
Curcumin, a natural product found in the spice turmeric, has been used by many Asian cultures for centuries, and a new study indicates a close chemical analog of curcumin has properties that may make it useful as a treatment for the brain disease. “Curcumin has demonstrated ability to enter the brain, bind and destroy the beta-amyloid plaques present in Alzheimer’s with reduced toxicity,” said Wellington Pham, Ph.D., assistant professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences and Biomedical Engineering at Vanderbilt and senior author of the study, published recently in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.

The Spice Ingredient That Can Block Bad Memories
Time Magazine, January 2015
Curcumin, a compound found in turmeric that may have protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases, might one day help those with PTSD let go of bad memories, suggests a new rat study published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology.

Reduce Heart Disease with Turmeric – It’s Just as Effective as Exercise and Cholesterol-Reducing Drug
The Raw Food World, January 2015
One study found that curcumin contains anti-thrombotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects and can decrease the serum cholesterol level and protect against atherosclerosis. Several studies show the major benefit of curcumin for heart disease is improving the endothelium function in the lining of the blood vessels. Endothelium dysfunction is the main cause of heart disease and causes the endothelium to inefficiently regulate blood pressure, blood clotting, and other factors. Not only did curcumin help endothelial function, but also one study found that it’s just as effective as exercise.In addition, another study showed that it works just as well as the drug Atorvastatin. One study showed that 121 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to ingest either 4 grams of curcumin per day, a few days before and after the surgery, or a placebo. The results show that the group who ingested curcumin had a 65% decreased risk of experiencing heart attack whilst in the hospital. The authors state, “The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcuminoids may account for their cardioprotective effects shown in this study.”

Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis with the Natural Healing Effects of Turmeric
The Raw Food World, January 2015
Curcumin is used to treat everything from skin and stomach ailments to infections and inflammations. Other research shows curcumin helps reduce Alzheimer’s. Now modern researchers have been intrigued enough to put turmeric’s many historical benefits to the test – even rheumatoid arthritis.

Turmeric associated with fewer neural tube defects in mice
2minutemedicine, January 2015
In the present work, authors investigate the impact of curcumin, a substance found in the turmeric plant, on NTDs and markers of oxidative stress in mouse embryos cultured in normal and high glucose environments. They found that embryos cultured in high glucose environments and treated with 20μM curcumin were less likely to experience oxidative stress and develop NTDs.

Curcumin in turmeric fights BP, diabetes: Study
Times of India, January 2015
The health benefits of turmeric are due to the presence of a yellow compound named curcumin. This compound is especially beneficial for fighting high blood pressure. Remarkably, this compound is not only helpful in regulating blood pressure but also effective in treating several late complications of diabetes like affecting eyes, blood vessels, kidney and brain.

A Common Kitchen Item Could Cure All Your Fears And Bad Memories January 2015
Curcumin (a compound found in turmeric) has been found to possess the power to impair newly acquired and reactivated fear memories. The spice is vastly acknowledged for its medicinal properties, and contains anti-inflammatory bodies which are known to help with arthritis and stomach issues, among many other ailments.

Natural Interventions to Keep Your Eyesight Sharp as You Age
The Raw Food World, January 2015
 Curcumin, found in turmeric, contains a high amount of therapeutic polyphenol and is the reason for its golden color. Turns out that curcumin is able to protect against cataracts forming. (2) One study shows that curcumin had the potential to function as an anticataractogenic agent, which could possibly prevent the accumulation of calcium in the eye lens. (6) Another study showed the antioxidant effects of curcumin that appears to prevent oxidative damage and delay cataracts.

Curcumin and major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Neuropsychopharmacology. December 2014
Curcumin supplementation influences several biomarkers that may be associated with its antidepressant mechanisms of action. Plasma concentrations of leptin and endothelin-1 seem to have particular relevance to treatment outcome.

Curcumin inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells
World Journal of Surgical Oncology December 2014
Curcumin incubation significantly induced loss of MMP in SGC-7901 cells in a dose- dependent manner (P <0.05); the cell apoptotic rate also dramatically increased after curcumin incubation in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.05).

Curcumin inhibit leptin gene expression and secretion in breast cancer cells
Cancer Cell International December 2014
Curcumin inhibits the expression and secretion of leptin and it could probably be used as a drug candidate for the breast cancer therapy through the leptin targeting in the future.

Curcumin, curry are spice superstars December 2014
More than 900 published research papers pertaining to curcumin’s anticancer activity. One of these papers found that curcumin has the ability to make some cancer cells commit suicide.

Curcumin restores mitochondrial functions and decreases lipid peroxidation in liver and kidneys of diabetic db/db mice
Biological Research December 2014
Hyperglycaemia modifies oxygen consumption rate, NO synthesis and increases TBARS levels in mitochondria from the liver and kidneys of diabetic mice, whereas curcumin may have a protective role against these alterations.

Curcumin and tackling mesothelioma
News Medical December 2014
As previous researchers had already demonstrated that curcumin can increase PIAS3, we used curcumin to increase the PIAS3 levels in mesothelioma cancer cells. When we exposed these cells to low levels of curcumin, we saw an increase in the intracellular levels of PIAS3. Furthermore, when we increased PIAS3, the activation of STAT3 decreased, and, in turn, the cancer cells started growing much more slowly or stopped growing altogether. So, curcumin affects mesothelioma cells by increasing the intracellular PIAS3 and therefore decreasing the STAT3 activation and cancer cell growth.

Five Benefits You Need To Know About The Ingredient That Helps Make Curry December 2014
The active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin, which is known as a powerful antioxidant. This means it targets dangerous free radicals in the body and reduces the damage they are able to cause DNA and cells.A study in the Sept 2014 issue of Life Sciences performed an extensive review on curcumin and wound/injury healing. Researchers found turmeric (curcumin) to have beneficial properties that appear to speed the wound healing process. These modes of action include the modulation of inflammation and oxidation, the ability to improve granulation tissue formation, tissue remodeling, and deposition of collagen. Curcumin may be able to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol in the body. Since oxidized cholesterol is what damages blood vessels and builds up in the plaques that can lead to heart attack or stroke, preventing the oxidation of new cholesterol may help to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease.

Unique Health Benefits Of Turmeric
Lifehacker November 2014
Curcumin, contained in turmeric, gives it powerful anti-oxidant properties, making it a strong agent against cancer. Experts say that turmeric is naturally anti-inflammatory, and while it's not a one-stop cure against the disease, it does inhibit neoplastic growth by preventing the formation of tumor blood vessels. About 30 studies exist that suggest curcumin has anti-tumor effect.

Oral curcumin shown effective in psoriasis
 Skin & Allergy News Digital Network November 2014
Studies have shown that curcumin has antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In a small study by other investigators, topical turmeric not only successfully cleared psoriasis lesions, it also suppressed phosphorylase kinase activity, which is important to keratinocyte proliferation

How Curry Can Kill Cancer Cells October 2014
In cancer cells, curcumin, the pigment in the spice turmeric that makes curry powder yellow, upregulates and activates death receptors (as shown in human kidney cancer cells, skin cancer cells, and nose and throat cancer cells). Curcumin can also activate the death machine directly (as shown in lung cancer and colon cancer). Caspases are so-called “executioner enzymes,” that when activated, destroy the cancer cell from within by chopping up proteins left and right—kind of like death by a thousand cuts. And that’s just one pathway. Curcumin can also affect apoptosis in a myriad other ways, affecting a multitude of different types of cancer cells. It also tends to leave normal cells alone for reasons that are not fully understood. Overall, researchers “showed that curcumin can kill a wide variety of tumor cell types through diverse mechanisms. And because curcumin can affect numerous mechanisms of cell death at the same time, it’s possible that cancer cells may not easily develop resistance to curcumin-induced cell death like they do to most chemotherapy.”

Turmeric extract can have the potential to boost brain stem cells
TheRawFoodWorld,com October 2014
Curcumin is one of the ingredients in turmeric that exhibits over 150 potentially therapeutic activities and researchers have found it to play a significant role in improving Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and stroke damage...Dr. William LaValley is one of the leading natural medicine cancer physicians. He actually devoted his time in researching the science of curcumin, which has the most evidence-based literature supporting its use against cancer of any other nutrient. He explained, “The curcumin molecule may cause either an increase in activity of a particular molecular target, or a decrease/inhibition of activity. Either way, studies repeatedly show that the end result is a potent anti-cancer activity.”

Wonder Herb October 2014
Curcumin is the colouring principle of turmeric — it is the element that gives the herb its yellow hue. Aside from being the most important component of turmeric, curcumin is responsible for the herb’s anti-inflammatory effects. Research suggests that curcumin, like cayenne, another medicinal spice found in chillies, depletes substance P, the pain receptor and neurotransmitter, in the nerve endings (nociceptors). Research also suggests that curcumin and related compounds suppress pain through a mechanism similar to conventional coxib-2 inhibitors — the ‘new’ class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...Laboratory and animal studies suggest that curcumin has the potential to prevent and treat various forms of cancer: colon, prostate, breast, and skin. As a matter of fact, there has been a substantial amount of research on turmeric’s anti-cancer potential and the results are promising. In one clinical study, researchers examined the pain-relieving properties of curcumin and/or whether it could suppress coxib-2 expression in human colon cancer cells. After exposing colon cancer cells to curcumin, they found the compound not only subdued cell growth, but also downgraded the expression of coxib-2 on the basis of a time- and dose-formatted chart. In addition, researchers observed that curcumin appeared to be a safe, natural coxib-2 inhibitor in human patients.

Carcinogen Blocking Effects of Turmeric October 2014
 Curcumin, present in the Indian spice turmeric, which is used in curry powder, is one such agent that is currently under clinical investigation for cancer chemoprevention.” According to their mode of action, chemopreventive agents are classified into different subgroups: antiproliferatives, antioxidants, or carcinogen-blockers. Curcumin belongs to all three, given its multiple mechanisms of action. Curcumin appears to play a role helping to block every stage of cancer transformation, proliferation, and invasion, and may even help before carcinogens even get to our cells. A study back in 1987 investigated the effects of curcumin on the mutagenicity (DNA mutating ability) of several toxins and found that curcumin was an effective antimutagen against several environmental and standard mutagenic and cancer-causing substance.

Curcumin inhibits breast cancer stem cell migration.
Stem Cell Research Therapy October 2014
Curcumin, a plant ployphenol, has several anti-tumor effects and has been shown to target CSCs. Here, we aimed at evaluating (i) the mechanisms underlying the aggravated migration potential of breast CSCs (bCSCs), and (ii) the effects of curcumin in modulating the same...Cumulatively, our findings disclose that curcumin inhibits bCSC migration by amplifying E-cadherin/beta-catenin negative feedback loop.

Health Benefits Of Turmeric October 2014
Curcumin, the compound in turmeric responsible for that bright hue, is behind a whole host of the health benefits attributed to the spice. A 2012 study examined one perk of curcumin in particular: the ability of the extract to prevent heart attacks among bypass patients. The study followed 121 patients who had bypass surgery between 2009 and 2011. Three days before surgery through five days after, half of the patients took curcumin capsules, while the other half took placebo pills. During their post-bypass hospital stays, more people in the placebo group experienced a heart attack (30 percent) compared with those in the curcumin group (13 percent), Reuters reported. While not a substitute for medication, the researchers pointed out, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin may contribute to as much as a 65 percent lower chance of heart attack among bypass patients. ... Among people with prediabetes, curcumin capsules were found to delay the onset of Type 2 diabetes in a 2012 study. Over nine months, study participants were given either curcumin supplements or placebo capsules. Just over 16 percent of people taking the placebo pill were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes by the end of the study, while no one taking curcumin was. Again, researchers chalk these results up to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant powers of the compound. ... While studies in humans are still in very early stages, lab and animal studies have shown promising effects of curcumin in the fight against cancer. Curcumin "interferes with several important molecular pathways involved in cancer development, growth and spread," according to the American Cancer Society, even killing cancer cells in the lab setting and shrinking tumors and boosting the effects of chemotherapy in animals.

Turmeric enhances mood in depression research trial October 2014
Curcumin was significantly more effective than the placebo in improving several mood-related symptoms in the volunteers. The compound had an even greater efficacy in a small subgroup of individuals with atypical depression, which can be characterised by significant weight gain or increased appetite and hypersomnia. "In animal-based studies curcumin has been consistently shown to have antidepressant effects and it has been hypothesised that curcumin would have antidepressant effects in people with major depression," said Dr Lopresti, who is a clinical psychologist in a private practice. "There have been a few positive human-based studies investigating the effects of curcumin in depression. However, this is the first randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study and over the longest duration.

Shows Curcumin Blocks the Metastasis of Colon Cancer by a Novel Mechanism October 2014
The researchers treated human colon cancer tumor cells with curcumin. "We discovered that curcumin turns off the active form of cortactin," said Radhakrishnan, who led the experiments in the lab. "Thus, when cortactin is turned off, cancer cells lose the ability to move and can't metastasize to other parts of the body." More specifically, curcumin "turned off" cortactin by interacting with, and activating, an enzyme known as PTPN1. This enzyme acts as a phosphatase to remove phosphate groups from cortactin – a process known as "dephosphorylation." "This effect, essentially known as 'dephosphorylating cortactin' correlated with reduced ability of colon cancer cells to migrate," Kiela said. "This suggests that curcumin reduces cancer cells' ability to migrate, meaning the cancer can't metastasize."

Curcumin restores sensitivity to retinoic acid in triple negative breast cancer cells October 2014
 Curcumin suppresses the expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ in triple negative mammary carcinoma cells. By targeting the FABP5/PPARβ/δ pathway, curcumin prevents the delivery of retinoic acid to PPARβ/δ and suppresses retinoic acid-induced PPARβ/δ target gene, VEGF-A. Our data demonstrates that suppression of the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway by curcumin sensitizes retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells to retinoic acid mediated growth suppression.

Reverse Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Rheumatoid Arthritis with ashwaganda, curcumin and Vitamin D October 2014
It appears that ashwaganda, curcumin, Vitamin D and exercise may help the body remove amyloid protein, which is thought to cause diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis and several other amyloid diseases.

Oral curcumin may protect gut function October 2014
Oral curcumin may be a viable therapy to improve intestinal barrier function changes caused by consuming a high-fat Western diet, according to a preclinical study by Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine researchers.

Curcumin inhibits EMMPRIN and MMP-9 expression through AMPK-MAPK and PKC signaling in PMA induced macrophages
Journal of Translational Medicine October 2014
Curcumin exerts well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and probably has a protective role in the atherosclerosis.

Curcumin fights Alzheimer's disease October 2014
A study led by scientists at Beijing University of Chinese Medicine in Beijing, China suggests taking curcumin supplements may help prevent Alzheimer’s disease...Curcumin is an important supplement that may be used to prevent or treat cancer, inflammatory diseases, cystic fibrosis, and diabetes mellitus and many other diseases in addition to Alzheimer's disease. 

Colon cancer metastasis blocked by curcumin October 2014
Curcumin, derived from the spice turmeric, blocks the protein cortactin in colon cancer.

Study promotes turmeric as promising anti-cancer agent October 2014
Curcumin could provide an alternate means to the prevention of cancer. The effect of curcumin as an antioxidant, antibacterial agent and anti-tumor agent are well documented and it also has a therapeutic or preventive effect on several other diseases. The study looks at the chemopreventive effects of curcumin in cancer-prevention with specific focus on curcumin’s effect on the regulation of cell signaling and genetic pathways. Further, the study notes that turmeric and curcumin show no significant toxicity at all.

Healthy Living with Ruth Holmes: Ancient herb used as treatment
Stroud News and Journal September 2014
The bright yellow pigment contains the active compound curcumin, which is found in the roots of certain tropical plants like turmeric, and has powerful anti-inflammatory actions.  Just like the non steroidal anti inflammatory medications, it blocks the formation of the pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, and leukotrienes (also inflammatory) but does not have the side effects on the stomach that the anti-inflammatory would. as an anti-inflammatory effect on the stomach.  Curcumin is highly recommended in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis as well as post operative inflammation.  Curcumin can also be used as a poultice for inflammatory skin conditions like psoriasis and eczema, this herb will not treat any pain, as its action is to reduce and prevent further inflammation from occurring which is what causes the discomfort in the first place.

Get your glow from kitchen September 2014
Curcumin: An antioxidant derived from the turmeric root, its active ingredient can help calm swelling and reduce wrinkles and other signs of ageing.

Curcumin could slow down progression of lung lining cancer September 2014
Curcumin show promise in slowing the progression of mesothelioma, a cancer of the lung’s lining often linked to asbestos

Curcumin, The Asian Spice, Helps Fight Mesothelioma September 2014
Curcumin, has long been known for its cancer-inhibiting properties. But when it's combined with cancer-destroying peptides (bonded chains of amino acids), the resulting molecule promotes growth of a protein inhibitor known to combat the progression of mesothelioma.

Component in Spice May Help Slow Mesothelioma Growth September 2014
Yet another study has demonstrated the potential mesothelioma-fighting properties of curcumin, an anti-inflammatory polyphenol that is the primary component in the spice turmeric. The latest study suggests that applying curcumin along with cancer-fighting peptides may increase the levels of a protein inhibitor that can slow the progression of mesothelioma.
October 2014

:Curcumin restores sensitivity to retinoic acid in triple negative breast cancer cells
BMC Cancer September 2014
Treatment of retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells with curcumin sensitized these cells to retinoic acid mediated growth suppression, as well as suppressed incorporation of BrdU. Further studies demonstrated that curcumin showed a marked reduction in the expression level of FABP5 and PPARbeta/delta. We provide evidence that curcumin suppresses p65, a transcription factor known to regulate FABP5.

Curcumin boosts testosterone level August 2014
Curcumin might be used as an alternative drug for the treatment of male infertility problems.

The new blockbuster nutrient? August 2014

Turmeric, with its active ingredient curcumin, are "blockbuster nutrients", according to professor Marc Cohen, head of Complementary Medicines at RMIT. "Turmeric is a powerful antioxidant which stops lipid oxidation and is anti-inflammatory," says Cohen, who devoted an entire chapter to turmeric in his book, Herbs and Natural Supplements: An Evidence-Based Guide. "It is a possible aid in preventing chronic degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease."

Curcumin for the treatment of major depression: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study August 2014
Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid derived from turmeric influences several biological mechanisms associated with major depression, namely those associated with monoaminergic activity, immune-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and neuroprogression, the study said. It is effective for the treatment of depressive symptoms in individuals with major depressive disorder. Curcumin is the substance in turmeric which gives the yellow color.

Eat to Beat Cancer August 2014
Laboratory studies have found that curcumin—the main ingredient in the spice turmeric, which gives curry its characteristic yellow color and sizzle—can fight against cancerous changes in healthy cells as well as slow the growth of malignant cells. Some evidence suggests that curcumin may also offer protection against brain tumors.

Turmeric’s Cardiovascular Benefits Found To Be As Powerful As Exercise August 2014
Curcumin may prevent the age-associated decline in endothelial function in postmenopausal women

Powdered Gold August 2014
With more than 50 healing properties, modern research has found that the effectiveness of turmeric stems from curcumin, a natural compound it contains that is rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory ability. Thousands of animal and human studies have been conducted on turmeric and curcumin as both a preventive and curative agent. Current research targets curcumin’s efficacy in treating some of the world’s biggest health threats including cancer, heart disease, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease.A number of curcumin studies have shown promising results. Curcumin can kill cancer cells in laboratory dishes and also slows the growth of the surviving cells. Curcumin has been found to reduce development of several forms of cancer in lab animals and to shrink animal tumors. On the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s website, 2,840 abstracts are listed about the study and benefits of turmeric and curcumin.

Mechanism of curcumin resistance to human cytomegalovirus in HELF cells
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine August 2014
Curcumin anti-HCMV effect may possibly be that curcumin concurrently alters host cell microenviroment and inhibits the HCMV antigen expressions. These findings may provide a basic understanding of the curcumin anti-HCMV effect and a novel strategy for further development of curcumin anti-HCMV treatment.

What's the one cooking trick for weight loss success? July 2014
Turmeric, the yellow ground spice you find in curry power, is a superspice when it comes to health and weight loss because of its active compound called curcumin. Hundreds of studies have been completed on its effectiveness against cancer, skin ailments, and lung health, just to name of few. But when it comes to the battle of the bulge, turmeric extract suppressed fat tissue growth in rodent models.

Turmeric branded latest superfood to protect against Alzheimer's July 2014
Since inflammation is a major factor in the development of most chronic degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease, allergies, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, curcumin's anti-inflammatory power holds great promise in all of these conditions and many more. Murray said that the antioxidant activity of curcumin is superior to antioxidant nutrients like vitamin C and E, as they are effective against only water and fat-soluble pro-oxidants. Curcumin also helps in preventing LDL cholesterol - one of the worst kind of cholesterol - from getting oxidised and damaging arteries. and evidence is gaining that curcumin could also slow down ageing and prevent age-related diseases.

Healthiest Foods July 2014
Curcumin: An active ingredient in turmeric, this antioxidant has shown anti-cancer effects in laboratory studies and is anti-inflammatory.

Turmeric, Curcumin fights Alzheimer's disease July 2014
Curcumin one of the active ingredients found in turmeric has been known to protect against cancer, Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, allergies, arthritis and other chronic diseases. Epidemiological studies show that incidence of Alzheimer's disease in Southeast Asia where turmeric is commonly consumed as a spice was 4.4 times lower, compared to that found in countries where the price is not as commonly used.

Curcumin modulation of high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis and steatohepatosis in LDL receptor deficient mice July 2014
Curcumin also reduced body weight gain and body fat without affecting fat distribution...However, at a high dose, curcumin suppressed development of steatohepatosis, reduced fibrotic tissue, and preserved glycogen levels in liver. Conclusion Curcumin through a series of complex mechanisms, alleviated the adverse effects of high fat diet on weight gain, fatty liver development, dyslipidemia, expression of inflammatory cytokines and atherosclerosis in Ldlr−/− mouse model of human atherosclerosis.

5 spices to keep in your medicine cabinet July 2014
Curcumin, the active compound in turmeric, is what makes this spice so special and turmeric happens to be one of the only readily available, edible forms of it. A 2007 study also showed curcumin to have anticancer properties, with the potential to fight malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease.

Antibiotic Properties Naturally Found in the Kitchen July 2014
Curcumin. Turmeric can boost immunity, helps to maintain cholesterol levels, and can even slow the process of aging. Researchers from the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have attested to the benefits.

Evaluation of the Effect of Curcumin Capsules on Glyburide Therapy in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus
Phytotherapy Research July 2014
The co-administration of curcumin capsules with glyburide may be beneficial to the patients in better glycaemic control. The lipid lowering and antidiabetic properties of the curcumin show as a potential future drug molecule.

Expert touts disease-prevention benefits of Indian spices
FoxNews June 2014
Curcumin, derived from a plant that is native to the tropical southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, also is used "as an adjuvant in chemotherapy, especially in breast, colon, head and neck cancer and in leukemia. Some components of curcumin are clinically shown to prevent the formation of prostate, skin and pancreas cancer cells and brain tumors.

Five Tips To Relieve Joint Pain June 2014
Curcumin, is a compound known to interfere with the chemicals that cause inflammation. Multiple clinical studies have associated curcumin with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In one study, two grams of curcumin extract provided to subjects was found to provide pain relief that was equivalent to ibuprofen for pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.

How What You Eat Can Help the Spinal Cord Heal Itself
V June 2014
DHA and curcumin appear to invoke several molecular mechanisms that preserved neurological function in the rats. This is an exciting first step toward understanding the role that diet plays in protecting the body from degenerative disease.

Why is there Turmeric in my cereal? June 2014
Curcumin is actually an antioxidant that has been shown to inhibit cancer cells in the laboratory, and curcumin slows the growth and spread of some cancers in some animal studies. Clinical trials are underway to see how it will benefit humans. Curcumin is being studied for its possible benefit for arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease and stomach ulcers as well as lowering bad cholesterol.

Turmeric: Fountain of health benefits May 2014
Curcumin has the ability to modulate genetic activity and expression—both by destroying cancer cells and by promoting healthy cell function. It also promotes anti-angiogenesis, meaning it helps prevent the development of additional blood supply necessary for cancer cell growth. As for its effect on molecular pathways, curcumin can affect more than 100 of them, once it gets into the cell.

Boost Immunity May 2014
Curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric. This has been found to have anti-allergy properties, which inhibit the release of histamine. Commonly used in Middle Eastern and Asian cuisine as the spice turmeric, curcumin is a phytochemical with powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions that are comparable to steroidal and nonsteroidal drugs.

Protective effect of curcumin against heavy metals-induced liver damage May 2014
Curcumin protects against the hepatotoxicity induced by heavy metals. • Curcumin scavenges free radicals induced by heavy metals in liver. • Curcumin’s hepatoprotective effect involves the heavy metals chelation. • Curcumin promotes liver protection by upregulating the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE pathway. • Curcumin analogues or formulations improve hepatoprotection against heavy metals.

Uncovering Hidden Secrets of an Ancient Spice May 2014
Curcumin could provide antidepressant effects. Research on turmeric and diabetes also looks promising. Scientists have demonstrated that turmeric in the diet may be helpful in decreasing blood sugar. Traditional health uses of turmeric in India are to help wound healing and gastrointestinal symptoms. Now researchers from The University of Nottingham and Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich have found that curcumin may help reduce inflammation associated with tendinitis. Both turmeric and curcumin have shown potential to prevent DNA damage and help DNA repair. That is good news for preventing disease and slowing the aging process.

Turmeric may reverse age associated cerebrovascular dysfunction April 2014
Curcumin is an antioxidant present in high amounts in turmeric which is the active ingredient that appears to provide turmeric with a number of potential healing abilities. A new study which has been published in the journal Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry has indicated that turmeric might provide therapeutic benefits for reversing age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction. In cerebrovascular dysfunction blood flow and circulation to the brain is impacted.

Turmeric can inhibit cancer causing cells April 2014
The active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin and since second millennium BC, it is widely used in Asian medicine, food and cosmetics. In fact, medicinal uses of turmeric are well documented in folk medicine, Ayurveda and traditional Chinese and oriental medicine. It’s a fact that curcumin is therapeutic and helps in treating respiratory conditions like asthma, liver disorders, anorexia, diabetic wounds etc. It is anti-septic, anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic and that’s why there is a lot of interest on turmeric.Research has proved that due to curcumin there is low incidence of colon cancer and neuro-degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s in Asians. Research has proved that curcumin can inhibit cancer causing cells or genes. The challenge now lies in delivering the right amount of curcumin to the cancer cells.

Curcumin attenuates acute inflammatory injury

curcumin administration may improve patient outcome by reducing acute activation of microglia/macrophages and neuronal apoptosis.

Boost your health one cup at a time April 2014
Today, turmeric/curcumin research is focused on its effectiveness in fighting cancer cell growth. Breast cancer research using stem cells has shown that curcumin inhibits malignant cell formation. A study in the Asia Journal of Clinical Nutrition reported that turmeric/curcumin can protect the gallbladder and promote bile flow during detoxification from drugs, pesticides and other toxins. Curcumin and a cruciferous vegetable (cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts) make an excellent combination for removal of mercury, lead and plastic residue.

New research reveals that turmeric may be beneficial in many health conditions, with its magic ingredient, curcumin April 2014
‘The Golden Wonder Herb’ is much more than that: It is a natural antiseptic and antibacterial agent, useful in disinfecting cuts and burns. Is a natural liver detoxifier. May prevent and slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease by removing amyloyd plaque build-up in the brain. Is a potent natural anti-inflammatory that works as well as many anti-inflammatory drugs but without the side effects; it is a natural treatment for arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Is a natural painkiller and cox-2 inhibitor. May aid in fat metabolism and help in weight management. Has long been used in Chinese medicine as a treatment for depression. Speeds up wound healing and assists in remodelling of damaged skin. May help in the treatment of psoriasis and other inflammatory skin conditions.

Curcumin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis
Journal of Cancer Therapy April 2014
A number of studies have focused on the beneficial properties of Curcumin (diferuloyl methane, used in South Asian cuisine and traditional medicine) such as the chemoprevention of cancer. Recent studies have also indicated that this material has significant benefits for the treatment of cancer and is currently undergoing several clinical trials.

Herbal supplements have anti-cancer activity March 2014
Curcumin, one of the active compounds in turmeric spice, popular in Indian cuisine. Many studies prove curcumin slows down the growth of different types of cancer. Curcumin may be helpful for pancreatitis because it reduces inflammation in the pancreas and reduces inflammatory pain-causing chemicals. Wonderful, but you may need special IVs or supplements to get it to work.

Using certain spices may improve health March 2014
In animal studies, turmeric’s bright yellow pigment, curcumin, has been effective in preventing tumor formation. Observational studies in populations that consume large amounts of curry have strongly suggested that curcumin may help prevent cancer in the lower intestine.

Turmeric can fight colon cancer March 2014
Curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric, can fight colon cancer when used in combination with a popular anti-inflammatory drug, say researchers...Curcumin increases the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects of Celecoxib while reducing its dose, thus reducing its toxic side-effects, including the rate of heart attack and stroke. March 2014
"We studied the effects of curcumin on patients with major depressive disorder," says study author Ajay Goel, PhD, director of epigenetics and cancer prevention at Baylor University Medical Center. "It's possible it may help alleviate short-term mood issues, too." Curcumin inhibits the production of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that at high levels is linked to depression.

New Study Confirms Turmeric Can Benefit Diabetes March 2014
Over a series of six months the study revealed the involvement of turmeric extract, curcumin does stop the fatty deposits forming on the inner surfaces of the arteries obstructing the blood flow...The trials results in curcumin being used without any serious unwanted effects and revealed lasting benefits for diabetes patients. Turmeric is well-known for its liver healing properties Curcumin is the active ingredient that gives turmeric its orange-yellow color. Along with related chemicals, it comprises the extraction of curcuminoid.

Spice Up Your Health With Seasonings That Fight Diseases March 2014
“Turmeric contains curcumin, which can inhibit the growth of cancer cells,” she says. “It reduces inflammation. It supports your immune system, it’s great for your liver function, and, as you know, it’s used in Indian cooking.”

Memory-enhancing tips and supplements March 2014
Put curcumin, the active ingredient of the common spice, turmeric, at the top of your list of Alzheimer's preventives. Seriously. Researchers have published 1,000 scientific studies on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. A recent Japanese study showed symptom improvement for those who supplemented with turmeric capsules for one year. Two participants who had severe cases were even able to recognize family members by the study's conclusion. Back in 2008, researchers in India published a paper reviewing the major research done on curcumin as a treatment for Alzheimer's. They noted that curcumin apparently has the ability to help a component of the immune system (macrophages) clear away amyloid plaques from the brain. They concluded, “…based on the main findings above, curcumin will lead to a promising treatment for Alzheimer's.”

Now, tumeric powder drug to help beat breast cancer March 2014
Curcumin, a spice used in the preparation of tumeric powder, reduced the size of tumours in mice by a third while slowing the reproduction rate of rogue cells, the Daily Express reported.

  • The anti-inflammatory role of curcumin in obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases
    European Journal of Nutrition School of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences
    Researchers reviewed the last ten years of curcumin science as it applies to supporting weight loss and preventing obesity-related disease. Their conclusion is, “The modulation of several cellular transduction pathways by curcumin has recently been extended to elucidate the molecular basis for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. These findings might enable novel phytochemical treatment strategies as well as curcumin translation to the clinical practice for the treatment and prevention of obesity-related chronic diseases. Furthermore, the relatively low cost, safety and proven efficacy of curcumin make it advisable to include curcumin as part of healthy diet.”

    Targeting Inflammation-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Diseases by Curcumin and Other Nutraceuticals
    Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030
    Extensive research within the past two decades has revealed that obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and other chronic diseases, is a proinflammatory disease. Several spices have been shown to exhibit activity against obesity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Among them, curcumin, a yellow pigment derived from the spice turmeric (an essential component of curry powder), has been investigated most extensively as a treatment for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Curcumin directly interacts with adipocytes, pancreatic cells, hepatic stellate cells, macrophages, and muscle cells. There, it suppresses the proinflammatory transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B, signal transducer and activators of transcription-3, and Wnt/β-catenin, and it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and Nrf2 cell-signaling pathways, thus leading to the downregulation of adipokines, including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, resistin, leptin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and the upregulation of adiponectin and other gene products. These curcumin-induced alterations reverse insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and other symptoms linked to obesity.

  • Pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic diseases: an age-old spice with modern target- Bokyung Sung 
    Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow pigment in the spice turmeric (also called curry powder), has been used for centuries as a treatment for inflammatory diseases. Extensive research within the past two decades has shown that curcumin mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the downregulation of inflammatory transcription factors (such as nuclear factor κB), enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase) and cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6). Because of the crucial role of inflammation in most chronic diseases, the potential of curcumin has been examined in neoplastic, neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic diseases. The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of curcumin have been examined in animals and in humans. Various pharmacological aspects of curcumin in vitro and in vivo are discussed in detail.
    Spice Rack...Or Medicine Chest?
    Nutrition Action Health Letter
    "Curcumin protects the brain cells in every animal model of traumatic brain injury, whether it's stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, or mad cow disease," says Gregory Cole, associate director of the Alzheimer's Disease Center at the University of California, Los Angeles. "What's unique about Curcumin," Cole notes, "is that it binds directly to beta-amyloid deposits in the brain and reduces their size." Beta-amyloid is a protein fragment that builds up between brain cells of people with Alzheimer's disease....
    Science Daily Magazine
    How Plants Protect Us From Disease
    "Everyday foods, beverages, and spices contain healthful compounds that help us fight harmful inflammation. And, in doing that, these phytochemicals may also reduce our risk of diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including cancer and diabetes."
    Curcumin Curry Power
    Science News Magazine
    "The list of Curcumin's effects goes on and on, and they're all in your addition to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, Curcumin has several effects that may work in tandem to protect the brain from plaques in other ways. "If Curcumin had a single molecular target, it probably would not be as good a drug," M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. "But because it has multiple targets, it's very attractive."

    Health: The Fires Within
    Time Magazine
    Chronic inflammation may be the engine that drives many of the most feared illnesses of middle and old age. This concept is so intriguing because it suggests a new and possibly much simpler way of warding off disease. Instead of different treatments for, say, heart disease, Alzheimer's and colon cancer, there might be a single, inflammation-reducing remedy that would prevent all three.

    Science Daily Magazine
    Did evolution give us inflammatory disease?
    Researchers demonstrate that some variants in our genes which could put a person at risk for inflammatory diseases -- such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease or rheumatoid arthritis -- have been the target of natural selection over the course of human history.
    The 'inflammation theory': Immune-system errors linked to more illnesses
    The Seattle Times
    "Medical researchers are becoming increasingly convinced that the most primitive part of the immune system (inflammation), may play a crucial role in some of the most devastating afflictions of modern humans, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's."

    Obesity is Inflammatory Disease, Rat Study Shows
    Scientists led by Dr David Fairlie from the University of Queensland, Australia, have found abnormal amounts of an inflammatory protein called PAR2 in the fat tissues of overweight and obese rats and humans. PAR2 is also increased on the surfaces of human immune cells by common fatty acids in the diet. When obese rats on a diet high in sugar and fat were given a new oral drug that binds to PAR2, the inflammation-causing properties of this protein were blocked, as were other effects of the high-fat and high-sugar diet, including obesity itself."

    Did evolution give us inflammatory disease?
    American Journal of Human Genetics
    Researchers demonstrate that some variants in our genes that could put a person at risk for inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, have been the target of natural selection over the course of human history. The findings suggest that in the past these variants rose in frequency in the human population to help protect us against viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. But now in our modern world, the environment and exposure to pathogens has changed, and the genetic variants that were originally meant to protect us, now make an autoimmune reaction more likely.
    Curcumin at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
    The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center
    Curcumin has been shown to prevent a large of number of cancers in animal studies. Laboratory data indicate that Curcumin can inhibit tumor initiation, promotion, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Epidemiological evidence indicate that incidence of certain cancers is less in people who consume Curcumin than in those who do not. Recent evidence indicates that, besides chemopreventive activity, Curcumin may also be effective in the treatment of cancer. Curcumin is currently under investigtion for its anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and other medical institutions.
    Curcumin Spice Healer
    Scientific American Magazine
    An ingredient in curry shows promise for treating Alzheimer's, cancer and other diseases.
    "A chapter in a forthcoming book, for instance, describes the biologically active components of Turmeric--Curcumin and related compounds called Curcuminoids--as having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties, with potential activity against cancer, diabetes, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease and other chronic maladies. And in 2005 nearly 300 scientific and technical papers referenced Curcumin in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database, compared with about 100 just five years earlier. Scientists who sometimes jokingly label themselves Curcuminologists are drawn to the compound both because of its many possible valuable effects in the body and its apparent low toxicity. They ponder how the spice or its derivatives might be used, not just as a treatment but as a low-cost preventive medication for some of the most feared ailments. As a treatment, it also has some enticing attributes. Because Curcumin targets so many biological pathways, it could have benefits for cancer therapy: malignant cells may be slow to acquire resistance to it and so might have to go through multiple mutations to avoid the substance's multipronged attack." 1 2 3 4
  •   Previous news and studies on Curcumin and Turmeric.

      Medical studies and university clinical trials on Curcumin and Turmeric.

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      Scientific journals with published studies of Curcumin and Turmeric.

    American Journal of Physiology - 277: 320-29
    Age - 18:167-9
    Agents and Actions - 28:298-303
    Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - 13(2):245-249
    Alternative Medicine Review - 4(3):178-88, 6(2):167-187, 7(5):404-9
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition - 64(5):761-766
    American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 284(1):85-95, 284(2):321-7
    American Surgeon - 64(1):47-51
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences - 973:250-4
    Anticancer Drugs - 8(5):470-81
    Anti Cancer Research - 11: 593-596,  19(5A):3675-80, 20(3a):1733-8,
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